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1.  The role of the optical coherence tomography in identifying shape and size of idiopathic epiretinal membranes 
Currently, the border of idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERM) is outlined intraoperatively using vital dyes. Therefore, the authors set out to investigate the role of the preoperative retinal thickness map (RTM) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in identifying the shape and the size of the iERMs.
15 eyes of 15 patients with iERM who underwent vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted membrane peeling were included in this study. The authors analysed the intraoperative fundus images and preoperative Cirrus HD-OCT to detect the shape and the size of the iERM as well as the shape and the size of each thickness-indicating colour (white, red, orange and yellow) on the RTM, respectively. The correlation of areas and morphologic characteristics between both groups was explored.
Analysis of iERM morphologic characteristics (shape) showed a similarity between the iERM contour and the corresponding RTM in 13 cases (86.6%). Furthermore, retinal folds were found in six iERMs and in their corresponding RTMs. Analysis of iERM size (area) revealed a positive correlation between the iERM area and each studied coloured area in RTM. The most significant correlation was between iERM and the red area (440–480 μm; r=0.87, p<0.0001).
The iERM-related retinal folds are clearly distinguishable on the HD-OCT. The red area in RTM representing the 440–480 μm retinal thickness can be a reliable predictor of the extent and the shape of the iERM.
PMCID: PMC3355339  PMID: 22328818
Optical coherence tomography; epiretinal membrane; indocyanine green; retinal thickness map; retina; vitreous; treatment surgery; imaging; neovascularisation; treatment lasers
2.  In vivo identification of alteration of inner neurosensory layers in branch retinal artery occlusion 
To characterise the extension and progression of alteration of neurosensory layers following acute and chronic branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in vivo using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
In this observational case series, eight eyes with acute BRAO and nine eyes with chronic BRAO were analysed using a Spectralis Heidelberg Retina Angiograph (HRA)+optical coherence tomography system including eye tracking. Patients with acute BRAO were examined within 36±5 h after primary event and at weekly/monthly intervals thereafter. Segmentation measurements of all individual neurosensory layers were performed on single A-scans at six locations in affected and corresponding non-affected areas. The thickness values of the retinal nerve fibre layer together with the ganglion cell layer (NFL/GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer together with outer plexiform layer (INL/OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and photoreceptor layers together with the retinal pigment epithelium (PR/RPE) were measured and analysed.
Segmentation evaluation revealed a distinct increase in thickness of inner neurosensory layers including the NFL/GCL (35%), IPL (80%), INL/OPL (48%) and mildly the ONL by 21% in acute ischaemia compared with corresponding layers in non-ischaemic areas. Regression of intraretinal oedema was followed by persistent retinal atrophy with loss of differentiation between IPL and INL/OPL at month 2. In contrast, the ONL and subjacent PR/RPE retained their physiological thickness in patients with chronic BRAO.
In vivo assessment of retinal layer morphology allows a precise identification of the pathophysiology in retinal ischaemia.
PMCID: PMC3261730  PMID: 21515559
Branch retinal artery occlusion; optical coherence tomography; retina; imaging

Results 1-2 (2)