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1.  The role of the optical coherence tomography in identifying shape and size of idiopathic epiretinal membranes 
AIM
Currently, the border of idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERM) is outlined intraoperatively using vital dyes. Therefore, the authors set out to investigate the role of the preoperative retinal thickness map (RTM) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in identifying the shape and the size of the iERMs.
Methods
15 eyes of 15 patients with iERM who underwent vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted membrane peeling were included in this study. The authors analysed the intraoperative fundus images and preoperative Cirrus HD-OCT to detect the shape and the size of the iERM as well as the shape and the size of each thickness-indicating colour (white, red, orange and yellow) on the RTM, respectively. The correlation of areas and morphologic characteristics between both groups was explored.
Results
Analysis of iERM morphologic characteristics (shape) showed a similarity between the iERM contour and the corresponding RTM in 13 cases (86.6%). Furthermore, retinal folds were found in six iERMs and in their corresponding RTMs. Analysis of iERM size (area) revealed a positive correlation between the iERM area and each studied coloured area in RTM. The most significant correlation was between iERM and the red area (440–480 μm; r=0.87, p<0.0001).
Conclusion
The iERM-related retinal folds are clearly distinguishable on the HD-OCT. The red area in RTM representing the 440–480 μm retinal thickness can be a reliable predictor of the extent and the shape of the iERM.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300629
PMCID: PMC3355339  PMID: 22328818
Optical coherence tomography; epiretinal membrane; indocyanine green; retinal thickness map; retina; vitreous; treatment surgery; imaging; neovascularisation; treatment lasers
2.  Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography 
Optics express  2008;16(21):16410-16422.
We present a new method for identifying and segmenting the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) images of the human retina. Contrary to previous, intensity based segmentation algorithms, our method uses an intrinsic tissue property of the RPE: its depolarizing, or polarization scrambling effect on backscattered light. Two different segmentation algorithms are presented and discussed: a simpler algorithm based on retardation data, and a more sophisticated algorithm based on local variations of the polarization state calculated from averaged Stokes vector elements. By using a state of the art spectral domain PS-OCT instrument, we demonstrate the method in healthy and diseased eyes.
PMCID: PMC2976032  PMID: 18852747
3.  Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina◇ 
Optics express  2009;17(5):4151-4165.
Polarization sensitive OCT has recently been shown to provide tissue specific contrast, enabling direct identification of retinal layers based on the intrinsic properties of their interaction with light. However, the capabilities of displaying and analyzing 3D datasets in scientific publications were rather limited. Within the framework of the Interactive Science Publishing project, we present new ways of displaying and analyzing 3D sets of various polarization parameters recorded in healthy and diseased human retinas. These datasets can be interactively explored by the reader. Furthermore, we provide data of the 3D distribution of backscattered Stokes vectors to allow the reader to develop and test their own data processing algorithms.
PMCID: PMC2976033  PMID: 19259252
4.  Heterogeneous Pattern of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Multiple Sclerosis. High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography: Potential and Limitations 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e13877.
Background
Recently the reduction of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) was suggested to be associated with diffuse axonal damage in the whole CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, several points are still under discussion. (1) Is high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) required to detect the partly very subtle RNFL changes seen in MS patients? (2) Can a reduction of RNFL be detected in all MS patients, even in early disease courses and in all MS subtypes? (3) Does an optic neuritis (ON) or focal lesions along the visual pathways, which are both very common in MS, limit the predication of diffuse axonal degeneration in the whole CNS? The purpose of our study was to determine the baseline characteristics of clinical definite relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS patients with high resolution OCT technique.
Methodology
Forty-two RRMS and 17 SPMS patients with and without history of uni- or bilateral ON, and 59 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analysed prospectively with the high resolution spectral-domain OCT device (SD-OCT) using the Spectralis 3.5mm circle scan protocol with locked reference images and eye tracking mode. Furthermore we performed tests for visual and contrast acuity and sensitivity (ETDRS, Sloan and Pelli-Robson-charts), for color vision (Lanthony D-15), the Humphrey visual field and visual evoked potential testing (VEP).
Principal Findings
All 4 groups (RRMS and SPMS with or without ON) showed significantly reduced RNFL globally, or at least in one of the peripapillary sectors compared to age-/sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with previous ON additional RNFL reduction was found. However, in many RRMS patients the RNFL was found within normal range. We found no correlation between RNFL reduction and disease duration (range 9–540 months).
Conclusions
RNFL baseline characteristics of RRMS and SPMS are heterogeneous (range from normal to markedly reduced levels).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013877
PMCID: PMC2975633  PMID: 21079732
5.  Effect of systemic bevacizumab therapy on retinal pigment epithelial detachment 
Background
To evaluate the effect of systemic bevacizumab (Avastin®) therapy on pigment epithelial detachment (PED) secondary to age‐related macular degeneration (AMD) and to identify prognostic factors for PED regression and improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA).
Study design
Prospective uncontrolled pilot study.
Methods
Nine patients (nine eyes) received three systemic bevacizumab treatments at 2 week intervals and were examined at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and month 3 by using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT™, Carl Zeiss© Meditec, Dublin, California, USA). Changes in maximum PED height and greatest linear diameter (GLD) were planimetrically analysed by using Adobe Photoshop CS and correlated with retinal morphological changes and changes in BCVA.
Results
Systemic bevacizumab therapy was well tolerated. Mean maximum PED height decreased significantly by 21% as early as 1 week (−96 µm (SD 48.8), p<0.01). At 3 months follow‐up, two PEDs resolved completely, mean maximum PED height decreased significantly by 39% (−179 µm (SD 178), p = 0.02) and mean PED GLD by 24% (−714 µm (SD 1010), p = 0.07). Mean BCVA improved significantly by week 2 (+8.7 letters (SD 5.7), p<0.01) and at 3 months with 12.7 letters (SD 6.4) (p<0.01).
Conclusion
In the examined nine patients, systemic bevacizumab therapy showed evidence for an effect on PED secondary to neovascular AMD in terms of a decrease in lesion height and diameter. A high PED at baseline was found to be a negative predictive factor for visual outcome.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2006.102467
PMCID: PMC2266832  PMID: 17050580
AMD; PED; VEGF; bevacizumab; OCT

Results 1-5 (5)