Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study including 1,854 PACG cases and 9,608 controls across 5 sample collections in Asia. Replication experiments were conducted in 1,917 PACG cases and 8,943 controls collected from a further 6 sample collections. We report significant associations at three new loci: rs11024102 in PLEKHA7 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; P = 5.33 × 10−12), rs3753841 in COL11A1 (per-allele OR = 1.20; P = 9.22 × 10−10) and rs1015213 located between PCMTD1 and ST18 on chromosome 8q (per-allele OR = 1.50; P = 3.29 × 10−9). Our findings, accumulated across these independent worldwide collections, suggest possible mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of PACG.
Titanium (Ti) is a promising candidate biomaterial for an artificial corneal skirt. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immobilization may improve the bactericidal effect of the Ti substrate. In this study, we tested the bactericidal efficacy of a functionalized Ti surface in a rabbit keratitis model. A corneal stromal pocket was created by a femtosecond laser. The Ti films were then inserted into the pocket, and Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated into the pocket above the implant films. The corneas with Ti-AMP implants were compared with the corneas implanted with unprotected Ti by slit lamp observation and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by bacterium counting, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunostaining. There was a lower incidence and a lesser extent of infection on rabbit corneas with Ti-AMP implants than on those with unprotected Ti implants. The bactericidal effect of AMP against S. aureus was comparable to that of postoperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment; hence, SESB2V AMP bound to the Ti implant provided functional activity in vivo, but its efficacy was greater against S. aureus than against P. aeruginosa. This work suggests that SESB2V AMP can be successfully functionalized in a rabbit keratitis model to prevent perioperative corneal infection.
Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is a key anatomical risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on ACD to discover novel genes for PACG on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian descent. Genome-wide significant association was observed at a sequence variant within ABCC5 (rs1401999; per-allele effect size = −0.045 mm, P = 8.17×10−9). This locus was associated with an increase in risk of PACG in a separate case-control study of 4,276 PACG cases and 18,801 controls (per-allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.06–1.22], P = 0.00046). The association was strengthened when a sub-group of controls with open angles were included in the analysis (per-allele OR = 1.30, P = 7.45×10−9; 3,458 cases vs. 3,831 controls). Our findings suggest that the increase in PACG risk could in part be mediated by genetic sequence variants influencing anterior chamber dimensions.
The anterior chamber is the space within the eye which is bound by the cornea, and the anterior surfaces of the iris and lens. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is the distance measured along the eye's optical axis, from the cornea to the lens surface. ACD is an important risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, and in particular, individuals of Asian ethnicity. In order to identify the genes that underlie PACG susceptibility, we conducted a two-staged study. We first conducted a large scale genetic study on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian descent to identify the genetic variants that influence ACD. This was followed by testing for associations between the identified genetic variant and PACG in another independent collection of 4,276 PACG cases and 18,801 controls. We found that a genetic variant within ABCC5 was associated with an increased risk of having PACG. Our findings suggest that the increase in PACG risk could in part be mediated by genetic sequence variants that influence the anterior chamber dimensions of the eye.
Presbyopia remains a major visual impairment for patients, who have previously undergone laser refractive correction and enjoyed unaided distance vision prior to the onset of presbyopia. Corneal stromal volume restoration through small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) lenticule re-implantation presents an opportunity for restoring the patients’ non-dominant eye to previous low myopia to achieve a monovision. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of performing LASIK after lenticule re-implantation as a method to create presbyopic monovision. A -6.00D SMILE correction was performed in 9 rabbit eyes. The lenticules were cryopreserved for 14 days and re-implanted. Five weeks later, 3 of these eyes underwent LASIK for -5.00D correction (RL group); 3 underwent LASIK flap creation, which was not lifted (RN); and no further procedures were performed on the remaining 3 eyes. These groups were compared with 3 eyes that underwent standard LASIK for a -5.00D correction (LO); 3 that underwent creation of non-lifted flap (LN); and 3 non-operated eyes. Rabbits were euthanized 1 day post-surgery. Tissue responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, slit lamp and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Intrastromal irregularities and elevated reflectivity levels of the excimer-ablated plane were observed on slit lamp and IVCM, respectively in the RL group. The results were comparable (P = 0.310) to IVCM findings in the LO group. RL and LO groups showed similar fibronectin expression levels, number of CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.304) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.198). There was no difference between the RN and LN groups in reflectivity levels (P = 0.627), fibronectin expression levels, CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.135) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.128). LASIK can be performed following lenticule re-implantation to create presbyopic monovision. The tissue responses elicited after performing LASIK on corneas that have undergone SMILE and subsequent lenticule re-implantation are similar to primary procedure.
To compare the 3-year incidence of de novo ocular hypertension (OHT) after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK). For DSAEK, to evaluate predictors for OHT and 2-year outcomes after OHT development.
This was a review of the prospective Singapore Corneal Transplant Study at a single tertiary referral center. Consecutive DSAEKs and PKs for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK) in eyes without pre-existing glaucoma were analyzed. OHT incidence after DSAEK and PK were compared using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, and OHT risk factors identified using Cox proportional regression. OHT was defined: intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg or ≥ 10 mmHg from baseline. Secondary outcomes 2 years after OHT development in DSAEK were rates of glaucoma medical therapy failure, IOP success, graft failure and rejection, and best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA).
There were 108 (96.4%) DSAEKs and 216 (96%) PKs. The 1-, 2- and 3-year de novo OHT incidence was not significantly different between DSAEK (36.1%, 47.2%, 47.2%, respectively) and PK (35.7%, 44.9%, 45.8%, respectively; P = 0.914). OHT incidence did not differ in subgroup analyses of multiple clinical variables (P > 0.1). OHT predictors after DSAEK were: fellow eye glaucoma (hazard ratio [HR] 3.20, P = 0.004), age <60 years (HR 2.41, P = 0.016), concurrent goniosynechiolysis (HR 3.29, P = 0.021), post-graft complications or procedures (HR 2.85, P = 0.006). Two years after OHT onset, 29.7% of DSAEKs failed glaucoma medical therapy requiring trabeculectomy. Complete and qualified IOP success was achieved in 23.5% and 76.5%, respectively. Graft failure developed in 9.8% and graft rejection in 5.9%. At 6 months, 1, and 2 years from OHT onset, 86.3%, 88.3%, and 92.1% achieved BSCVA 20/40, respectively.
DSAEK and PK have comparable OHT risks. A significant 30% of DSAEK eyes with OHT require filtration surgery. Effective IOP control and good graft and visual outcomes are achieved with treatment.
DSAEK; glaucoma; ocular hypertension; risk factors
We investigated an outbreak of 47 probable and 6 confirmed cases of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis involving participants of an international rugby tournament in Singapore in April 2012.The mode of transmission was eye contact with soil. Vittaforma corneae was identified in 4 of 6 corneal scrapings and in 1 of 12 soil water samples.
Microsporidia; Vittaforma corneae; keratoconjunctivitis; parasites; fungi; Singapore
LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a common laser refractive procedure for myopia and astigmatism, involving permanent removal of anterior corneal stromal tissue by excimer ablation beneath a hinged flap. Correction of refractive error is achieved by the resulting change in the curvature of the cornea and is limited by central corneal thickness, as a thin residual stromal bed may result in biomechanical instability of the cornea. A recently developed alternative to LASIK called Refractive Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx) utilizes solely a femtosecond laser (FSL) to incise an intrastromal refractive lenticule (RL), which results in reshaping the corneal curvature and correcting the myopia and/or astigmatism. As the RL is extracted intact in the ReLEx, we hypothesized that it could be cryopreserved and re-implanted at a later date to restore corneal stromal volume, in the event of keratectasia, making ReLEx a potentially reversible procedure, unlike LASIK. In this study, we re-implanted cryopreserved RLs in a non-human primate model of ReLEx. Mild intrastromal haze, noted during the first 2 weeks after re-implantation, subsided after 8 weeks. Refractive parameters including corneal thickness, anterior curvature and refractive error indices were restored to near pre-operative values after the re-implantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed no myofibroblast formation or abnormal collagen type I expression after 8 weeks, and a significant attenuation of fibronectin and tenascin expression from week 8 to 16 after re-implantation. In addition, keratocyte re-population could be found along the implanted RL interfaces. Our findings suggest that RL cryopreservation and re-implantation after ReLEx appears feasible, suggesting the possibility of potential reversibility of the procedure, and possible future uses of RLs in treating other corneal disorders and refractive errors.
To evaluate longitudinal changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining in patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using two different femtosecond lasers.
In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, contralateral eyes of 45 patients underwent flap creation by either VisuMax or IntraLase™ femtosecond laser. Corneal sensitivity, tear break up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s test, and corneal fluorescein staining were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively.
There were no statistical differences in any clinical outcome measure between the two femtosecond lasers (P > 0.05), although there was a trend towards slightly lower reductions for corneal sensitivity and TBUT in VisuMax-operated eyes. Overall, corneal sensitivity was significantly reduced at 1 week (P < 0.05), 1 month (P < 0 .001), and 3 months (P < 0.001) postoperatively. A significantly greater reduction of corneal sensitivity was noted in eyes with a myopic spherical equivalent of −6.00 diopters (D) to −11.25 D as compared with eyes that had a relatively lower level of myopia of less than −6.00 D (P < 0.001). TBUT and Schirmer’s test values were significantly diminished at 1 week postoperatively (P < 0.04). Overall, corneal staining was significantly increased at 1 week postoperatively (P < 0.001). The level of myopia did not significantly affect postoperative changes in TBUT, Schirmer’s test values, or corneal staining (P > 0.05).
This study showed that changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining were statistically similar in LASIK using VisuMax and IntraLase femtosecond lasers for flap creation. However, the trend towards faster recovery of corneal sensitivity and TBUT observed in VisuMax-operated eyes may be attributable to improved technical specifications.
femtosecond laser; corneal sensitivity; tear film break-up time; Schirmer’s; corneal staining
This study compared the effects of implanting two interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) into rabbit corneas. The first (Implant 1) was based on PEG-diacrylate, the second (Implant 2) was based on PEG-diacrylamide. There were inserted into deep stromal pockets created using a manual surgical technique for either 3 or 6 months. The implanted corneas were compared with normal and sham-operated corneas through slit lamp observation, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, in vivo confocal scanning and histological examination. Corneas with Implant 1 (based on PEG-diacrylate) developed diffuse haze, ulcers and opacities within 3 months, while corneas with Implant 2 (based on PEG-diacrylamide) remained clear at 6 months. They also exhibited normal numbers of epithelial cell layers, without any immune cell infiltration, inflammation, oedema or neovascularisation at post-operative 6 month. Morphological studies showed transient epithelial layer thinning over the hydrogel inserted area and elevated keratocyte activity at 3 months; however, the epithelium thickness and keratocyte morphology were improved at 6 months. Implant 2 exhibited superior in vivo biocompatibility and higher optical clarity than Implant 1. PEG-diacrylamide-based IPN hydrogel is therefore a potential candidate for corneal inlays to correct refractive error.
To develop a mouse model of bullous keratoplasty and evaluate the safety and efficacy of cryoinjury-induced corneal endothelial decompensation.
Transcorneal freezing was performed on the right eye of each mouse. One cycle of cryoinjury was performed in 18 eyes (group A), and three cycles were performed in 17 eyes (group B). Pachymetry and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were done preoperatively, as well as at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after cryoinjury. At each post-cryoinjury time point, three mice from each group were euthanized, and the corneas underwent histology and electron microscopy.
In both groups, significant corneal edema was noted at post-cryoinjury day 1, which was maintained throughout the study period. IOP remained within normal range in group A, but increased significantly with time in group B (p=0.011 at day 1, 0.038 at day 3, 0.026 at day 14, and 0.008 at day 21). In group B, serious complications including hyphema (one case), severe iridocorneal adhesion (15 cases), and total cataract (three cases) were detected, while only mild iridocorneal adhesion (four cases) and cataract (three cases) were noted in group A. Live/dead cell assay, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and scanning electron microscopy revealed successful ablation of corneal endothelial cells and absence of regeneration in both groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay showed that apoptosis was mainly confined to the posterior stroma and endothelium in group A, while severe apoptosis was observed throughout all layers of the cornea in group B.
One cycle of cryoinjury was safer than three, while both were equally effective in inducing bullous keratopathy. This cryoinjury mouse model of bullous keratopathy was a consistently reproducible model that can be used for further studies on endothelial cell damage and rescue therapy.
We describe clinical characteristics and risk factors for corticosteroid response in children with severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
Retrospective, noncontrolled, comparative case series.
Patients from three tertiary centers in Singapore.
We reviewed patients with severe VKC (clinical grade > 2) who were on topical steroid therapy, with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year post-presentation. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for corticosteroid response.
Main outcome measure
Corticosteroid response was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg (three consecutive readings), or a rise of more than 16 mmHg from baseline, after commencement of steroid therapy in the absence of other possible causes of raised IOP.
Forty-one of 145 (28.3%) patients developed a corticosteroid response, of which eight (5.5%) progressed to glaucoma. The overall mean age of onset of VKC was 9.9 ± 4.4 years. Longer duration of corticosteroid use (OR, 5.06; 95% CI: 1.04–25.56; P = 0.45) and topical dexamethasone 0.01% (OR, 2.25; 95% CI: 1.99–5.08; P = 0.40) were associated with corticosteroid response. Mixed type of VKC (OR, 9.76; 95% CI: 3.55–26.77; P < 0.001), the presence of limbal neovascularization of ≥ three quadrants (OR, 6.33; 95% CI: 2.36–16.97; P < 0.001), and corneal involvement (OR, 3.51; 95% CI: 1.31–9.41; P = 0.012) were significant clinical risk factors after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, ethnicity, duration, and type of corticosteroid used.
Children on long-term oral corticosteroids with severe, mixed-type VKC and corneal involvement are more likely to develop corticosteroid response, and may require early treatment to prevent progression to glaucoma.
vernal keratoconjunctivitis; glaucoma; steroids
The CorneaL GrAft Thickness Evaluation (COLGATE) system was recently developed to facilitate the evaluation of corneal graft thickness from OCT images. Graft thickness measurement can be a surrogate indicator for detecting graft failure or success. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the COLGATE system in measuring DSAEK graft area between two observers.
This was a prospective case series in which 50 anterior segment OCT images of patients who had undergone DSAEK in either eye were analysed. Two observers (MW, AC) independently obtained the image analysis for the graft area using both semi automated and automated method. One week later, each observer repeated the analysis for the same set of images. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to analyze inter and intra observer agreement.
There was strong intraobserver correlation between the 2 semi automated readings obtained by both observers. (r = 0.936 and r = 0.962). Intraobserver ICC for observer 1 was 0.936 (95% CI 0.890 to 0.963) and 0.967 (95% CI 0.942 to 0.981) for observer 2. Likewise, there was also strong interobserver correlation (r = 0.913 and r = 0.969). The interobserver ICC for the first measurements was 0.911 (95% CI 0.849 to 0.949) and 0.968 (95% CI 0.945 to 0.982) for the second. There was statistical difference between the automatic and the semi automated readings for both observers (p = 0.006, p = 0.003). The automatic readings gave consistently higher values than the semi automated readings especially in thin grafts.
The analysis from the COLGATE programme can be reproducible between different observers. Care must be taken when interpreting the automated analysis as they tend to over estimate measurements.
Anterior segment optical coherence tomography; Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty; Graft thickness
To compare the results of laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q® and Technolas® 217z excimer lasers.
A retrospective, comparative case series of 442 eyes matched for age and myopia: half each were treated with Allegretto’s wavefront-optimized algorithm and Technolas PlanoScan. Outcome measures were postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), cylinder, safety and efficacy indices, refractive predictability, and optical zone size selection. Refractive predictability of a subgroup treated for −2.50 to −4.0 diopter (D) was analyzed separately.
At mean follow-up of 80.5 days, mean logMAR UCVA, mean MRSE and mean postoperative cylinder were 0.02 ± 0.07 (range −0.12 to 0.30), 0.27 ± 0.36 D (range −1.25 to 1.50 D) and −0.33 ± 0.30 D (range 0.00 to −1.50 D) for Allegretto versus 0.02 ± 0.08 (range −0.12 to 0.40), 0.095 ± 0.47 D (range −1.25 to 1.13 D) and −0.44 ± 0.5 2 D (range 0.00 to −2.25 D) for Technolas (P = 0.98, 0.80 and 0.006). Mean safety and efficacy indices were 1.05 ± 0.13 (0.75–1.33) and 0.97 ± 0.13 (0.50–1.33) for Allegretto and 1.07 ± 0.14 (0.75–1.49) and 0.97 ± 0.17 (0.40–1.49) for Technolas (P = 0.23 and 0.69). Proportions of eyes achieving postoperative MRSE within ±1.0 D, ±0.5 D, and ±0.25 D were 98.2%, 91.9% and 75.6% for Allegretto and 99.1%, 97.8% and 72.4% for Technolas (P = 0.68, 0.20 and 0.51). Mean optical zone size selected was 6.48 ± 0.10 mm (range 6.0–6.5 mm) for Allegretto and 6.38 ± 0.19 mm (range 5.6–6.6 mm) for Technolas (P < 0.001). Of the subgroup with treatment between −2.5 and −4.0 D, 86.8% and 58.5% of eyes treated with Allegretto achieved postoperative MRSE within ±0.50 D and ±0.25 D versus 70.4% and 44.4% for Technolas (P = 0.006 and 0.057).
No differences were seen in postoperative mean logMAR UCVA, MRSE, safety and efficacy indices between the two lasers. Allegretto produced less residual astigmatism, possibly improved refractive predictability, and required smaller optical zone selection.
LASIK; myopia; laser vision correction; conventional laser algorithm
To assess repeatability of the Zhongshan Assessment Program (ZAP) software measurement of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT) images and correlate with graft trephine diameter following Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK)
Retrospectively evaluated interventional case series. 121 consecutive eyes undergoing DSAEK over a 26 month period underwent ASOCT imaging 1month after their surgery. ASOCT images were processed using ZAP software which measured the graft and cornea parameters including anterior and posterior graft arc length and cord length, posterior cornea arc length (PCAL) and anterior chamber width.
The graft measurements showed good repeatability on ASOCT using ZAP with high intra class coefficient and small variation in the coefficient of variation. On ASOCT, the mean recipient PCAL was 12.99+/−0.69mm and the anterior chamber width was 11.16+/−0.57mm. The mean Graft anterior arc length was 9.69+/−0.66mm and the mean Graft anterior cord length was 8.92+/−2.94mm. The mean graft posterior arc length was 9.24+/−0.75mm and the mean graft posterior cord length was 8.15+/−0.57mm. Graft posterior arc length (rho=0.788, p< 0.001) correlated best with intra-operative graft trephine diameter. The mean ratio of posterior graft arc length to PCAL was 0.712 +/− 0.056.
We have validated the repeatability of the ZAP software for DSAEK graft measurements from ASOCT images and shown that the graft arc length parameters calculated from the ASOCT images correlate well with the intra-operative graft trephine diameter. This software may help surgeons determine the optimal DSAEK graft size based on pre-operative ASOCT measurements of the recipient eye.
To optimize fibrin glue (FG) spray for ophthalmic surgery using two spray applicators, EasySpray and DuploSpray systems, by varying the distance from point of application and the pressure/flow rate, and to compare the adhesive strength of sutured and sutureless (FG sprayed) conjunctival graft surgery in a rabbit model.
FG was sprayed on a 0.2 mm-thick sheet of paper using EasySpray by variously combining application distances of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 cm with pressures of 10, 15, and 20 psi. DuploSpray was used at the same distances but with varying flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min. Subsequently, FG was sprayed on porcine corneas and FG thickness was analyzed by histology. In addition, adhesive strength of the conjunctival graft (0.5 × 0.5 cm) attached to the rabbit cornea by sutured and sutureless surgery (FG spray) was compared using a tension meter.
Histology measurements revealed that the FG thickness decreased with increases in distance and pressure of spray using the EasySpray applicator on paper and porcine corneal sections. The adhesive strength of the sutured conjunctival graft (41 ± 4.85 [kilopascal] KPa) was found to be higher than the graft attached by spraying (10 ± 2.3 KPa) and the sequential addition of FG (6 ± 0.714 KPa).
The EasySpray applicator formed a uniform spread of FG at a distance-pressure combination of 5 cm and 20 psi. The conjunctival graft attached with sutures had higher adhesive strength compared with grafts glued with a spray applicator. Although the adhesive strength of FG applied through the applicator was similar to the drop-wise sequential technique, the former was more cost effective because more samples could be sprayed compared with the sequential manual technique.
The standardization of the spray system for the application of FG in ophthalmology will provide an economical method for delivering consistent healing results after surgery.
fibrin glue; EasySpray; DuploSpray; adhesive strength; conjunctival graft surgery
Small incision lenticule extraction or SMILE is a novel form of ‘flapless’ corneal refractive surgery that was adapted from refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx). SMILE uses only one femtosecond laser to complete the refractive surgery, potentially reducing surgical time, side effects, and cost. If successful, SMILE could potentially replace the current, widely practiced laser in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether SMILE is non-inferior to LASIK in terms of refractive outcomes at 3 months post-operatively.
Single tertiary center, parallel group, single-masked, paired-eye design, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial. Participants who are eligible for LASIK will be enrolled for study after informed consent. Each participant will be randomized to receive SMILE and LASIK in each eye. Our primary hypothesis (stated as null) in this non-inferiority trial would be that SMILE differs from LASIK in adults (>21 years old) with myopia (> −3.00 diopter (D)) at a tertiary eye center in terms of refractive predictability at 3 months post-operatively. Our secondary hypothesis (stated as null) in this non-inferiority trial would be that SMILE differs from LASIK in adults (>21 years old) with myopia (> −3.00 D) at a tertiary eye center in terms of other refractive outcomes (efficacy, safety, higher-order aberrations) at 3 months post-operatively. Our primary outcome is refractive predictability, which is one of several standard refractive outcomes, defined as the proportion of eyes achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent (SE) within ±0.50 D of the intended target. Randomization will be performed using random allocation sequence generated by a computer with no blocks or restrictions, and implemented by concealing the number-coded surgery within sealed envelopes until just before the procedure. In this single-masked trial, subjects and their caregivers will be masked to the assigned treatment in each eye.
This novel trial will provide information on whether SMILE has comparable, if not superior, refractive outcomes compared to the established LASIK for myopia, thus providing evidence for translation into clinical practice.
Refractive surgery; Laser in situ keratomileusis; Small incision lenticule extraction
Corneal transplantation has rapidly evolved from full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty (PK) to selective tissue corneal transplantation, where only the diseased portions of the patient's corneal tissue are replaced with healthy donor tissue. Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) performed in patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction is one such example where only a single layer of endothelial cells with its basement membrane (10–15 µm in thickness), Descemet's membrane (DM) is replaced. It is challenging to replace this membrane due to its intrinsic property to roll in an aqueous environment. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of fibrin glue (FG) on the biomechanical properties of DM using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and relates these properties to membrane folding propensity.
Fibrin glue was sprayed using the EasySpray applicator system, and the biomechanical properties of human DM were determined by AFM. We studied the changes in the “rolling up” tendency of DM by examining the changes in the elasticity and flexural rigidity after the application of FG. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and AFM imaging. Treatment with FG not only stabilized and stiffened DM but also led to a significant increase in hysteresis of the glue-treated membrane. In addition, flexural or bending rigidity values also increased in FG-treated membranes.
Our results suggest that fibrin glue provides rigidity to the DM/endothelial cell complex that may aid in subsequent manipulation by maintaining tissue integrity.
The purpose of this study was to compare endothelial cell counts after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty in Asian eyes.
This was a retrospective study of patients from our prospective Singapore Corneal Transplant Study cohort who received corneal transplantation in 2006–2008. We compared eyes that underwent DSAEK or penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy. Clinical data, and donor and recipient characteristics were recorded. Of 241 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 68 underwent DSAEK and 173 underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The main outcome measure was endothelial cell loss at 1 year. Secondary outcome measures were graft survival and visual outcomes at 1-year follow-up.
There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of patients between the treatment groups. Percent endothelial cell loss at 1-year follow-up was greater in penetrating keratoplasty eyes (40.9% ± 2.9%) compared with DSAEK eyes (22.4% ± 2.3%; P < 0.001). DSAEK-treated eyes had significantly superior uncorrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.42 ± 0.0059; P < 0.001) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.14 ± 0.032; P < 0.001) as compared with penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes. Penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had worse astigmatism as compared with DSAEK-treated eyes (−3.0 ± 2.1 versus −1.7 ± 0.8; P < 0.001). Graft survival at 1 year was comparable in both groups, ie, 66/68 (97.0%) DSAEK-treated eyes versus 158/173 (92.0%) of penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had clear grafts (P = 0.479).
We report lower percent endothelial cell loss comparing DSAEK and penetrating keratoplasty at 1-year follow-up in Asian eyes, with comparable graft survival rates in both groups.
Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty; endothelial cell count; penetrating keratoplasty
To evaluate the intraoperative changes in the donor lenticule, recipient cornea, and the reduction of interface fluid thickness during Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty with EndoGlide™ (Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc, Vancouver, Canada) donor insertion, using intraoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Prospective observational case series of patients underwent Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty using the EndoGlide inserter. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (iVue; Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA) with a handheld probe was used to image the cornea and anterior chamber. Standardized software was used to measure interface fluid gap, host cornea, and donor lenticule thicknesses during the following surgical stages of Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty: (1) after donor insertion and immediately before full air tamponade; (2) after air tamponade and expression of fluid from venting incisions; (3) at 6 minutes of air tamponade; and (4) at 10 minutes of air tamponade.
Ten patients with a mean age of 74.9 ± 11.8 years were recruited. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography measurements of the interface fluid gap after fluid was expressed through the venting incisions (P < 0.001), at 6 minutes of air tamponade (P < 0.001) and at 10 minutes of air tamponade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), were significantly decreased compared to the measurements immediately before air tamponade. Donor thickness increased significantly at 6 minutes of air tamponade (P = 0.004) but reduced by 10 minutes compared to immediately before air tamponade.
Significant intraoperative changes in the donor, recipient cornea, and interface fluid thickness occurred following endothelial keratoplasty donor insertion.
Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty; spectral-domain optical coherence tomography
Consistent expansion of human corneal endothelial cells (hCECs) is critical in the development of tissue engineered endothelial constructs. However, a wide range of complex culture media, developed from different basal media have been reported in the propagation of hCECs, some with more success than others. These results are further confounded by donor-to-donor variability. The aim of this study is to evaluate four culture media in the isolation and propagation of hCECs isolated from a series of paired donor corneas in order to negate donor variability.
Isolated primary hCECs were cultured in four previously published medium coded in this study as: M1-DMEM; M2-OptiMEM-I; M3-DMEM/F12, & M4-Ham's F12/M199. Primary hCECs established in these conditions were expanded for two passages and analyzed for (1) their propensity to adhere and proliferate; (2) their expression of characteristic corneal endothelium markers: Na+K+/ATPase and ZO-1; and (3) their cellular morphology throughout the study. We found that hCECs isolated in all four media showed rapid attachment when cultured on FNC-coated dishes. However, hCECs established in the four media exhibited different proliferation profiles with striking morphological differences. Corneal endothelial cells cultured in M1 and M3 could not be propagated beyond the first and second passage respectively. The hCECs cultured in M2 and M4 were significantly more proliferative and expressed markers characteristics of human corneal endothelium: Na+K+/ATPase and ZO-1. However, the unique morphological characteristics of cultivated hCECs were not maintained in either M2 or M4 beyond the third passage.
The proliferative capacity and morphology of hCECs are vastly affected by the four culture media. For the development of tissue engineered graft materials using cultured hCECs derived from the isolation methodology described in this study, we propose the use of proliferative media M2 or M4 up to the third passage, or before the cultured hCECs lose their unique cellular morphology.
Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) has been shown to have superior refractive and visual results compared with penetrating keratoplasty, but higher rates of primary graft failure (PGF). This paper presents donor and surgical risk factors for PGF in DSAEK cases in Asian eyes.
Retrospective case-control study.
All consecutive patients who underwent DSAEK at a tertiary referral teaching hospital from March 2006–December 2008.
Donor details analyzed were: age of donor, cause of donor death, death to harvesting time, donor storage time, distribution distance of tissue, preoperative endothelial cell count. Surgical factors analyzed were: donor diameter, donor thickness, and method of donor insertion. These risk factors in cases of PGF were compared with patients with successful DSAEK as the control group.
Main outcome measure
A total of 124 DSAEK procedures were performed. Six DSAEK procedures (five eyes of five patients; one eye with two failures) resulted in PGF (4.8%). Significant risk factors were found for PGF to include graft insertion using a folding technique (odds ratio [OR], 34.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.75–314.32; P = 0.0017) and a small donor diameter (OR, 39.94; 95% CI, 2.18–732.17; P = 0.013).
The results of this study suggest that in Asian eyes with shallow anterior chambers, surgical trauma relating to the technique of donor insertion, and the use of a small donor are major risk factors for PGF following DSAEK.
DSAEK; PGF; penetrating keratoplasty
To describe a novel technique of using Spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the evaluation of corneal epithelial healing under a therapeutic contact lens (TCL) after lamellar keratoplasty and Epi-LASIK procedures.
Prospective, non-comparative, observational case series.
Ten eyes of eight patients undergoing lamellar corneal transplantation and Epi-LASIK procedures at the Singapore National Eye Centre were included in the study. Ultra-high resolution SD-OCT scans of the cornea with a TCL in-situ were performed sequentially on the first, third and fifth day after procedure, with the RTVue (Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA, USA), and the image findings were correlated with the clinical picture. Complete epithelial healing was verified with removal of TCL and fluorescein staining.
5 eyes underwent Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), 1 eye underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and 4 eyes underwent Epi-LASIK. All eyes had complete epithelial healing with TCL in-situ by the third post-operative day. SD-OCT images were able to demonstrate the epithelial layer distinctly under the TCL in all cases.
SD-OCT is a valuable imaging tool for monitoring the progression of epithelial healing with TCL in situ in patients following corneal surgical procedures.
Corneal epithelial healing; optical coherent tomography; contact lens; spectral domain.
To study the expression and cellular distribution of multiple S100A genes and proteins in normal corneal-limbal epithelium and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue.
Normal corneal-limbal tissue was obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, FL. Ocular surface SCC tissues were excised from patients undergoing surgery at Singapore National Eye Centre. S100A mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. S100 protein distribution was determined by immunofluorescent staining analysis.
Twelve S100 mRNAs were identified in human corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10, and A11 mRNA was expressed at high level, while S100A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A12 mRNA expression was low. The intracellular localization of S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 protein was determined in normal corneal-limbal and SCC tissues. S100A2 and S100A10 proteins were enriched in basal limbal epithelial cells of the normal tissue. S100A8 and S100A9 were found only at the surface of peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. S100A6 was uniformly found at the plasma membrane of corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A11 was found at the supralayer limbal epithelial cells adjacent to the conjunctiva. SCC tissue showed typical pathological changes with expression of cytokeartin (CK) 14 and CK4 in the epithelial cells. All SCC epithelial cells were positive of S100A2, S100A10, S100A6 and S100A11 staining. Intracellular staining of S100A8 and S100A9 was found in several layers of SCC epithelium. Expression of S100A2 and S100A10 decreased dramatically in cultured limbal epithelial cells with increased passaging, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA, with no changes of S100A8 gene expression. Serum and growth hormone depletion of the culture serum caused a small reduction of S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA while no changes of S100A8 expression was measured.
Normal corneal and limbal epithelial cells express a broad spectrum of S100 genes and proteins. Ocular surface SCC express high levels of S100A2, S100A10, S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. The expression of S100A2 and S100A10 is associated with limbal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.
To assess and compare keratocyte viability and collagen structure in cornea stroma lenticules collected immediately after refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) and one month after cryopreservation.
The fresh and cryopreserved human stroma lenticules procured after ReLEx were processed for ultrastructural analysis of keratocytes and collagen fibrils with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), apoptotic cell detection with deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) assay, and cultured for keratocyte-specific gene expression analysis using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR).
The periphery of the lenticule had greater TUNEL-positive cells compared to the center of the lenticule in both fresh and cryopreserved groups. There was an increase in TUNEL-positive cells after cryopreservation, which was significantly higher in the center of the lenticule, but not in the periphery. TEM showed apoptotic, necrotic and viable quiescent keratocytes in fresh and cryopreserved lenticules. Collagen analysis with TEM showed a well preserved and well aligned structure in fresh and cryopreserved lenticules; without significant change in the total number of collagen fibrils but with an increased collagen fibril density (CFD) after cryopreservation. In vitro, isolated keratocytes derived from fresh and cryopreserved lenticules exhibited a typical fibroblastic phenotype. RT–PCR showed a positive gene expression for keratocan (KERA) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) in cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved lenticules.
The stromal lenticules extracted from ReLEx surgery remain viable after cryopreservation. Although they showed a decrease in CFD, the collagen architecture was preserved and there was good cellular viability.
To describe a quick and simple “small‐bubble” technique to immediately determine the success of attaining complete Descemet's membrane (DM) separation from corneal stroma through Anwar's “big‐bubble” technique of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for complete stromal removal.
A partial trephination was followed by a lamellar dissection of the anterior stroma. Deep stromal air injection was then attempted to achieve the big bubble to help separate the stroma from the DM. To confirm that a big bubble had been achieved, a small air bubble was injected into the anterior chamber (AC) through a limbal paracentesis. If the small bubble is then seen at the corneal periphery, it confirms that the big‐bubble separation of DM was successful because the convex nature of the bubble will cause it to protrude posteriorly, forcing the small AC bubble to the periphery. If the small AC bubble is not seen in the corneal periphery, this means that it is present in the centre, beneath the opaque corneal stroma, and therefore the big bubble has not been achieved.
We used the small‐bubble technique to confirm the presence of the big bubble in three (one keratoconus, one interstitial keratitis and one dense corneal scar) out of 41 patients who underwent DALK. The small‐bubble technique confirmed that the big bubble was achieved in the eye of all three patients. Complete stromal removal with baring of the DM was achieved, and postoperatively all three eyes achieved best corrected vision of 6/6.
The small‐bubble technique can be a useful surgical tool for corneal surgeons attempting lamellar keratoplasty using the big‐bubble technique. It helps in confirming the separation of DM from the deep stroma, which is important in achieving total stromal replacement. It will help to make the transition to lamellar keratoplasty smoother, enhance corneal graft success and improve visual outcomes in patients.
deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty; big bubble; small bubble; DALK