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1.  Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model 
Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.13-90
PMCID: PMC3947972  PMID: 24688221
omega-3 fatty acids; nutritional support; acute lung injury; rat model; fish oil
2.  Frequent alteration of the protein synthesis of enzymes for glucose metabolism in hepatocellular carcinomas 
Journal of Gastroenterology  2013;49(9):1324-1332.
Background
Cancer cells show enhanced glycolysis and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen (aerobic glycolysis). Glycolysis is much less efficient for energy production than oxidative phosphorylation, and the reason why cancer cells selectively use glycolysis remains unclear.
Methods
Biospecimens were collected from 45 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Protein samples were prepared through subcellular localization or whole-cell lysis. Protein synthesis was measured by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. mRNA transcription was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Statistical correlation among immunoblotting data and clinicolaboratory factors were analyzed using SPSS.
Results
Enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation (SDHA and SDHB) were frequently decreased (56 and 48 % of patients, respectively) in hepatocellular carcinomas. The lowered amount of the SDH protein complex was rarely accompanied by stabilization of HIF1α and subsequent activation of the hypoxia response. On the other hand, protein synthesis of G6PD and TKT, enzymes critical for pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), was increased (in 45 and 55 % of patients, respectively), while that of ALDOA, an enzyme for mainstream glycolysis, was eliminated (in 55 % of patients). Alteration of protein synthesis was correlated with gene expression for G6PD and TKT, but not for TKTL1, ALDOA, SDHA or SDHB. Augmented transcription and synthesis of PPP enzymes were accompanied by nuclear accumulation of NRF2.
Conclusion
Hepatocellular carcinomas divert glucose metabolism to the anabolic shunt by activating transcription factor NRF2.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00535-013-0895-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00535-013-0895-x
PMCID: PMC4156784  PMID: 24203292
Aerobic glycolysis; Succinate dehydrogenase; HIF-1α; Pentose phosphate pathway; NRF2
3.  Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Has a Close Association With Gangrenous Appendicitis in Patients Undergoing Appendectomy 
International Surgery  2012;97(4):299-304.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical features most closely associated with gangrenous appendicitis. From among 314 patients who had undergone open appendectomy in our collected database, 222 for whom sufficient data were evaluable were enrolled. The results of univariate analysis revealed that age (≤40/>40 years), sex (female/male), fever (≤37°/>37°C), the serum levels of C-reactive protein and albumin, the Glasgow prognostic score (0, 1/2), and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≤8/>8) were associated with gangrenous appendicitis. Among these 7 clinical features, multivariate analysis disclosed that age (≤40/>40 years) (odds ratio, 3.435; 95% confidence interval 1.744–6.766; P < 0.001) and NLR (≤8/>8) (odds ratio, 3.016; 95% confidence interval 1.535–5.926; P  =  0.001) were associated with gangrenous appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of these two clinical features were 65% and 27%, and 73% and 39%, respectively. NLR (>8) shows a significant association with gangrenous appendicitis in patients undergoing appendectomy.
doi:10.9738/CC161.1
PMCID: PMC3727267  PMID: 23294069
Acute appendicitis; Catarrhal appendicitis; Gangrenous appendicitis; Phlegmonous appendicitis; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio
4.  Complete Genome Sequence of Phototrophic Betaproteobacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus IL144 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(13):3541-3542.
Rubrivivax gelatinosus is a facultative photoheterotrophic betaproteobacterium living in freshwater ponds, sewage ditches, activated sludge, and food processing wastewater. There have not been many studies on photosynthetic betaproteobacteria. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of the best-studied phototrophic betaproteobacterium, R. gelatinosus IL-144 (NBRC 100245).
doi:10.1128/JB.00511-12
PMCID: PMC3434721  PMID: 22689232
5.  Clinical Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Primary, Pigmentary, and Pseudoexfoliative Open-Angle Glaucoma in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study 
The British journal of ophthalmology  2012;96(9):1180-1184.
Background/Aims
Three types of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) – primary, pigmentary, and pseudoexfoliative – are frequently encountered. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, ocular, and systemic medical information collected on people with these three OAG types at diagnosis, and determine if the OAG type affected prognosis.
Methods
Information on 607 participants of the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study was accessed. Descriptive statistics characterized their demographic, ocular, and medical status at diagnosis. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and chi-square or Fisher exact tests. Multinomial, mixed, and logistic regression analyses were also performed.
Results
Relative to people with primary OAG, those with pigmentary OAG were younger, more likely to be white, less likely to have a family history of glaucoma, and were more myopic. Those with pseudoexfoliative OAG were older, more likely to be white, more likely to be female, less likely to have bilateral disease, and presented with higher IOP and better VA. The type of glaucoma was not associated with intraocular pressure or visual field progression during follow-up.
Conclusion
Characteristics of newly-diagnosed enrollees differed by the type of OAG. While some of these differences relate to the pathogenesis of OAG type, other differences are noteworthy for further evaluation within population-based samples of subjects with newly-diagnosed OAG.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301820
PMCID: PMC3480313  PMID: 22773091
Glaucoma; Epidemiology
6.  Effect of an omega-3 lipid emulsion in reducing oxidative stress in a rat model of intestinal ischemia−reperfusion injury 
Pediatric Surgery International  2012;28(9):913-918.
Objectives
The usefulness of omega-3 lipid emulsions has been extensively studied. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effect of an omega-3 lipid emulsion in reducing oxidative stress in a rat model of intestinal ischemia−reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism.
Methods
A total of 66 rats were divided into three dietary groups (lipid-free, soybean oil, and fish oil groups). Each animal was administered total parenteral nutrition for 3 days, followed by induction of intestinal ischemia for 100 min. Animals subjected to sham surgery served as the controls. Intestinal tissue and blood were harvested 6 and 12 h after the surgery, then, assessment of the histological damage score, plasma-related parameters, and statistical evaluation were performed.
Results
The histological damage score in the intestinal tissues was significantly lower in the fish oil group than in the soybean oil group (P = 0.0121). The late-phase urinary level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine was also significantly lower in the fish oil group as compared with that in the other groups (P = 0.0267). Furthermore, the plasma level of high-mobility group box 1 protein was also significantly lower in the fish oil group as compared with that in the lipid-free group (P = 0.0398).
Conclusion
It appeared that intravenous administration of an omega-3 lipid emulsion prior to ischemia−reperfusion injury reduced the oxidative stress and severity of tissue damage. Modification of membrane fatty acids may serve as the mechanism underlying this reduction of tissue damage.
doi:10.1007/s00383-012-3144-0
PMCID: PMC3433667  PMID: 22907722
Ischemia–reperfusion injury; Omega-3; Oxidative stress; HMGB1
7.  Surgical Ligation of Extrahepatic Shunt under Guidance of Doppler Ultrasound, Portography, and Portal Pressure Monitoring 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:346759.
A 54-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C was admitted to our hospital because of a disturbance of consciousness and hyperammonemia. Abdominal angiography revealed a portosystemic shunt between the superior mesenteric vein and inferior vena cava. Endoscopic examination showed no varix. As interventional treatment was unsuccessful, surgical ligation of the shunt was performed. After surgery, portography revealed a huge shunt. Before ligation, the portal pressure, portal flow speed, and volume at the umbilical portion were 24 H2O. 5.6 cm/s and 203 ml/min, respectively. Finally the shunt was ligated. The portal flow speed and volume increased for 14 days following surgery and then stabilized. No varices were observed postoperatively. Doppler ultrasound, portography, and portal pressure monitoring can be used to reveal haemodynamic changes in the portal system and justify surgical ligation of portosystemic shunt.
doi:10.1155/2012/346759
PMCID: PMC3424649  PMID: 22928143

Results 1-7 (7)