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2.  Frequent Mutation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 in Cholangiocarcinoma Identified Through Broad-Based Tumor Genotyping 
The Oncologist  2011;17(1):72-79.
The results of mutational profiling of 287 patients with gastrointestinal cancer are presented, identifying for the first time IDH1 mutations in a significant subset of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Cancers of origin in the gallbladder and bile ducts are rarely curable with current modalities of cancer treatment. Our clinical application of broad-based mutational profiling for patients diagnosed with a gastrointestinal malignancy has led to the novel discovery of mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in tumors from a subset of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 287 tumors from gastrointestinal cancer patients (biliary tract, colorectal, gastroesophageal, liver, pancreatic, and small intestine carcinoma) were tested during routine clinical evaluation for 130 site-specific mutations within 15 cancer genes. Mutations were identified within a number of genes, including KRAS (35%), TP53 (22%), PIK3CA (10%), BRAF (7%), APC (6%), NRAS (3%), AKT1 (1%), CTNNB1 (1%), and PTEN (1%). Although mutations in the metabolic enzyme IDH1 were rare in the other common gastrointestinal malignancies in this series (2%), they were found in three tumors (25%) of an initial series of 12 biliary tract carcinomas. To better define IDH1 and IDH2 mutational status, an additional 75 gallbladder and bile duct cancers were examined. Combining these cohorts of biliary cancers, mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 were found only in cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin (nine of 40, 23%) and in none of the 22 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and none of the 25 gallbladder carcinomas. In an analysis of frozen tissue specimens, IDH1 mutation was associated with highly elevated tissue levels of the enzymatic product 2-hydroxyglutarate. Thus, IDH1 mutation is a molecular feature of cholangiocarcinomas of intrahepatic origin. These findings define a specific metabolic abnormality in this largely incurable type of gastrointestinal cancer and present a potentially new target for therapy.
PMCID: PMC3267826  PMID: 22180306
Biliary tract cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma; IDH1; IDH2; 2-Hydroxyglutarate; Mutation
9.  Active Surveillance for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Using Stool Specimens Submitted for Testing for Clostridium difficile 
Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor–based active surveillance strategies is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3984911  PMID: 24334803
10.  Allosteric inhibition of a zinc-sensing transcriptional repressor: Insights into the arsenic repressor (ArsR) family 
Journal of molecular biology  2013;425(7):1143-1157.
The molecular basis of allosteric regulation remains a subject of intense interest. Staphylococcus aureus CzrA is a member of the ubiquitous arsenic repressor (ArsR) family of bacterial homodimeric metal sensing proteins, and has emerged as a model system for understanding allosteric regulation of operator DNA binding by transition metal ions. Using unnatural amino acid substitution and a standard linkage analysis, we show that a His97’ NHε2•••O=C-His67 quaternary structural hydrogen bond is an energetically significant contributor to the magnitude of the allosteric coupling free energy, ΔGc. A “cavity” introduced just beneath this hydrogen bond in V66A/L68V CzrA results in a dramatic loss of regulation by Zn(II) despite adopting a wild-type global structure and Zn(II) binding and DNA binding affinities only minimally affected from wild-type. The energetics of Zn(II) binding and heterotropic coupling free energies (ΔHc, −TΔSc) of the double mutant are also radically altered and suggest that increased internal dynamics leads to poorer allosteric negative regulation in V66A/L68V CzrA. A statistical coupling analysis of 3000 ArsR proteins reveals a sector that links the DNA-binding determinants and the α5 Zn(II) sensing sites through V66/L68 in CzrA. We propose that distinct regulatory sites uniquely characteristic of individual ArsR proteins results from evolution of distinct connectivities to this sector, each capable of driving the same biological outcome, transcriptional derepression.
PMCID: PMC3602352  PMID: 23353829
allostery; zinc sensor; metal homeostasis; statistical coupling analysis; ArsR
11.  Exemestane Versus Anastrozole in Postmenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer: NCIC CTG MA.27—A Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(11):1398-1404.
In patients with hormone-dependent postmenopausal breast cancer, standard adjuvant therapy involves 5 years of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole. The steroidal inhibitor exemestane is partially non–cross-resistant with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors and is a mild androgen and could prove superior to anastrozole regarding efficacy and toxicity, specifically with less bone loss.
Patients and Methods
We designed an open-label, randomized, phase III trial of 5 years of exemestane versus anastrozole with a two-sided test of superiority to detect a 2.4% improvement with exemestane in 5-year event-free survival (EFS). Secondary objectives included assessment of overall survival, distant disease–free survival, incidence of contralateral new primary breast cancer, and safety.
In the study, 7,576 women (median age, 64.1 years) were enrolled. At median follow-up of 4.1 years, 4-year EFS was 91% for exemestane and 91.2% for anastrozole (stratified hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.18; P = .85). Overall, distant disease–free survival and disease-specific survival were also similar. In all, 31.6% of patients discontinued treatment as a result of adverse effects, concomitant disease, or study refusal. Osteoporosis/osteopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, vaginal bleeding, and hypercholesterolemia were less frequent on exemestane, whereas mild liver function abnormalities and rare episodes of atrial fibrillation were less frequent on anastrozole. Vasomotor and musculoskeletal symptoms were similar between arms.
This first comparison of steroidal and nonsteroidal classes of aromatase inhibitors showed neither to be superior in terms of breast cancer outcomes as 5-year initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer by two-way test. Less toxicity on bone is compatible with one hypothesis behind MA.27 but requires confirmation. Exemestane should be considered another option as up-front adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor–positive breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3612593  PMID: 23358971
12.  Unique Circovirus-Like Genome Detected in Pig Feces 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(2):e00251-14.
Using a metagenomic approach and molecular cloning methods, we identified, cloned, and sequenced the complete genome of a novel circular DNA virus, porcine stool-associated virus (PoSCV4), from pig feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein showed that PoSCV4 is most related to a fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus.
PMCID: PMC3983299  PMID: 24723710
13.  Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Core of an RNA-Polymerase Ribozyme 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2009;326(5957):1271-1275.
Primordial organisms of the putative RNA world would have required polymerase ribozymes able to replicate RNA. Known ribozymes with polymerase activity best approximating that needed for RNA replication contain at their catalytic core the class I RNA ligase, an artificial ribozyme with a catalytic rate among the fastest of known ribozymes. Here we present the 3.0 angstrom crystal structure of this ligase. The architecture resembles a tripod, its three legs converging near the ligation junction. Interacting with this tripod scaffold through a series of 10 minor-groove interactions (including two A-minor triads) is the unpaired segment that contributes to and organizes the active site. A cytosine nucleobase and two backbone phosphates abut the ligation junction; their location suggests a model for catalysis resembling that of proteinaceous polymerases.
PMCID: PMC3978776  PMID: 19965478
14.  Chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia: a proposal for a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphological and molecular features 
Hepatocellular carcinomas exhibit heterogeneous morphologies by routine light microscopy. Although some morphologies represent insignificant variations in growth patterns, others may represent unrecognized subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of these subtypes could lead to separation of hepatocellular carcinomas into discrete groups with unique underlying genetic changes, prognosis, or therapeutic responses. In order to identify potential subtypes, two pathologists independently screened a cohort of 219 unselected hepatocellular carcinoma resection specimens and divided cases into potential subtypes. One of these promising candidate subtypes was further evaluated using histological and molecular techniques. This subtype was characterized by a unique and consistent set of histological features: smooth chromophobic cytoplasm, abrupt focal nuclear anaplasia (small clusters of tumor cells with marked nuclear anaplasia in a background of tumor cells with bland nuclear cytology), and scattered microscopic pseudocysts—we designate this variant as ‘chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia’. Thirteen cases were identified (6% of all hepatocellular carcinomas), including 6 men and 7 women with an average age of 61 years. Six cases occurred in cirrhotic livers. Serum AFP was elevated in 6 out of 10 cases. There were a variety of underlying liver diseases, but cases were enrichment for chronic hepatitis B, P = 0.006. Interestingly, at the molecular level, this variant was strongly associated with the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) phenotype by telomere FISH. ALT is a telomerase-independent mechanism of telomere maintenance and is found in approximately 8% of unselected hepatocellular carcinomas. In contrast, 11/12 (92%) of the cases of chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia were ALT-positive. In summary, we propose that chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia represents a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphological and molecular features.
PMCID: PMC3974906  PMID: 23640129
ALT; hepatocellular carcinoma; telomere
15.  Selenite and tellurite form mixed seleno- and tellurotrisulfides with CstR from Staphylococcus aureus 
Staphylococcus aureus CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor) is a member of the CsoR family of transition metal sensing metalloregulatory proteins. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with transition metals but instead reacts with sulfite to form a mixture of di- and trisulfide species, CstR2(RS-SR′) and CstR2(RS-S-SR′)n, n = 1 or 2, respectively. Here, we investigate if CstR performs similar chemistry with related chalcogen oxyanions selenite and tellurite. In this work we show by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry that CstR is readily modified by selenite (SeO32−) or tellurite (TeO32−) to form a mixture of intersubunit disulfides and selenotrisulfides or tellurotrisulfides, respectively, between Cys31 and Cys60′. Analogous studies with S. aureus CsoR reveals no reaction with selenite and minimal reaction with tellurite. All cross-linked forms of CstR exhibit reduced DNA binding affinity. We show that Cys31 initiates the reaction with sulfite through the formation of S-sulfocysteine (RS-SO32−) and Cys60 is required to fully derivatize CstR to CstR2(RS-SR′) and CstR2(RS-S-SR′). The modification of Cys31 also drives an allosteric switch that negatively regulates DNA binding while derivatization of Cys60 alone has no effect on DNA binding. These results highlight the differences between CstRs and CsoRs in chemical reactivity and metal ion selectivity and establish Cys31 as the functionally important cysteine residue in CstRs.
PMCID: PMC3714221  PMID: 23385876
16.  Hydroxylamine acutely activates glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells 
Biochimie  2012;95(4):787-792.
Nitroxyl (HNO) has a unique, but varied, set of biological properties including beneficial effects on cardiac contractility and stimulation of glucose uptake by GLUT1. These biological effects are largely initiated by HNO’s reaction with cysteine residues of key proteins. The intracellular production of HNO has not yet been demonstrated, but the small molecule, hydroxylamine (HA), has been suggested as possible intracellular source. We examined the effects of this molecule on glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells. HA activates glucose uptake from 2 to 5-fold within two minutes. Prior treatment with thiol active compounds, such as iodoacetamide (IA), cinnamaldehyde (CA), or phenylarsine oxide (PAO) blocks HA activation of glucose uptake. Incubation of HA with the peroxidase inhibitor, sodium azide, also blocks the stimulatory effects of HA. This suggests that HA is oxidized to HNO by L929 fibroblast cells, which then reacts with cysteine residues to exert its stimulatory effects. The data suggest that GLUT1 is acutely activated in L929 cells by modification of cysteine residues, possibly the formation of a disulfide bond within GLUT1 itself.
PMCID: PMC3594047  PMID: 23201556
hydroxylamine; nitroxyl; glucose uptake; GLUT1; L929 cells
17.  The Self-Overlap Method for Assessment of Lung Nodule Morphology in Chest CT 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2012;26(2):239-247.
Surface morphology is an important indicator of malignant potential for solid-type lung nodules detected at CT, but is difficult to assess subjectively. Automated methods for morphology assessment have previously been described using a common measure of nodule shape, representative of the broad class of existing methods, termed area-to-perimeter-length ratio (APR). APR is static and thus highly susceptible to alterations by random noise and artifacts in image acquisition. We introduce and analyze the self-overlap (SO) method as a dynamic automated morphology detection scheme. SO measures the degree of change of nodule masks upon Gaussian blurring. We hypothesized that this new metric would afford equally high accuracy and superior precision than APR. Application of the two methods to a set of 119 patient lung nodules and a set of simulation nodules showed our approach to be slightly more accurate and on the order of ten times as precise, respectively. The dynamic quality of this new automated metric renders it less sensitive to image noise and artifacts than APR, and as such, SO is a potentially useful measure of cancer risk for solid-type lung nodules detected on CT.
PMCID: PMC3597949  PMID: 23065123
Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD); Lung neoplasms; Computed tomography; Surface morphology
18.  Vectorized data acquisition and fast triple-correlation integrals for Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy 
Computer physics communications  2012;184(4):1322-1332.
Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is widely used to quantitate reaction rates and concentrations of molecules in vitro and in vivo. We recently reported Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS), which correlates three signals together instead of two. F3CS can analyze the stoichiometries of complex mixtures and detect irreversible processes by identifying time-reversal asymmetries. Here we report the computational developments that were required for the realization of F3CS and present the results as the Triple Correlation Toolbox suite of programs. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete data analysis pipeline capable of acquiring, correlating and fitting large data sets. Each segment of the pipeline handles error estimates for accurate error-weighted global fitting. Data acquisition was accelerated with a combination of off-the-shelf counter-timer chips and vectorized operations on 128-bit registers. This allows desktop computers with inexpensive data acquisition cards to acquire hours of multiple-channel data with sub-microsecond time resolution. Off-line correlation integrals were implemented as a two delay time multiple-tau scheme that scales efficiently with multiple processors and provides an unprecedented view of linked dynamics. Global fitting routines are provided to fit FCS and F3CS data to models containing up to ten species. Triple Correlation Toolbox is a complete package that enables F3CS to be performed on existing microscopes.
PMCID: PMC3601675  PMID: 23525193
Fluorescence Triple Correlation Spectroscopy; F3CS; FCS; Multiple-tau; Fluorescence; Data Acquisition
19.  Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea 
Heredity  2012;110(4):347-354.
Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity–fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence.
PMCID: PMC3607180  PMID: 23250010
amphibians; heterozygosity; habitat fragmentation; fitness; inbreeding; reproductive investment
20.  New Strategies in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Application of molecular diagnostics to clinical practice 
An increasingly complete compendium of recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has been defined, and the application of massively parallel sequencing to identify mutations in clinical practice now promises to improve the care of patients with this disease. More than 25 recurrent MDS-associated somatic mutations have been identified, involving biological pathways as diverse as chromatin remodeling and pre-mRNA splicing. Several of these mutations have been demonstrated to have prognostic implications that are independent of existing risk stratification systems based on clinical and pathological parameters. Application of these recent discoveries to diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and treatment selection for patients with MDS has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Here, we review recent advances in MDS and discuss potential applications of these discoveries to clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC3748432  PMID: 23329810
21.  Derquantel and Abamectin: Effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum 
Molecular and biochemical parasitology  2013;188(2):10.1016/j.molbiopara.2013.02.004.
StartectR is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin + derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin + derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration responses was statistically greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: 1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; 2) on L-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1 - 30 μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28 μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3 μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30 minutes with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and L-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36 μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur.
PMCID: PMC3864555  PMID: 23523993
abamectin; derquantel; combination; interaction; nAChRs; GluCls
22.  Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast 
Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). 183 cases of IDC-L from 1996 to 2011 were compared with 1,499 cases of IDC and 375 cases of ILC. Available slides of IDC-L (n = 150) were reviewed to quantify the lobular component (≤20, 21–50, 51–80, >80 %), defined as small cells individually dispersed, arranged in linear cords, or in loose aggregates without the formation of tubules or cohesive nests. E-cadherin immunostain was performed to confirm ductal origin. Compared to IDC, IDC-L was more likely to have lower histologic grade (p < 0.001), be positive for estrogen receptor (96 vs. 70 %; p < 0.0001) and progesterone receptor (84 vs. 57 %; p < 0.0001), and less likely to overexpress HER-2/neu (12 vs. 23 %; p = 0.001). Despite these favorable prognostic features, IDC-L had a higher frequency of nodal metastases (51 vs. 34 %; p < 0.0001) and a worse 5-year disease-free survival than IDC (hazard ratio = 0.454; p = 0.0004). ILC and IDC-L had similar clinicopathologic features and outcomes. The proportion of the lobular component in IDC-L had no impact on the size, nodal status, stage, or outcome. Our data suggest that although IDC-L may be a variant of IDC, with >90 % of cases being E-cadherin positive, the clinical and biological characteristics are more similar to that of ILC.
PMCID: PMC3906642  PMID: 23535842
Breast; Carcinoma; Ductal; Lobular
23.  The let-7 MicroRNA Family Members mir-48, mir-84, and mir-241 Function Together to Regulate Developmental Timing in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Developmental cell  2005;9(3):403-414.
The microRNA let-7 is a critical regulator of developmental timing events at the larval-to-adult transition in C. elegans. Recently, microRNAs with sequence similarity to let-7 have been identified. We find that doubly mutant animals lacking the let-7 family micro-RNA genes mir-48 and mir-84 exhibit retarded molting behavior and retarded adult gene expression in the hypodermis. Triply mutant animals lacking mir-48, mir-84, and mir-241 exhibit repetition of L2-stage events in addition to retarded adult-stage events. mir-48, mir-84, and mir-241 function together to control the L2-to-L3 transition, likely by base pairing to complementary sites in the hbl-1 3′ UTR and downregulating hbl-1 activity. Genetic analysis indicates that mir-48, mir-84, and mir-241 specify the timing of the L2-to-L3 transition in parallel to the heterochronic genes lin-28 and lin-46. These results indicate that let-7 family microRNAs function in combination to affect both early and late developmental timing decisions.
PMCID: PMC3969732  PMID: 16139228
24.  Dynamics of Site Switching in DNA Polymerase 
DNA polymerases replicate DNA by catalyzing the template-directed polymerization of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrates onto the 3′ end of a growing DNA primer strand. Many DNA polymerases also possess a separate 3′–5′ exonuclease activity that is used to remove misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA (proofreading). The polymerase (pol) and exonuclease (exo) activities are spatially separated in different enzyme domains, indicating that a mechanism must exist to transfer the growing primer terminus from one site to the other. Here we report a single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) system that directly monitors the movement of a DNA substrate between the pol and exo sites of DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (KF). FRET trajectories recorded during the encounter between single polymerase and DNA molecules reveal that DNA can channel between the pol and exo sites in both directions while remaining closely associated with the enzyme (intramolecular transfer). In addition, it is evident from the trajectories that DNA can also dissociate from one site into bulk solution and subsequently rebind at the other (intermolecular transfer). Rate constants for each pathway have been determined by dwell-time analysis, revealing that intramolecular transfer is the faster of the two pathways. Unexpectedly, a mispaired primer terminus accesses the exo site more frequently when dNTP substrates are also present in solution, which is expected to enhance proofreading. Together, these results explain how the separate pol and exo activities of KF are physically coordinated to achieve efficient proofreading.
PMCID: PMC3706079  PMID: 23409810
25.  The Geogenomic Mutational Atlas of Pathogens (GoMAP) Web System 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92877.
We present a new approach for pathogen surveillance we call Geogenomics. Geogenomics examines the geographic distribution of the genomes of pathogens, with a particular emphasis on those mutations that give rise to drug resistance. We engineered a new web system called Geogenomic Mutational Atlas of Pathogens (GoMAP) that enables investigation of the global distribution of individual drug resistance mutations. As a test case we examined mutations associated with HIV resistance to FDA-approved antiretroviral drugs. GoMAP-HIV makes use of existing public drug resistance and HIV protein sequence data to examine the distribution of 872 drug resistance mutations in ∼502,000 sequences for many countries in the world. We also implemented a broadened classification scheme for HIV drug resistance mutations. Several patterns for geographic distributions of resistance mutations were identified by visual mining using this web tool. GoMAP-HIV is an open access web application available at
PMCID: PMC3968042  PMID: 24675726

Results 1-25 (2167)