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1.  Frontoethmoidal Mucocele Presenting as Progressive Enophthalmos 
In this case report we describe a 27-year-old man who presented with progressive enophthalmos for 5 months without any other associated ocular symptoms such as pain, diplopia, or visual disturbance. Computed tomography showed that his progressive enophthalmos originated from a frontoethmoidal mucocele and this caused destruction of the lamina papyracea and shrinkage of the ethmoidal air cell. Finally the enlarged orbital space caused an inward deviation of the eyeball. Endoscopic marsupialization was successfully performed by an otolaryngologist and did not result in any ophthalmologic sequelae. Although frontoethmoidal sinus mucoceles mostly frequently originates from orbital mucoceles, enophthalmic manifestations are very rare. Enophthalmic conditions are not as responsive to surgical interventions as exophthalmic conditions.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2012.26.3.212
PMCID: PMC3364434  PMID: 22670079
Enophthalmos; Sinus mucocele
2.  Palmitate induced secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 in orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy 
Molecular Vision  2012;18:1467-1477.
Purpose
Orbital fibroblasts are now recognized as the key effectors in the development of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). TAO is clinically apparent in approximately 50% of patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. High levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are frequently seen in patients with hyperthyroidism. Palmitate is one of the most abundant FFAs in plasma and aggravates inflammation by promoting secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in various cells. In the present study, we characterized orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO and then examined the effect of palmitate on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and hyaluronic acid (HA) in orbital fibroblasts.
Methods
Orbital fat explants were obtained from patients with TAO undergoing orbital decompression surgery (n=5). The fibroblasts were characterized by antibodies specific for fibroblast markers and Thy-1 (cluster differentiation 90, CD90) by immunostaining and flow cytometry. We then investigated the capability of orbital fibroblasts to secrete cytokines and HA in response to interleukin (IL)-1β using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of palmitate on cytokine and HA production in orbital fibroblasts was examined at the protein level by ELISA and at the mRNA level by quantitative real time RT–PCR. The level of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s, including p38 MAPK (p38), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was measured by immunoblot analysis. We then examined the role of MAPKs on palmitate-induced cytokine production using specific inhibitors to p38, ERK, and JNK, respectively.
Results
The orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO were Thy-1- positive fibroblasts (>90%) with the ability to secrete IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and HA in response to IL-1β. Treatment with palmitate induced significant production of IL-6 and MCP-1, but not IL-8 and HA, in orbital fibroblasts. IL-6 and MCP-1 expression by palmitate were differentially regulated by MAPKs. IL-6 expression was mediated by the p38, ERK, JNK pathways, whereas MCP-1 expression was mediated by ERK and JNK, but not by p38, in palmitate-treated orbital fibroblasts.
Conclusions
We show the possible involvement of palmitate in the promotion of inflammation within orbital tissues. This finding may be helpful for understanding the development of TAO in patients with hyperthyroidism.
PMCID: PMC3380905  PMID: 22736938
3.  Long-term surgical outcomes of porous polyethylene orbital implants: a review of 314 cases 
Purpose
This study reports on the long-term surgical outcomes after the insertion of porous Medpor orbital implants into anophthalmic sockets.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of 314 eyes from 314 patients who underwent evisceration, enucleation and secondary procedures using Medpor orbital implants was completed focusing on implant-associated complications and their corrective methods as surgical outcomes.
Results
The mean follow-up was 50 months (range 6–107 months). The most common complication was blepharoptosis (n=33, 10.5%). Other postoperative complications were exposure (n=14, 4.5%) and implant infection (n=3, 1%). The complications were successfully managed by surgical repair and/or conservative care.
Conclusion
Using Medpor resulted in similar surgical outcomes, in terms of the types and frequencies of complications, as other kinds of porous orbital implants.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300132
PMCID: PMC3308469  PMID: 22096144
Anophthalmia; eye lids; implant complications; inflammation; lacrimal drainage; lacrimal gland; orbit; porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implant
4.  Microscopic Characteristics of Lower Eyelid Retractors in Koreans 
Purpose
To identify the microscopic characteristics of lower eyelid retractors in Korean individuals and to elucidate age-related changes in lower eyelid retractors.
Methods
Eighteen Korean lower eyelids from formalin-fixed cadavers were stained with Masson's trichrome. Specimens were divided into two groups based on age at death (group A, ≤65 years; group B, >65 years), and the microscopic findings were analyzed and compared by light microscopy.
Results
The capsulopalpebral fascia (CPF) had distinct junctions and no fusion with orbital septum in 14 eyelids (77.8%). The CPF was fused with the orbital septum in only two eyelids (11.1%). Although not significant, the inferior tarsal muscle was closer to the tarsus in group A (1.24 ± 0.71 mm) than group B (2.14 ± 1.18 mm, p = 0.07), and the tarsal height tended to be longer in group B (4.71 ± 0.55 mm) than group A (4.16 ± 1.01 mm, p = 0.20). Tarsal fatty infiltration was more evident in group B.
Conclusions
The CPF was rarely fused with the orbital septum in our sample of Korean lower eyelids. Although we did not identify any remarkable age-related changes in lower eyelid structures, there was a tendency for the lower retractor to loosen from the tarsus and for increased fatty infiltration in the lower eyelids from elderly individuals.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2011.25.5.344
PMCID: PMC3178770  PMID: 21976943
Koreans; Lower eyelid retractors; Microscopic structure
5.  Surgical Outcomes of Transconjunctival Anterior Orbitotomy for Intraconal Orbital Cavernous Hemangioma 
Purpose
To describe surgical outcomes for transconjunctival anterior orbitotomy for intraconal cavernous hemangiomas.
Methods
The medical records of 9 consecutive patients with intraconal cavernous hemangiomas who underwent surgical removal by transconjunctival anterior orbitotomy were retrospectively reviewed. The conjunctiva was incised and retracted with a traction suture. For large tumors, a rectus muscle was temporarily disinserted. Tenon's capsule was separated and the tumor was removed with a cryoprobe or clamp. Surgical outcomes, positions of the tumors, methods of approach, and intra- and post-operative complications were evaluated.
Results
The mean follow-up period was 33 ± 6.8 months. No bony orbitotomy was used in this technique and the cosmetic results were very satisfactory. All tumors were removed intact. In 4 patients, tumors were extirpated with the aid of a cryoprobe. No patients had residual proptosis or limitation of ocular movement. No signs of recurrence were noted in any cases at 33 months follow-up. No serious or permanent complications were observed during or after the operation.
Conclusions
Transconjunctival anterior orbitotomy is an important surgical procedure in the treatment of intraconal cavernous hemangiomas. It can produce an excellent result, even if the posterior border of the tumor abuts the orbital apex.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2010.24.5.274
PMCID: PMC2955269  PMID: 21052506
Anterior orbitotomy; Cavernous hemangioma; Cryoprobe
6.  The Results of Evisceration with Primary Porous Implant Placement in Patients with Endophthalmitis 
Purpose
To assess the results and long-term prognosis of evisceration with primary porous implant placement in patients with endophthalmitis.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted to review the files of 27 patients (29 eyes) with endophthalmitis who underwent evisceration with primary porous implant placement from January 1997 to December 2007 at St. Mary's Hospital and Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital. The mean follow-up period was 12.24 months (range, 3 to 89 months) and the mean age of the patients was 63.6 years (range, 33 to 89 years).
Results
During the surgical procedure, primary implant placement was successfully completed, and any postoperative infection or inflammation rapidly resolved in all 27 patients (29 eyes). One of two porous implant materials was used. Hydroxyapatite was inserted in 14 eyes and Medpor was inserted in 15 eyes. Delayed implant exposure was noted in 1 eye, which was treated by inserting a hydroxyapatite implant 18 months after the first surgery. This was well treated by a preserved scleral graft. Implant infection was noted in 1 other eye at 20 days after the first surgery. All other minor complications healed without sequelae.
Conclusions
Evisceration with primary porous implant placement as the treatment for recalcitrant endophthalmitis resulted in rapid resolution of any infection and inflammation. Implant exposure and infection occurred in only 2 eyes, and these problems were well treated without long-term sequelae. Therefore, evisceration with primary porous implant placement is a treatment option for patients with endophthalmitis.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2010.24.5.279
PMCID: PMC2955270  PMID: 21052507
Endophthalmitis; Evisceration; Porous implant
7.  A Case of Orbital Abscess following Porous Orbital Implant Infection 
Purpose
We present a case of orbital abscess following porous orbital implant infection in a 73-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods
Just one month after a seemingly uncomplicated enucleation and porous polyethylene (Medpor®) orbital implant surgery, implant exposure developed with profuse pus discharge. The patient was unresponsive to implant removal and MRI confirmed the presence of an orbital pus pocket. Despite extirpation of the four rectus muscles, inflammatory granulation debridement and abscess drainage, another new pus pocket developed.
Results
After partial orbital exenteration, the wound finally healed well without any additional abscess formation.
Conclusions
A patient who has risk factors for delayed wound healing must be examined thoroughly and extreme care such as exenteration must be taken if there is persistent infection.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2006.20.4.234
PMCID: PMC2908858  PMID: 17302210
Porous orbital implant infection; Orbital abscess; Partial orbital exenteration
8.  Risk Potentiality of Frontline Radiotherapy Associated Cataract in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma 
Purpose
To elucidate risk potentiality of frontline radiotherapy associated cataracts in primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (OAML).
Methods
Data from eight consecutive patients of 41 total OAML patients who had undergone cataract surgery after frontline radiotherapy were analyzed.
Results
The median patient age was 46 years (range, 36 to 69 years). The median total radiation dose was 3,780 cGy (range, 3,060 to 4,500 cGy), and the mean duration from radiation irradiation to cataract surgery was 36.60 ± 8.93 months. Preoperative lens opacification was primarily at the posterior lens subcapsule, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.43 ± 0.21. Patients underwent the phacoemulsification surgical procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens insertion. The average BCVA improved to 0.90 ± 0.14 after cataract surgery. Two patients underwent posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and one had posterior capsule rupture. For posterior capsule opacification (PCO), three patients received Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy after the initial surgery, and one patient is currently under consideration for laser posterior capsulotomy.
Conclusions
Radiotherapy increased posterior subcapsule opacification at a relatively young age in primary OAML. Phacoemulsification was a manageable procedure without severe complications, and final visual outcomes were good. However, because after-cataracts progressed earlier than did senile cataracts, close follow-up should be considered for PCO management.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.4.243
PMCID: PMC3730065  PMID: 23908569
Cataract; Ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiotherapy
9.  Eyelid-associated complications after autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:32.
Background
We report two cases of unilateral upper eyelid swelling with multiple small lumps as an unusual complication of autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation.
Case presentation
Two female patients were referred to our clinic for unusual unilateral eyelid swelling, with multiple small lumps. The duration of symptoms differed in each case, but both patients had a history of autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation at a local plastic surgery clinic. The lumps were small (diameter 5 mm~10 mm), palpable, hard, and nonmobile, and were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lumps from the eyelids of two patients were excised under general anesthesia. All of the masses were located deeply and found near the superior orbital rim or lateral orbital rim. The lumps exhibited chronic inflammation with fibrosis. Some of the lumps showed foamy histiocytic aggregation and foreign body lipogranuloma, resulting from iatrogenic fat injection. After excision, all masses and swelling disappeared, and moderate ptotic eyelid or lagophthalmos of affected eyes also improved.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, eyelid swelling with multiple lumps in the eyelid is a very rare complication of autogenous fat injection for cosmetic forehead augmentation. This report should be helpful for ophthalmic clinicians who encounter these unusual symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-32
PMCID: PMC3717022  PMID: 23841959
Autogenous fat injection; Lipogranuloma; Eyelid swelling; Eyelid lumps
10.  Prevalence of Eye Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 
Purpose
The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea.
Methods
We obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey and examinations of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea (n = 14,606), conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Field survey teams included an ophthalmologist, nurses, and interviewers, traveled with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and ophthalmologic examinations.
Results
The prevalence of visual impairment, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in participants over 5 years of age was 0.4 ± 0.1%, 53.7 ± 0.6%, 10.7 ± 0.4%, and 58.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence of strabismus and blepharoptosis in participants over 3 years of age was 1.5 ± 0.1% and 11.0 ± 0.8%, respectively. In participants over 40 years of age, the prevalence of cataract, pterygium, early and late age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma was 40.2 ± 1.3%, 8.9 ± 0.5%, 5.1 ± 0.3%, 0.5 ± 0.1%, 13.4 ± 1.5%, and 2.1 ± 0.2%, respectively.
Conclusions
This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study conducted in South Korea for assessment of the prevalence of eye diseases by both the Korean Ophthalmologic Society and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study will provide preliminary information for use in further investigation, prevention, and management of eye diseases in Korea.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2011.25.6.421
PMCID: PMC3223710  PMID: 22131780
Epidemiology; Eye diseases; Korea; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Prevalence

Results 1-10 (10)