Brucella canis infection can be clinically inapparent in dogs, and when infection goes unnoticed, there is a chance for dog-to-human transmission. A new strain of B. canis was isolated from the blood of an infected dog in order to analyze the pathogenic mechanism, compare genetic properties, and develop new genetic tools for early diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain B. canis HSK A52141. This is the second complete genome sequence and biological annotation available for a member of B. canis.
Adiaspiromycosis is caused by pulmonary infection with Emmonsia. Inhalated spores of Emmonsia cause asymptomatic infection to necrogranulomatous pneumonia, depending on the burden of adiaspore and host immunity. For disease monitoring of wild rodents captured on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined the lung tissue of wild rodents histopathologically. Spores composed of thick three-layered walls were found following histopathological examination and were diagnosed as adiaspiromycosis. Adiaspiromycosis has been found in mammals in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adiaspiromycosis of an Apodemus agrarius captured in Korea.
Adiaspiromycosis; Emmonisia crescens; wild rodent
Sarcocystis spp is a causative agent of sarcocystosis. They have a characteristic life cycle infecting both prey and predator. Sarcocystis can cause myositis, atrophy of the adjacent cells and abortion in cattle. In mice, sarcocystosis causes mild cellular reactions without clinical disease. Severe haemorrhage and abortion were also reported. For monitoring the disease in wild rodents of the Korean peninsula, we captured Apodemus agrarius chejuensis on Jeju island and examined the specimen histopathologically. Intramuscular cysts were found and diagnosed as Sarcocystis. Sarcocystic infection has been reported in worldwide. There have been many reported infections in cattle and pigs in Korea. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sarcocystis in Apodemus agrarius chejuensis captured in Korea.
Sarcocystis; Apodemus agrarius chejuensis; Jeju island
A large-scale, genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variations influencing serum bilirubin levels using 8841 Korean individuals. Significant associations were observed at UGT1A1 (rs11891311, P = 4.78 × 10−148) and SLCO1B3 (rs2417940, P = 1.03 × 10−17), which are two previously identified loci. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated (rs11891311, P = 3.18 × 10−15) or marginally significant (rs2417940, P = 8.56 × 10−4) in an independent cohort of 1096 individuals. In a conditional analysis adjusted for the top UGT1A1 variant (rs11891311), another variant in UGT1A1 (rs4148323, P = 1.22 × 10−121) remained significant; this suggests that in UGT1A1 at least two independent genetic variations influence the bilirubin levels in the Korean population. The protein coding variant rs4148323, which is monomorphic in European-derived populations, may be specifically associated with serum bilirubin levels in Asians (P = 2.56 × 10−70). The SLCO1B3 variant (rs2417940, P = 1.67 × 10−18) remained significant in a conditional analysis for the top UGT1A1 variant. Interestingly, there were significant differences in the associated variations of SLCO1B3 between Koreans and European-derived populations. While the variant rs2417940 at intron 7 of SLCO1B3 was more significantly associated in Koreans, variants rs17680137 (P = 0.584) and rs2117032 (P = 2.76 × 10−5), two of the top-ranked SNPs in European-derived populations, did not reach the genome-wide significance level. Also, variants in SLCO1B1 did not reach genome-wide significance in Koreans. Our result supports the idea that there are considerable ethnic differences in genetic association of bilirubin levels between Koreans and European-derived populations.
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infection activities. However, the anti-skin photoaging effects of cordycepin have not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -3 expressions of the human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR revealed cordycepin inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. UVB strongly activated NF-κB activity, which was determined by IκBα degradation, nuclear localization of p50 and p65 subunit, and NF-κB binding activity. However, UVB-induced NF-κB activation and MMP expression were completely blocked by cordycepin pretreatment. These findings suggest that cordycepin could prevent UVB-induced MMPs expressions through inhibition of NF-κB activation. In conclusion, cordycepin might be used as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.
cordycepin; matrix metalloproteinases; NF-κB; skin aging; ultraviolet rays
Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi.
We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence.
Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations.
Radiosurgery may be contraindicated for lesions adjacent to the optic pathways because of the substantial risk of visual complication. Multisession radiosurgery has been tried as a compromise between single session radiosurgery and fractionated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in 22 patients with perioptic lesions of benign pathology.
In all 22 cases, the lesions were within 1 mm of the optic apparatus and were therefore not considered suitable for single session radiosurgery. Radiation was delivered in 3 to 4 fractions with a median cumulated marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy).
During a mean follow-up of 29 months (range, 14-44 months), tumor control was achieved in 21 patients. Visual function improved in 7 patients, remained unchanged in 14 patients, and deteriorated in 1 patient with tumor progression. No other complication was observed.
This preliminary result supports the idea that multisession GKRS may be an effective and safe alternative for treatment in perioptic lesions that are unsuitable for single session radiosurgery.
Multisession radiosurgery; Gamma knife; Visual complication
Spinal cord hemangioblastoma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm with a benign nature and is associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease in 20-30% of patients. Total removal of these tumors without significant neurological deficit remains a great challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of VHL mutation analysis and to evaluate surgical outcome of patients with spinal cord hemangioblastomas.
This study included nine patients treated for spinal cord hemangioblastomas at our institute between December 1994 and March 2006. There were four male and five female patients. Mean age was 37.8 years. The mean follow-up period was 22.4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the complete neuraxis was done in all cases and VHL mutation analysis was performed in three cases for a definite diagnosis.
Six patients had intramedullary tumor, and the remaining patients had intradural extramedullary lesions. Five patients were associated with VHL disease. The von Hippel-Lindau mutation analysis was done in three patients and two of them showed VHL gene abnormality. Tumors were located in the cervical cord in five cases and in the thoracic cord in four cases. All patients underwent surgical intervention, and total removal was achieved in six cases. All patients showed improvement or, at least, clinically stationary state. Surgical complications did not develop in any cases.
Spinal hemangioblastoma in this series has been safely and effectively removed via a posterior approach. Postoperatively, clinical outcome was excellent in the majority of cases. The VHL mutation analysis was useful in patients with family history and in those with multiple hemangioblastomas.
Hemangioblastoma; Von Hippel-Lindau disease; Mutation analysis
Several simple tests for hepatic fibrosis employ indirect markers. However, the efficacy of using direct and indirect serum markers to predict significant fibrosis in clinical practice is inconclusive. We analyzed the efficacy of a previously reported indirect marker of hepatic fibrosis - the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) - in patients with nonalcoholic chronic liver diseases (CLDs).
A total of 134 patients who underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy with a final diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (n=93), chronic hepatitis C (n=18), or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n=23) were enrolled. A single-blinded pathologist staged fibrosis from F0 to F4 according to the METAVIR system, with significant hepatic fibrosis defined as a METAVIR fibrosis score of ≥2.
The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs was 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-0.91]. APRI yielded the highest mean AUROC in the patients with chronic hepatitis B (0.85; 95% CI, 0.771-0.926). The positive predictive value of APRI ≥1.5 for predicting significant fibrosis was 89%. The negative predictive value of APRI <0.5 for excluding significant fibrosis was 80%.
APRI might be a simple and noninvasive index for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs.
Aspartate aminotransferase; Fibrosis; Hepatitis B
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) is the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis regulated by circadian rhythm. To date, our understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of melatonin has been limited to autoregulatory transcriptional and posttranslational regulations of AANAT mRNA. In this study, we identify three proteins from pineal glands that associate with cis-acting elements within species-specific AANAT 3′ untranslated regions to mediate mRNA degradation. These proteins include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R), hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L. Their RNA-destabilizing function was determined by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Expression patterns of these factors in pineal glands display robust circadian rhythm. The enhanced levels detected after midnight correlate with an abrupt decline in AANAT mRNA level. A mathematical model for the AANAT mRNA profile and its experimental evidence with rat pinealocytes indicates that rhythmic AANAT mRNA degradation mediated by hnRNP R, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L is a key process in the regulation of its circadian oscillation.
The population structure of the Bacillus cereus group (52 strains of B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) was investigated by sequencing seven gene fragments (rpoB, gyrB, pycA, mdh, mbl, mutS, and plcR). Most of the strains were classifiable into two large subgroups in six housekeeping gene trees but not in the plcR tree. In addition, several consistent clusters were identified, which were unrelated to species distinction. Moreover, interrelationships among these clusters were incongruent in each gene tree. The incongruence length difference test and split decomposition analyses also showed incongruences between genes, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. The plcR gene was observed to have characteristics that differed from those of the other genes in terms of phylogenetic topology and pattern of sequence diversity. Thus, we suggest that the evolutionary history of the PlcR regulon differs from those of the other chromosomal genes and that recombination of the plcR gene may be frequent. The homogeneity of B. anthracis, which is depicted as an independent lineage in phylogenetic trees, is suggested to be of recent origin or to be due to the narrow taxonomic definition of species.
Comparative sequence analysis was performed upon Bacillus anthracis and its closest relatives, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Portions of rpoB DNA from 10 strains of B. anthracis, 16 of B. cereus, 10 of B. thuringiensis, 1 of B. mycoides, and 1 of B. megaterium were amplified and sequenced. The determined rpoB sequences (318 bp) of the 10 B. anthracis strains, including five Korean isolates, were identical to those of Ames, Florida, Kruger B, and Western NA strains. Strains of the “B. cereus group” were separated into two subgroups, in which the B. anthracis strains formed a separate clade in the phylogenetic tree. However, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis could not be differentiated. Sequence analysis confirmed the five Korean isolates as B. anthracis. Based on the rpoB sequences determined in the present study, multiplex PCR generating either B. anthracis-specific amplicons (359 and 208 bp) or cap DNA (291 bp) in a virulence plasmid could be used for the rapid differential detection and identification of virulent B. anthracis.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways.
Mouse embryonic stem cells; Sodium fluoride; Cell death; ROS; Cellular signaling
Over the last fifty years, the number of centenarians has dramatically increased. The centenarian rate (CR) is representative of the general longevity prevalent in a nation; it indicates the number of individuals aged 100 years or above at a given date divided by the size of the corresponding cohort of a given age. Two important attributes of the CR (50–54) are that it reflects both unchanged age-specific fertility and the absence of migration in populations. It can generally be used in longevity-based evaluations of the broader concept of successful ageing. As such, this retrospective analysis of the social factors that contribute to the CR (50–54) may help to identify the factors associated with successful ageing.
This study estimates the CR (50–54) and elucidates the influence of social factors on successful ageing and the CR (50–54), examining 32 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
The social indicators for this study were obtained from the United Nations database. The data for the analysis of centenarians in the 32 OECD countries were obtained from the world population prospects conducted by the United Nations. Associations between social factors and CR (50–54) were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models.
Significant positive correlations were found between the CR (50–54) and the social factors of expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (HEGDP: r = 0.411, p < 0.021), general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure (GGEH: r = 0.474, p < 0.006), the proportion of fixed-telephone subscriptions in the population (FTS: r = 0.489, p < 0.005), and the human development index (HDI: r = 0.486, p < 0.005). Finally, these CR (50–54) predictors were used to form a model of successful ageing, with higher HEGDP and GGEH as health expenditure, higher FTS as standard of living, and higher HDI as social well-being (R2 = 0.573, P < 0.025).
The findings suggest that an increased CR (50–54) is affected by multiple social factors involved in successful ageing. Therefore, if they wish to improve their country’s CR (50–54), governments must strengthen their existing support services for the elderly through making improvements to standards of living, social well-being and through increased financing of the health sector.
Centenarian rate; Expenditure on health; Fixed-telephone; Human development index
Sasang constitutional medicine is a traditional Korean medicine in which an individual is classified into one of four types of constitution: Taeum (TE), Soeum (SE) Soyang (SY), and Taeyang (TY). These constitution types are determined with biologic and physiologic characteristics, so it has been assumed that genetic factors are associated with each constitution type. Identifying the genetic elements underlying each constitution is necessary for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of Sasang constitutional medicine.
A total of 341,998 genetic loci across the whole genome were genotyped for 1222 subjects of defined constitution type. The genetic loci associated with each constitution type were identified and the functional connectivity of genes within these loci was analyzed using statistical text mining.
From the difference in allele frequencies between constitution types, significant genetic loci associated with each type were identified. Chromosomes 3q27.3 (rs10937331, p=2.71×10−6), 15q22.2 (rs7180547, p=1.58×10−6), and 14q22.3 (rs12431592, p=1.31×10−6) were most significantly associated with TE, SE, and SY constitution types, respectively. From the functional relationship analysis using all loci with a p-value≤10−4, genes associated with each constitution type were identified. Fifteen (15) genes, including GPM6A, SYT4, and GRIK1, were significantly associated with the TE constitution type (p<0.05); 12 genes, including DRGX and AKAP11, were significantly associated with the SE constitution type (p<0.05); and 17 genes, including ZFP42, CDH22, ALDH1A2, OTX2, and EN2, were significantly associated with the SY constitution type (p<0.05).
Genetic loci and genes associated with Sasang constitution types were systematically identified from a genome-wide association study using a large number of subjects.
The complete genome sequence of porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) from a Korean isolate was analyzed. The genome size was 7,393 bp. Previously, full genome sequences of PEV-B had been reported from the United Kingdom, Hungary, and China. The Korean PEV-B isolate presented polyprotein gene nucleotide sequence similarities of 77.9, 73.7, 78.9, and 80.3%, respectively, to PEV-B UKG/410/73, LP54, PEV15, and Chinese strains (Ch-ah-f1).
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the early effects of statin treatment on plaque composition according to plaque stability on Intravascular Ultrasound-Virtual Histology at 6 months after a coronary event. Previous trials have demonstrated that lipid lowering therapy with statins decreases plaque volume and increases plaque echogenicity in patients with coronary artery disease.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-four patients (54 lesions) with acute coronary syndrome were prospectively enrolled. We classified and analyzed the target plaques into two types according to plaque stability: thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA, n=14) and non-TCFA (n=40). The primary end point was change in percent necrotic core in the 10-mm subsegment with the most disease.
After 6 months of statin therapy, no change was demonstrated in the mean percentage of necrotic core (18.7±8.5% to 20.0±11.0%, p=0.38). There was a significant reduction in necrotic core percentage in patients with TCFA (21.3±7.2% to 14.4±8.9%, p=0.017), but not in patients with non-TCFA. Moreover, change in percent necrotic core was significantly correlated with change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (r=0.4, p=0.003). Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid core percentage demonstrated no significant associations.
A clear reduction of lipid core was observed only for the TCFA plaque type, suggesting that changes in plaque composition following statin therapy might occur earlier in vulnerable plaque than in stable plaque; the effect may be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of statins.
Acute coronary syndromes; statin; IVUS-VH
With recognition of the biomechanical role of the meniscus, such as load distribution and joint stability in the knee joint, there has been a shift in the treatment of meniscal tears from open total meniscectomy to preservation of the meniscal functions as much as possible with symptomatic relief. Recently, technical development of meniscal surgery, with advanced arthroscopic equipment and instruments, enables biological reconstruction of load bearing functions in the meniscus deficient knee through allograft tissue transplantation as well as repair of torn menisci. Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) has been considered as one of the few viable treatment options for the young meniscectomized knees based on various animal experiments and clinical studies. Still, there is insufficient evidence for the long-term chondroprotective effect of human MAT. Some long-term follow-up studies showed that the technique resulted in graft degeneration, deformation, and tear, and structural changes in the remodeling process in early MAT cases, disrupting functional restoration of the original meniscus. Nevertheless, advanced outcomes are documented in some recent studies. The purpose of this article is to review the mid- and long-term follow-up results of MAT and to improve understanding of MAT with evaluation methods of meniscal transplants using magnetic resonance imaging or second-look arthroscopy.
Knee; Menisci; Transplantation
Osteochondroma is the most common benign tumor of the growing bone commonly involving the knee joint region. It often involves the metaphysis of the long bone, occurring extra-articularly. In spite of this, solitary intra-articular osteochondroma has rarely been reported in the literature. A 41-year-old man presented with diffuse pain and discomfort of the left knee for over 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a bony prominence involving the superolateral aspect of the left distal femur. Diagnostic evaluation involved radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and a diagnostic arthroscopy, which showed features of an intra-articular osteochondroma in the left distal femur. Arthroscopic excision of the solitary intra-articular osteochondroma resulted in a complete relief of symptoms and return to full competitive activities. No recurrence of symptoms occurred during the one year of follow-up. Solitary intra-articular osteochondroma of the knee is an unusual case, which can be successfully managed with arthroscopy.
Osteochondroma; Intra-articular; Arthroscopy; Knee
Ganglion cysts are common lesions that are most often found around the joints of the hands and feet. Ganglia around the distal femur usually occur within the synovial membrane or tendon sheath, but rarely within muscles. Several cases of intramuscular ganglions in the hand and wrist have been reported, but a ganglion cyst in the quadriceps muscle has rarely been addressed in studies. In this report, we present a 17-year-old patient with a painful movable mass in the intramuscular area of the quadriceps femoris that was diagnosed by ultrasound and treated by excision and biopsy.
Intramuscular ganglion cyst; Quadriceps muscle
Mucosal surfaces regulate defenses against infection and excessive inflammation. We previously showed that human tears upregulated epithelial expression of genes encoding RNase7 and ST2, which inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion of human corneal epithelial cells. Here, microRNA microarrays were used to show that a combination of tear fluid exposure (16 h) then P. aeruginosa antigens (3 h) upregulated miR-762 and miR-1207, and down-regulated miR-92 and let-7b (all > 2-fold) in human corneal epithelial cells compared to P. aeruginosa antigens alone. RT-PCR confirmed miR-762 upregulation ∼ 3-fold in tear-antigen exposed cells. Without tears or antigens, an antagomir reduced miR-762 expression relative to scrambled controls by ∼50%, increased expression of genes encoding RNase7 (∼80 %), ST2 (∼58%) and Rab5a (∼75%), without affecting P. aeruginosa internalization. However, P. aeruginosa invasion was increased > 3-fold by a miR-762 mimic which reduced RNase7 and ST2 gene expression. Tear fluid alone also induced miR-762 expression ∼ 4-fold, which was reduced by the miR-762 antagomir. Combination of tear fluid and miR-762 antagomir increased RNase7 and ST2 gene expression. These data show that mucosal fluids, such as tears, can modulate epithelial microRNA expression to regulate innate defense genes, and that miR-762 negatively regulates RNase7, ST2 and Rab5a genes. Since RNase7 and ST2 inhibit P. aeruginosa internalization, and are upregulated by tear fluid, other tear-induced mechanisms must counteract inhibitory effects of miR-762 to regulate resistance to bacteria. These data also suggest a complex relationship between tear induction of miR-762, its modulation of innate defense genes, and P. aeruginosa internalization.
We previously showed that DNA fragmentation factor, which comprises a caspase-3-activated DNase (CAD) and its inhibitor (ICAD), may influence the rate of cell death by generating PARP-1-activating DNA breaks. Here we tested the hypothesis that ICAD-deficient colon epithelial cells exhibiting resistance to death stimuli may accumulate additional genetic modifications, leading to a tumorigenic phenotype. We show that ICAD deficiency may be associated with colon malignancy in humans. Indeed, an examination of ICAD expression using immunohistochemistry in an array of both colon cancer and normal tissues revealed that ICAD expression levels were severely compromised in the cancerous tissues. Upon DNA damage caused by a low dose of irradiation, ICAD cells acquire a tumorigenic phenotype. Colon epithelial cells derived from ICAD mice showed a significant resistance to death induced by the colon carcinogen dimethylhydrazine in vitro and in mice. Such resistance was associated with a decrease in PARP-1 activation. In an animal model of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumorigenesis, ICAD−/− mice developed significantly higher numbers of tumors with markedly larger sizes than the wild-type counterparts. Interestingly, the phenotype of the ICAD−/− mice was not associated with a significant increase in the precancerous aberrant crypt foci suggesting a potential link to tumor progression rather than initiation. More importantly, ICAD deficiency was associated with severe genomic instability as assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization. Such genomic instability consisted most prominently of amplifications but with sizable deletions as compared to the wild-type counterparts affecting several cancer-related genes including RAF-1, GSN, LMO3, and Fzd6 independently of p53. Altogether, our results present a viable case for the involvement of ICAD deficiency in colon carcinogenesis and show that apoptosis and genomic instability may comprise the means by which such deficiency may contribute to the process of increasing susceptibility to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis.
Hepatectomy is the standard treatment for HCC. However, large HCC poses a difficult challenge because of the technical complexity of surgical resection and the fear of postoperative hepatic decompensation. We analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ≥10 cm) after surgery.
We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 91 patients who had undergone hepatectomy between January 2006 and June 2010. A survival analysis was performed utilizing the Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated using Cox regression analysis.
Of the 91 patients evaluated, most tumors were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The median tumor size was 12.3 cm (range, 10 to 21 cm), with microvascular invasion present in most patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 2.2%. The median disease-free survival and overall survival were six months and 41 months. The one-year, two-year, and three-year disease-free survival rates were 33.5%, 29.3%, and 18.8%, respectively. The one-year, two-year, and three-year overall survival rates were 73.9%, 63.7%, and 54.8%, respectively. Of the 89 surviving patients, 69 patients (77.5%) developed HCC recurrence during the mean follow-up period of 23.4 ± 15.9 months. On multivariate analysis, the statistically significant factors that predicted HCC recurrence were ALP ≥ 80 IU/mL (P = 0.009) and intrahepatic metastases (P = 0.013).
Our study suggests that preoperative ALP levels (≥ 80 IU/L) and intrahepatic metastases could be utilized to monitor and predict recurrence in HCC patients.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver resection; Metastasis; Survival
Cisplatin is used as a potent anticancer drug, but it often causes nephrotoxicity. Bee venom (BV) has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, and its renoprotective action was shown in NZB/W mice. However, little is known about whether BV has beneficial effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and how such effects might be mediated. In the present study, the BV-injected group showed a significant increase in the population of Tregs in spleen. Although there was no significant difference in the numbers of Tregs 3 days after cisplatin injection between the BV- and PBS-injected groups, more migration of Tregs into the kidney was observed 6 hours after cisplatin administration in BV group than in PBS group. In addition, BV-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal tissue damage, proinflammatory cytokines, and macrophage infiltration into the kidney 3 days after cisplatin administration. These renoprotective effects were abolished by the depletion of Tregs. The anticancer effect of repeated administrations of cisplatin was not affected by BV injection. These results suggest that BV has protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice, at least in part, through the regulation of Tregs without a big influence on the antitumor effects of cisplatin.
Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are common microorganisms in a variety of sulfide-rich environments. They play important roles in the global sulfur cycle on earth. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, “Candidatus Sulfurovum sediminum” strain AR, which belongs to the class Epsilonproteobacteria and dominated an enrichment culture from a marine sediment collected off Svalbard, within the Arctic Circle. Its genome contains genes for sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. The size of the draft genome is 2.12 Mb, and the G+C content is 39.4%.