Genetic studies on facial morphology targeting healthy populations are fundamental in understanding the specific genetic influences involved; yet, most studies to date, if not all, have been focused on congenital diseases accompanied by facial anomalies. To study the specific genetic cues determining facial morphology, we estimated familial correlations and heritabilities of 14 facial measurements and 3 latent factors inferred from a factor analysis in a subset of the Korean population. The study included a total of 229 individuals from 38 families. We evaluated a total of 14 facial measurements using 2D digital photographs. We performed factor analysis to infer common latent variables. The heritabilities of 13 facial measurements were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and ranged from 0.25 to 0.61. Of these, the heritability of intercanthal width in the orbital region was found to be the highest (h2 = 0.61, SE = 0.14). Three factors (lower face portion, orbital region, and vertical length) were obtained through factor analysis, where the heritability values ranged from 0.45 to 0.55. The heritability values for each factor were higher than the mean heritability value of individual original measurements. We have confirmed the genetic influence on facial anthropometric traits and suggest a potential way to categorize and analyze the facial portions into different groups.
facial bones; genetic research; statistical factor analysis
Brucella abortus is a major pathogen that infects livestock and humans. A new strain of B. abortus (A13334) was isolated from the fetal gastric fluid of a dairy cow, with the aim of using it to compare genetic properties, analyze virulence factor, and survey the epidemiological relationship to other Brucella species. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of B. abortus A13334.
Brucella canis infection can be clinically inapparent in dogs, and when infection goes unnoticed, there is a chance for dog-to-human transmission. A new strain of B. canis was isolated from the blood of an infected dog in order to analyze the pathogenic mechanism, compare genetic properties, and develop new genetic tools for early diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain B. canis HSK A52141. This is the second complete genome sequence and biological annotation available for a member of B. canis.
Adiaspiromycosis is caused by pulmonary infection with Emmonsia. Inhalated spores of Emmonsia cause asymptomatic infection to necrogranulomatous pneumonia, depending on the burden of adiaspore and host immunity. For disease monitoring of wild rodents captured on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined the lung tissue of wild rodents histopathologically. Spores composed of thick three-layered walls were found following histopathological examination and were diagnosed as adiaspiromycosis. Adiaspiromycosis has been found in mammals in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adiaspiromycosis of an Apodemus agrarius captured in Korea.
Adiaspiromycosis; Emmonisia crescens; wild rodent
Sarcocystis spp is a causative agent of sarcocystosis. They have a characteristic life cycle infecting both prey and predator. Sarcocystis can cause myositis, atrophy of the adjacent cells and abortion in cattle. In mice, sarcocystosis causes mild cellular reactions without clinical disease. Severe haemorrhage and abortion were also reported. For monitoring the disease in wild rodents of the Korean peninsula, we captured Apodemus agrarius chejuensis on Jeju island and examined the specimen histopathologically. Intramuscular cysts were found and diagnosed as Sarcocystis. Sarcocystic infection has been reported in worldwide. There have been many reported infections in cattle and pigs in Korea. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sarcocystis in Apodemus agrarius chejuensis captured in Korea.
Sarcocystis; Apodemus agrarius chejuensis; Jeju island
A large-scale, genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variations influencing serum bilirubin levels using 8841 Korean individuals. Significant associations were observed at UGT1A1 (rs11891311, P = 4.78 × 10−148) and SLCO1B3 (rs2417940, P = 1.03 × 10−17), which are two previously identified loci. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated (rs11891311, P = 3.18 × 10−15) or marginally significant (rs2417940, P = 8.56 × 10−4) in an independent cohort of 1096 individuals. In a conditional analysis adjusted for the top UGT1A1 variant (rs11891311), another variant in UGT1A1 (rs4148323, P = 1.22 × 10−121) remained significant; this suggests that in UGT1A1 at least two independent genetic variations influence the bilirubin levels in the Korean population. The protein coding variant rs4148323, which is monomorphic in European-derived populations, may be specifically associated with serum bilirubin levels in Asians (P = 2.56 × 10−70). The SLCO1B3 variant (rs2417940, P = 1.67 × 10−18) remained significant in a conditional analysis for the top UGT1A1 variant. Interestingly, there were significant differences in the associated variations of SLCO1B3 between Koreans and European-derived populations. While the variant rs2417940 at intron 7 of SLCO1B3 was more significantly associated in Koreans, variants rs17680137 (P = 0.584) and rs2117032 (P = 2.76 × 10−5), two of the top-ranked SNPs in European-derived populations, did not reach the genome-wide significance level. Also, variants in SLCO1B1 did not reach genome-wide significance in Koreans. Our result supports the idea that there are considerable ethnic differences in genetic association of bilirubin levels between Koreans and European-derived populations.
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infection activities. However, the anti-skin photoaging effects of cordycepin have not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -3 expressions of the human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR revealed cordycepin inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. UVB strongly activated NF-κB activity, which was determined by IκBα degradation, nuclear localization of p50 and p65 subunit, and NF-κB binding activity. However, UVB-induced NF-κB activation and MMP expression were completely blocked by cordycepin pretreatment. These findings suggest that cordycepin could prevent UVB-induced MMPs expressions through inhibition of NF-κB activation. In conclusion, cordycepin might be used as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.
cordycepin; matrix metalloproteinases; NF-κB; skin aging; ultraviolet rays
Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi.
We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence.
Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations.
Radiosurgery may be contraindicated for lesions adjacent to the optic pathways because of the substantial risk of visual complication. Multisession radiosurgery has been tried as a compromise between single session radiosurgery and fractionated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in 22 patients with perioptic lesions of benign pathology.
In all 22 cases, the lesions were within 1 mm of the optic apparatus and were therefore not considered suitable for single session radiosurgery. Radiation was delivered in 3 to 4 fractions with a median cumulated marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy).
During a mean follow-up of 29 months (range, 14-44 months), tumor control was achieved in 21 patients. Visual function improved in 7 patients, remained unchanged in 14 patients, and deteriorated in 1 patient with tumor progression. No other complication was observed.
This preliminary result supports the idea that multisession GKRS may be an effective and safe alternative for treatment in perioptic lesions that are unsuitable for single session radiosurgery.
Multisession radiosurgery; Gamma knife; Visual complication
Spinal cord hemangioblastoma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm with a benign nature and is associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease in 20-30% of patients. Total removal of these tumors without significant neurological deficit remains a great challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of VHL mutation analysis and to evaluate surgical outcome of patients with spinal cord hemangioblastomas.
This study included nine patients treated for spinal cord hemangioblastomas at our institute between December 1994 and March 2006. There were four male and five female patients. Mean age was 37.8 years. The mean follow-up period was 22.4 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the complete neuraxis was done in all cases and VHL mutation analysis was performed in three cases for a definite diagnosis.
Six patients had intramedullary tumor, and the remaining patients had intradural extramedullary lesions. Five patients were associated with VHL disease. The von Hippel-Lindau mutation analysis was done in three patients and two of them showed VHL gene abnormality. Tumors were located in the cervical cord in five cases and in the thoracic cord in four cases. All patients underwent surgical intervention, and total removal was achieved in six cases. All patients showed improvement or, at least, clinically stationary state. Surgical complications did not develop in any cases.
Spinal hemangioblastoma in this series has been safely and effectively removed via a posterior approach. Postoperatively, clinical outcome was excellent in the majority of cases. The VHL mutation analysis was useful in patients with family history and in those with multiple hemangioblastomas.
Hemangioblastoma; Von Hippel-Lindau disease; Mutation analysis
Several simple tests for hepatic fibrosis employ indirect markers. However, the efficacy of using direct and indirect serum markers to predict significant fibrosis in clinical practice is inconclusive. We analyzed the efficacy of a previously reported indirect marker of hepatic fibrosis - the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) - in patients with nonalcoholic chronic liver diseases (CLDs).
A total of 134 patients who underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy with a final diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (n=93), chronic hepatitis C (n=18), or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n=23) were enrolled. A single-blinded pathologist staged fibrosis from F0 to F4 according to the METAVIR system, with significant hepatic fibrosis defined as a METAVIR fibrosis score of ≥2.
The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs was 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-0.91]. APRI yielded the highest mean AUROC in the patients with chronic hepatitis B (0.85; 95% CI, 0.771-0.926). The positive predictive value of APRI ≥1.5 for predicting significant fibrosis was 89%. The negative predictive value of APRI <0.5 for excluding significant fibrosis was 80%.
APRI might be a simple and noninvasive index for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs.
Aspartate aminotransferase; Fibrosis; Hepatitis B
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) is the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis regulated by circadian rhythm. To date, our understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of melatonin has been limited to autoregulatory transcriptional and posttranslational regulations of AANAT mRNA. In this study, we identify three proteins from pineal glands that associate with cis-acting elements within species-specific AANAT 3′ untranslated regions to mediate mRNA degradation. These proteins include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R), hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L. Their RNA-destabilizing function was determined by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Expression patterns of these factors in pineal glands display robust circadian rhythm. The enhanced levels detected after midnight correlate with an abrupt decline in AANAT mRNA level. A mathematical model for the AANAT mRNA profile and its experimental evidence with rat pinealocytes indicates that rhythmic AANAT mRNA degradation mediated by hnRNP R, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L is a key process in the regulation of its circadian oscillation.
The population structure of the Bacillus cereus group (52 strains of B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) was investigated by sequencing seven gene fragments (rpoB, gyrB, pycA, mdh, mbl, mutS, and plcR). Most of the strains were classifiable into two large subgroups in six housekeeping gene trees but not in the plcR tree. In addition, several consistent clusters were identified, which were unrelated to species distinction. Moreover, interrelationships among these clusters were incongruent in each gene tree. The incongruence length difference test and split decomposition analyses also showed incongruences between genes, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. The plcR gene was observed to have characteristics that differed from those of the other genes in terms of phylogenetic topology and pattern of sequence diversity. Thus, we suggest that the evolutionary history of the PlcR regulon differs from those of the other chromosomal genes and that recombination of the plcR gene may be frequent. The homogeneity of B. anthracis, which is depicted as an independent lineage in phylogenetic trees, is suggested to be of recent origin or to be due to the narrow taxonomic definition of species.
Comparative sequence analysis was performed upon Bacillus anthracis and its closest relatives, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Portions of rpoB DNA from 10 strains of B. anthracis, 16 of B. cereus, 10 of B. thuringiensis, 1 of B. mycoides, and 1 of B. megaterium were amplified and sequenced. The determined rpoB sequences (318 bp) of the 10 B. anthracis strains, including five Korean isolates, were identical to those of Ames, Florida, Kruger B, and Western NA strains. Strains of the “B. cereus group” were separated into two subgroups, in which the B. anthracis strains formed a separate clade in the phylogenetic tree. However, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis could not be differentiated. Sequence analysis confirmed the five Korean isolates as B. anthracis. Based on the rpoB sequences determined in the present study, multiplex PCR generating either B. anthracis-specific amplicons (359 and 208 bp) or cap DNA (291 bp) in a virulence plasmid could be used for the rapid differential detection and identification of virulent B. anthracis.
Abundant lymphocyte infiltration is frequently found in canine malignant mammary tumors, but the pathological features and immunophenotypes associated with the infiltration remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between lymphocyte infiltration, histopathological features, and molecular phenotype in canine mammary carcinoma (MC). The study was done with archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (n = 47) by histologic and immunohistochemical methods. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was evaluated by morphologic analysis, and the T- and B-cell populations as well as the T/B-cell ratio were evaluated by morphometric analysis; results were compared with the histologic features and molecular phenotypes. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was significantly higher in MCs with lymphatic invasion than in those without lymphatic invasion (P < 0.0001) and in tumors of high histologic grade compared with those of lower histologic grade (P = 0.045). Morphometric analysis showed a larger amount of T-cells and B-cells in MCs with a higher histologic grade and lymphatic invasion, but the T/B ratio did not change. Lymphocyte infiltration was not associated with histologic type or molecular phenotype, as assessed from the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, cytokeratin 14, and p63. Since intense lymphocyte infiltration was associated with aggressive histologic features, lymphocytes may be important for tumor aggressiveness and greater malignant behavior in the tumor microenvironment.
The purpose of this article is to report on the first known Korean case of Susac syndrome. An 18-year-old female came to our clinic reporting blurred vision of the left eye for 2 days. She also complained of decreased hearing with tinnitus of the right ear and mild headache. She was previously healthy and had no remarkable medical history. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20 / 50 in the left eye and 20 / 20 in the right eye. An axiomatic triad of ocular, cochlear, and neurologic involvement was observed in the patient. Fluorescein angiography showed branched retinal arterial occlusions in the left eye. A sudden right sensorineural hearing loss was observed on audimetry. Magnetic resonance images showed a hyperintense lesion in the white matter around the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with high doses of systemic corticosteroids, and no neuropsychological sequelae were observed. This is the first case report of Susac syndrome in Korea. In cases of retinal arterial occlusion with hearing loss or neuropsychological symptoms, Susac syndrome should be suspected.
Encephalopathy; Hearing loss; Retinal artery occlusion; Susac syndrome
Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of portal hypertension, and it accounts for approximately one fifth to one third of all deaths in liver cirrhosis patients. Currently, endoscopic treatment remains the predominant method for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments include band ligation and injection sclerotherapy. Injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used to treat variceal bleeding. Although injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate provides effective treatment for variceal bleeding, injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is associated with a variety of complications, including systemic embolization. Herein, we report a case of cerebral and splenic infarctions after the injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to treat esophageal variceal bleeding.
Cerebrum; Esophageal varix; Infarction; N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Spleen
Recent studies have suggested that metabolic health may contribute more to the atherosclerosis than obesity. The aim of this study is to compare coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) among patients with different metabolic health and obesity status.
A health-screening program of 24,063 participants (mean age 41 years) was conducted, and CACS was assessed by multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT). Being metabolically healthy was defined as having fewer than two of the following risk factors: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and highest decile of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Obesity status was defined as body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m2. Analyses were performed in four groups divided according to metabolic health and obesity: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUHNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO).
Mean values of CACS in the four groups were significantly different, except those between MHNO and MHO and between MUHNO and MUHO. When multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed with five CACS categories as the dependent variables and after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status, the MHO, MUHNO, and MUHO groups showed significantly increased odds ratio for increasing CACS categories compared with no calcification status (5.221 for CACS >400 in MUHO group with 95% CI 2.856∼5.032 with MHNO group as the reference). When other variables including the metabolic parameters were included in the same model, the risks were attenuated.
Metabolic health is more closely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis than obesity as assessed by CACS.
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes.
Ropinirole prolonged release (RPR) is a once-daily formulation. However, there may be individual pharmacokinetic differences so that multiple dosing may be preferred in some individuals. This study compares once-daily and twice-daily RPR in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
This study was an open-label crossover study. We enrolled Parkinson’s disease patients on dopamine agonist therapy with unsatisfactory control such as motor fluctuation, dyskinesia and sleep-related problems. Agonists were switched into equivalent dose of RPR. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily first or twice-daily first groups, and received the same amount of RPR in a single and two divided dosing for 8 weeks respectively in a crossover manner without a washout period.
The primary outcome was a questionnaire of the preference completed by patients in the last visit. The secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part 3 (mUPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y); sleep questionnaire including overall quality of sleep, nocturnal off symptoms and early morning symptoms; Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS); compliances and patient global impression (PGI).
A total of 82 patients were enrolled and 61 completed the study. 31 patients preferred twice-daily regimen, 17 preferred the once-daily regimen, and 13 had no preference. Their mean mUPDRS, H&Y, ESS, sleep quality, compliance and adverse events were not statistically different in both regimens. PGI-improvement on wearing off defined was better in twice-daily dosing regimen.
RPR is a once-daily formulation, but multiple dosing was preferred in many patients. Multiple dosing of RPR might be a therapeutic option if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory.
This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number
Parkinson’s disease; Motor control; Movement disorders; Dopamine agonist
Expression of Livin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, is associated with tumor development and progression. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether Livin affects oncogenic biological behavior of colorectal cancer cells, and to document the relationship between its expression and various clinicopathological parameters in colorectal cancer.
We investigated the impact of Livin on tumor cell behavior by using the small interfering RNA and pcDNA3.1 vector in SW480 and DKO1 colorectal cancer cell lines. The expression of Livin was investigated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in coloretcal cancer tissues. The apoptotic cells were visualized by TUNEL assay, and proliferative cells were visualized by Ki-67 antibody staining.
Knockdown of Livin suppressed tumor cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. Knockdown of Livin induced the apoptosis by up-regulating of caspase-3, -7 and PARP activities and the cell cycle arrest by decreasing cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6, and by inducing p27 expression. The MAPK signaling cascades were significantly blocked by knockdown of Livin. In contrast, overexpression of Livin enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion, and inhibited the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The mean apoptotic index (AI) value of Livin positive tumors was significantly lower than AI of Livin negative tumors. However, there was no significant difference between Livin expression and Ki-67 labeling index (KI). Livin expression was significantly increased in colorectal cancer and metastatic lymph node tissues compared to normal colorectal mucosa and non-metastatic lymph node tissues and was associated with tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival.
These results indicate that Livin is associated with tumor progression by increasing tumor cell motility and inhibiting apoptosis in colorectal cancer.
Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) is known to exert anti-proliferation effects on many types of cancer cells. However, the effect of L. casei on liver cancer has not been reported. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the anti-cancer effect of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells.
Materials and Methods
L. casei ATCC393 extract was prepared and purified. After the treatment of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells, cell viability, cell cycle arrest and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) and death receptor 3 (DR3) mRNA related with extrinsic apoptosis were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins as well as Caspase-3, -8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins were analyzed by western blot analysis. To determine the effect of L. casei extract on cancer stem-like cells, we analyzed changes in side population fraction through flow cytometry.
The cell viability of Huh7 cells treated with L. casei extract was decreased by 77%, potentially owing to increases in the rates of Huh7 cells arrested in the G2/M phase (3% increase) and that underwent apoptosis (6% increase). The expression levels of TNFR1 and DR3 mRNA, as well as P21 and P27 cell cycle proteins, were increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of caspase-8, -9, phospho-Bad and Bcl-2 proteins decreased. However, in the case of side population cells, no remarkable changes were observed.
L. casei extract exerts a potent anti-tumor effect on the viability of liver cancer cells, although not on cancer stem-like cells.
Lactobacillus casei; liver cancer; proliferation; side population; cancer stem-like cell
It has been reported that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with prostate volume. Recently, some studies have reported that PSA mass (PSA adjusted for plasma volume) is more accurate than PSA at predicting prostate volume. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of PSA and the related parameters of PSA mass, free PSA (fPSA), and fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively investigated 658 patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2006 to 2012 and had a confirmed negative biopsy result. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, PSA, fPSA, and prostate volume were investigated. PSA mass and fPSA mass were calculated by use of established formulas. The association between PSA-related parameters and IPSS and prostate volume was assessed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic curves.
There was no significant difference between PSA and PSA mass, fPSA, or fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume except in obese patients (p-value of PSA-PSA mass for 40 cm3, 0.54; p-value of fPSA-fPSA mass for 40 cm3, 0.34). fPSA performed significantly better than PSA at predicting prostate volume (p-value for 40 cm3, <0.001). IPSS and the aforementioned PSA-related parameters were not significantly correlated.
PSA mass was not a better predictive value than PSA for estimating the prostate volume in Korean men except in obese men. This finding was also applicable to the relationship of fPSA and fPSA mass, which appeared to be more accurate predictors of prostate volume than either PSA or PSA mass.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Prostate-specific antigen; ROC curve
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Tetaus toxin (TeT) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation using specific markers: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as an exogenous marker for cell proliferation, Ki-67 as an endogenous marker for cell proliferation and doublecortin (DCX) as a marker for neuroblasts in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) after TeT treatment. Mice were intraperitoneally administered 2.5 and 10 ng/kg TeT and sacrificed 15 days after the treatment. In both the TeT-treated groups, no neuronal death occurred in any layers of the DG using neuronal nuclei (NeuN, a neuron nuclei maker) and Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a high-affinity fluorescent marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration). In addition, no significant change in glial activation in both the 2.5 and 10 ng/kg TeT-treated-groups was found by GFAP (a marker for astrocytes) and Iba-1 (a marker for microglia) immunohistochemistry. However, in the 2.5 ng/kg TeT-treated-group, the mean number of BrdU, Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactive cells, respectively, were apparently decreased compared to the control group, and the mean number of each in the 10 ng/kg TeT-treated-group was much more decreased. In addition, processes of DCX-immunoreactive cells, which projected into the molecular layer, were short compared to those in the control group. In brief, our present results show that low dosage (10 ng/kg) TeT treatment apparently decreased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse hippocampal DG without distinct gliosis as well as any loss of adult neurons.
Exotoxin; neuronal damage; neurogenesis; sub-granular zone; granule cell