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1.  Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing 
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S58669
PMCID: PMC4003269  PMID: 24790408
ocular toxoplasmosis; toxoplasma retinochoroiditis; retinal vascular occlusion; polymerase chain reaction; vitrectomy
2.  Cancer-associated retinopathy caused by benign thymoma 
doi:10.1136/bjo.2008.151563
PMCID: PMC3487380  PMID: 20424218
3.  Thymic expression of peripheral tissue antigens in humans: a remarkable variability among individuals 
International immunology  2005;17(8):1131-1140.
The majority of maturing T lymphocytes that recognize self-antigens is eliminated in the thymus upon exposure to their target antigens. This physiological process of negative selection requires that tissue-specific antigens be expressed by thymic cells, a phenomenon that has been well studied in experimental animals. Here, we have examined the expression in human thymi of four retinal antigens, that are capable of inducing autoimmune ocular disease retinal S-antigen (S-Ag), recoverin, RPE65 and inter-photoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)], as well as four melanocyte-specific antigens, two of which are used as targets for melanoma immunotherapy [gp100, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2]. Using reverse transcription (RT)–PCR, we found that all thymic samples from the 18 donors expressed mRNA transcripts of most or all the eight tested tissue antigens. Yet, the expression of the transcripts varied remarkably among the individual thymic samples. In addition, S-Ag, RPE65 and IRBP were detected by immunostaining in rare cells in sections of human thymi by antibodies against these proteins. Quantitative real-time RT–PCR analysis revealed that the retinal antigen transcripts in the human thymus are present at trace levels, that are lower by approximately five orders of magnitude than those in the retina. Our observations thus support the notions that thymic expression is a common feature for all tissue-specific antigens and that the levels of expression play a role in determining the susceptibility to autoimmunity against these molecules.
doi:10.1093/intimm/dxh275
PMCID: PMC2366090  PMID: 16030131
autoimmunity; retinal antigen; susceptibility to disease; tolerance; tumor immunity
4.  Clinical features and management of cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis: analysis of 106 cases from the Japan corneal endotheliitis study 
Aims
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the clinical manifestations and the current treatment status of cytomegalovirus (CMV) endotheliitis via a large case series obtained from a national survey conducted in Japan.
Methods
The Japan Corneal Endotheliitis Study Group proposed diagnostic criteria for CMV endotheliitis based on a viral examination by PCR of aqueous humour, in combination with clinical manifestations. A national survey was then retrospectively conducted among 1160 members of the Japan Cornea Society. The study reviewed the patient profiles, clinical manifestations, and treatment modalities of individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for CMV endotheliitis.
Results
The study included 109 eyes of 106 patients. Mean patient age was 66.9±10.9 years (85 males (80.2%), 21 females (19.8%)). Patients were commonly diagnosed with anterior uveitis and ocular hypertension prior to confirmation of CMV endotheliitis. Coin-shaped lesions were observed in 70.6%, and linear keratic precipitates in 8.3% of the patients, respectively. 95% of cases were treated with anti-CMV drugs.
Conclusions
CMV endotheliitis is most common in middle-aged and elderly men. CMV endotheliitis should be suspected when patients present with corneal endotheliitis involving coin-shaped lesions accompanied by anterior uveitis and ocular hypertension.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304625
PMCID: PMC4283688  PMID: 25075122
Cornea; Infection

Results 1-4 (4)