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1.  Actions of bevacizumab and ranibizumab on microvascular retinal endothelial cells: similarities and differences 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;96(7):1023-1028.
Background
Retinal endothelial cells are crucially involved in the genesis of diabetic retinopathy which is treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Of these, ranibizumab can completely restore VEGF-induced effects on immortalised bovine retinal endothelial cells (iBREC). In most experiments supporting diabetic retinopathy therapy with bevacizumab, only non-retinal EC or retinal pigment epithelial cells have been used. Also, bevacizumab but not ranibizumab can accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Objective
To investigate the effects of bevacizumab on VEGF-induced changes of iBREC properties and potential uptake and accumulation of both inhibitors.
Methods
Uptake of VEGF inhibitors by iBREC with or without pretreatment with VEGF165 was visualised by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses. Measured transendothelial resistance (TER) of iBREC (±VEGF165) showed effects on permeability, indicated also by the western blot-determined tight junction protein claudin-1. The influence of bevacizumab on proliferation and migration of iBREC was studied in the presence and absence of VEGF165.
Results
Bevacizumab strongly inhibited VEGF-stimulated and basal migration, but was less efficient than ranibizumab in inhibiting VEGF-induced proliferation or restoring the VEGF-induced decrease of TER and claudin-1. This ability was completely lost after storage of bevacizumab for 4 weeks at 4°C. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were detectable in whole cell extracts after treatment for at least 1 h; bevacizumab accumulated during prolonged treatment. Ranibizumab was found in the membrane/organelle fraction, whereas bevacizumab was associated with the cytoskeleton.
Conclusion
Both inhibitors had similar effects on retinal endothelial cells; however, some differences were recognised. Although barrier properties were not affected by internalised bevacizumab in vitro, potential adverse effects due to accumulation after repetitive intravitreal injections remain to be investigated.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301677
PMCID: PMC3382447  PMID: 22539748
Retinal endothelial cells; VEGF inhibition; diabetic macular oedema; diabetic retinopathy; biochemistry; diagnostic tests/investigation; macula; neovascularisation; retina
2.  Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0145375.
Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.
Methods
Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.
Results
The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.
Conclusion
VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145375
PMCID: PMC4711588  PMID: 26730574
3.  Binding of VEGF-A is sufficient to abrogate the disturbing effects of VEGF-B together with VEGF-A on retinal endothelial cells 
Purpose
Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising strategy to treat retinal complications of diabetes. In contrast to VEGF-A binding ranibizumab, aflibercept also binds to other members of the VEGF family including VEGF-B, but potential effects of this factor on permeability and angiogenic processes are unclear. Therefore, we studied how VEGF-B variants as single agents or together with VEGF-A165 might affect proliferation, migration, or barrier function of retinal endothelial cells (REC). Also investigated was the normalization of REC properties with both VEGF-inhibitors to explore if additional targeting of VEGF-B is relevant.
Methods
Stimulation of proliferation or migration of immortalized bovine REC (iBREC) and disturbance of their barrier by exposure to VEGF-B variants (as single factors or together with VEGF-A165) was determined with or without VEGF-binding proteins being added. Permeability of iBREC was assessed by measuring their transendothelial resistance (TER) and expression of the tight junction protein claudin-1.
Results
VEGF-B167 and VEGF-B186 enhanced proliferation of iBREC but these isoforms did not affect cell migration. Interestingly, ranibizumab completely blocked both migration and proliferation induced by VEGF-A plus VEGF-B. Both VEGF-B variants did also not affect barrier function or claudin-1 expression in a normal or high-glucose environment. Accordingly, binding VEGF-A was enough to normalize a reduced TER and reinstate claudin-1 lost during treatment with this factor in combination with VEGF-B.
Conclusions
Important properties and functions of REC seem not to be affected by any VEGF-B variant and targeting the key factor VEGF-A is sufficient to normalize growth factor-disturbed cells of this type.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00417-015-2944-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00417-015-2944-z
PMCID: PMC4445774  PMID: 25663437
Retinal endothelial cells; VEGF-B; Diabetic retinopathy; VEGF-inhibition
4.  Ranibizumab efficiently blocks migration but not proliferation induced by growth factor combinations including VEGF in retinal endothelial cells 
Background
Proliferation and migration of retinal endothelial cells (REC) are associated with the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. REC proliferation is stimulated by isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (i.e., VEGF121 and VEGF165), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) of which VEGF165 also enhances migration of REC. Effects induced by VEGF-A can be blocked with ranibizumab, a VEGF-binding Fab fragment used in therapy of diabetic macular edema. In this study, we investigated potential angiogenic effects of placental growth factors (PlGF-1, PlGF-2) as other members of the VEGF family and whether the primary action of VEGF165 is modulated in the presence of bFGF, IGF-1 and PlGF-1/-2. We also studied how effects of growth factor combinations can be attenuated with ranibizumab.
Methods
Effects of single growth factors or their combinations on proliferation and migration of immortalized bovine retinal endothelial cells (iBREC) were studied with or without ranibizumab or the inhibitor of VEGF receptors KRN951.
Results
Proliferation of iBREC was significantly stimulated by 1–100 ng/ml PlGF-1 or PlGF-2, but additive effects were not observed with various combinations of the tested growth factors. Ranibizumab neutralized VEGF’s effect on proliferation but was not effective when the other growth factors were used in combination with VEGF. bFGF and IGF-1 but not PlGF-1 or PlGF-2 stimulated iBREC migration as single agents, and they further enhanced VEGF-induced migration. The effects of such growth factor combinations including VEGF on migration were efficiently blocked by targeting only VEGF with ranibizumab. Migration induced by VEGF plus bFGF and IGF-1 was also almost completely inhibited by KRN951 interfering with VEGF receptor signalling.
Conclusions
Migration but not proliferation of iBREC induced by combinations of bFGF, IGF-1, PlGF-1 or PlGF-2 together with VEGF is efficiently suppressed by ranibizumab. VEGF-mediated signalling through VEGFR2 seems to control REC migration dominantly in the presence of other growth factors.
doi:10.1007/s00417-013-2393-5
PMCID: PMC3777160  PMID: 23760670
Retinal endothelial cells; Growth factors; Ranibizumab; Migration; Proliferation; Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
5.  Medium-sized deletion in the BRCA1 gene: Limitations of Sanger sequencing and MLPA analyses 
Genetics and Molecular Biology  2012;35(1):53-56.
We describe a family with a history of breast and ovarian cancer in which MLPA analysis of the BRCA1 gene pointed to a deletion including a part of exon 11. Further characterization confirmed a loss of 374 bp in a region completely covered by conventional sequencing which had not revealed the deletion. Because this alteration was only detected serendipitously with an MLPA probe, we calculated the probabilities of detecting medium-sized deletions in large exons by methods including initial PCR amplification. This showed that a considerable fraction of medium-sized deletions are undetectable by currently used standard methods of mutation analyses. We conclude that long, widely overlapping amplicons should be used to minimize the risk of missing medium-sized deletions. Alternatively, large exons could be completely covered by narrow-spaced MLPA probes.
PMCID: PMC3313516  PMID: 22481874
mutation analysis; DNA sequencing; PCR; hereditary breast cancer; model calculations

Results 1-5 (5)