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Year of Publication
Targeting of circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells to prevent postoperative recurrence and metastasis
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG
Currently, the main treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involves the surgical removal of tumors or liver transplantation. However, these treatments are often not completely curative, as they are associated with a risk for postoperative recurrence and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly recognized as the main source for recurrence and metastasis after radical hepatectomies are performed. Many studies have demonstrated the association between the presence of either pre- or postoperative CTCs and an increased risk for HCC recurrence. To improve the therapeutic outcome of HCC, a personalized, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach should be considered, involving the application of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures targeting HCC CTCs in different stages throughout the course of treatment. This article proposes some HCC CTC-based strategies for the treatment of HCC, including the monitoring of HCC CTCs before, during and after radical hepatectomy, therapeutic targeting of HCC CTCs, prevention of the generation and colonization of CTCs, as well as the use of CTC indexes for the selection of indications, prediction of prognoses, and planning of individualized therapeutic regimens. Innovation and technological development of therapies targeting CTCs, as well as their translation into clinical practice, will help to effectively reduce postoperative recurrence and metastasis, and significantly prolong the survival of HCC patients.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Circulating tumor cells; Recurrence and metastasis; Surgical treatment; Individualized treatment
In vitro effect of a corrosive hostile ocular surface on candidate biomaterials for keratoprosthesis skirt
Tan, Xiao Wei
Tan, Anna C S
Neoh, Koon Gee
Khor, Khiam Aik
Beuerman, Roger W
Mehta, Jodhbir S
The British Journal of Ophthalmology
Keratoprosthesis (KPro) devices are prone to long-term corrosion and microbiological assault. The authors aimed to compare the inflammatory response and material dissolution properties of two candidate KPro skirt materials, hydroxyapatite (HA) and titania (TiO2) in a simulated in vitro cornea inflammation environment.
Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine secretions were evaluated with human corneal fibroblasts on both HA and TiO2. Material specimens were subjected to electrochemical and long-term incubation test with artificial tear fluid (ATF) of various acidities. Topography and surface roughness of material discs were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.
There were less cytokines secreted from human corneal fibroblasts seeded on TiO2 substrates as compared with HA. TiO2 was more resistant to the corrosion effect caused by acidic ATF in contrast to HA. Moreover, the elemental composition of TiO2 was more stable than HA after long-term incubation with ATF.
TiO2 is more resistant to inflammatory degradation and has a higher corrosion resistance as compared with HA, and in this regard may be a suitable material to replace HA as an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis skirt. This would reduce resorption rates for KPro surgery.
OOKP; microbial infection; material dissolution; artificial tear fluid; cornea; biochemistry; prosthesis; microbiology; contact lens; stem cells; lens and zonules; treatment surgery; epidemiology; experimental and animal models; ocular surface; genetics; imaging; treatment lasers
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