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1.  Evaluation of Vascular Disease Progression in Retinopathy of Prematurity using Static and Dynamic Retinal Images 
American Journal of Ophthalmology  2011;153(3):544-551.e2.
Purpose
To measure accuracy and speed for detection of vascular progression in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from serial images. Two strategies are compared: static side-by-side presentation vs. dynamic flickering of superimposed image pairs.
Design
Prospective comparative study.
Methods
Fifteen de-identified, wide-angle retinal image pairs were taken from infants who eventually developed plus disease. Image pairs representing vascular disease progression were taken ≥1 week apart, and control images without progression were taken on same day. Dynamic flickering pairs were created by digital image registration. Ten experts independently reviewed each image pair on a secure website using both strategies, and were asked to identify progression or state that images were identical. Accuracy and speed were measured, using examination date and ophthalmoscopic findings as a reference standard.
Results
Using static images, experts were accurate in a mean (%) ± standard deviation (SD) of 11.4/15 (76%) ± 1.7 image pairs. Using dynamic flickering images, experts were accurate in a mean (%) ± SD of 11.3/15 (75%) ± 1.7 image pairs. There was no significant difference in accuracy between these strategies (p=0.420). Diagnostic speed was faster using dynamic flickering (24.7±8.3 seconds) versus static side-by-side images (40.3±18.3 seconds) (p=0.002). Experts reported higher confidence when interpreting dynamic flickering images (p=0.001).
Conclusions
Retinal imaging provides objective documentation of vascular appearance, with potentially improved ability to recognize ROP progression compared to standard ophthalmoscopy. Speed of identifying vascular progression was faster by review of dynamic flickering image pairs than by static side-by-side images, although there was no difference in accuracy.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.08.030
PMCID: PMC3266465  PMID: 22019222
retinopathy of prematurity; retina; pediatric ophthalmology; image analysis; medical informatics
2.  Peripheral retinal ischaemia, as evaluated by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, is associated with diabetic macular oedema 
Purpose
To determine the relationship between retinal ischaemia and the presence of macular oedema (DMO) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) imaging.
Methods
A retrospective review of 122 eyes of 70 treatment-naïve diabetic patients who underwent diagnostic UWFA using the Optos 200Tx imaging system. Two independent, masked graders quantified the area of retinal ischaemia. Based on clinical examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT), each patient was given a binary classification as either having DMO or no DMO. McNemar's test (with Yates' correction as indicated) and a two-sample test of proportions were used to determine the relationship between DMO and ischaemia for binary and proportional data, respectively. Linear and logistic models were constructed using generalised estimating equations to test relationships between independent variables, covariates and outcomes while controlling for inter-eye correlation, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c, mean arterial pressure and dependence on insulin.
Results
Seventy-six eyes (62%) exhibited areas of retinal ischaemia. There was a significant direct correlation between DMO and peripheral retinal ischaemia as seen on UWFA (p<0.001). In addition, patients with retinal ischaemia had 3.75 times increased odds of having DMO compared with those without retinal ischaemia (CI 1.26 to 11.13, p<0.02).
Conclusion
Retinal ischaemia is significantly correlated with DMO in treatment-naïve patients with DR. UWFA is a useful tool for detecting peripheral retinal ischaemia, which may have direct implications in the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment such as targeted peripheral photocoagulation.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300774
PMCID: PMC3329634  PMID: 22423055
Ultra-wide field imaging; fluorescein angiography; diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; diabetic macular oedema; retina; epidemiology; retina
3.  Treatment of noninfectious posterior uveitis with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 
Purpose
To report our experience with dexamethasone 0.7 mg sustained-release intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA) in noninfectious posterior uveitis.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of patients with noninfectious uveitis treated with sustained-release dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant was performed. Complete ophthalmic examination including signs of inflammatory activity, visual acuity, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and tolerability of the implant were assessed.
Results
Six eyes of 4 consecutive patients treated with a total of 8 dexamethasone 0.7 mg sustained-release intravitreal implants for posterior noninfectious uveitis were included. Two patients presented with unilateral idiopathic posterior uveitis; 2 patients had bilateral posterior uveitis, one secondary to sarcoidosis and the other to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. All eyes showed clinical and angiographic evidence of decreased inflammation following implant placement. Mean follow-up time post-injection was 5.25 months. Four eyes received 1 and 2 eyes received 2 Ozurdex implants during the follow-up period. The duration of effect of the implant was 3 to 4 months. No serious ocular or systemic adverse events were noted during the follow-up period.
Conclusions
In patients with noninfectious posterior uveitis, sustained-release dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant may be an effective treatment option for controlling intraocular inflammation.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S15696
PMCID: PMC3000767  PMID: 21188153
corticosteroids; dexamethasone implant; Ozurdex; uveitis
4.  Detection of retinal changes in Parkinson’s disease with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 
Purpose
This pilot study investigated whether high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) could detect differences in inner retinal layer (IRL), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and macular thickness between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls.
Methods
Both eyes of patients with PD and age-matched controls were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis® HRA + OCT. RNFL, IRL, and macular thickness were measured for each eye using Heidelberg software. These measurements were compared with validated, published normal values for macular and RNFL thickness, and compared with matched controls for IRL thickness.
Results
Eighteen eyes from nine subjects with PD and 19 eyes of 16 control subjects were evaluated using SD-OCT. The average age of PD patients was 64 years with a range of 52–75 years. The average age of controls was 67 years with a range of 50–81 years. No significant reduction in IRL thickness was detected between PD patients and age-matched controls at 13 points along a 6 mm horizontal section through the fovea. No significant difference in RNFL thickness was detected between PD patients and published normal values. Overall average RNFL thickness was 97 μm for PD patients, which exactly matched the normative database value. However, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields between PD subjects and published normal values. In PD subjects, the outer superior subfield was 2.8% thinner (P = 0.026), while the outer nasal and inner inferior subfields were 2.8% (P = 0.016) and 2.7% (P = 0.001) thicker compared to published normal values.
Conclusion
In this pilot study, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields by SD-OCT. However, SD-OCT did not detect significant reductions in peripapillary RNFL and IRL thickness between PD patients and controls. This suggests that macular thickness measurements by SD-OCT may potentially be used as an objective, noninvasive, and easily quantifiable in vivo biomarker in PD. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to explore these relationships further.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S15136
PMCID: PMC3000768  PMID: 21188154
Parkinson’s disease; spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; nerve fiber layer thickness; macular thickness; inner retinal layer thickness
5.  Retinal nerve fiber layer evaluation in multiple sclerosis with spectral domain optical coherence tomography 
Purpose:
Histopathologic studies have reported retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in various neurodegenerative diseases. Attempts to quantify this loss in vivo have relied on time-domain optical coherence tomography (TDOCT), which has low resolution and requires substantial interpolation of data for volume measurements. We hypothesized that the significantly higher resolution of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) would better detect RNFL changes in patients with multiple sclerosis, and that RNFL thickness differences between eyes with and without optic neuritis might be identified more accurately.
Methods:
In this retrospective case series, patients with multiple sclerosis were recruited from the Judith Jaffe Multiple Sclerosis Center at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. Patients with a recent clinical diagnosis of optic neuritis (less than three months) were excluded. Eyes with a history of glaucoma, optic neuropathy (other than multiple sclerosis-related optic neuritis), age-related macular degeneration, or other relevant retinal and/or optic nerve disease were excluded. Both eyes of each patient were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis® HRA + OCT. RNFL and macular thickness were measured for each eye using the Heidelberg OCT software. These measurements were compared with validated published normal values, and were modeled as linear functions of duration of disease. The odds of an optic neuritis diagnosis as a function of RNFL and macular thickness were calculated.
Results:
Ninety-four eyes were prospectively evaluated using OCT. Ages of patients ranged from 26 to 69 years, with an average age of 39 years. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was demonstrated in multiple sclerosis patients; mean RNFL thickness was 88.5 μm for individuals with multiple sclerosis compared with a reported normal value of 97 μm (P < 0.001). Eyes with a history of optic neuritis had more thinning compared with those without optic neuritis (83.0 μm versus 90.5 μm, respectively, P = 0.02). No significant differences were observed in macular thickness measurements between eyes with and without optic neuritis, nor were macular thickness measurements significantly different from normal values. As a function of multiple sclerosis duration and controlling for age, RNFL thickness was decreased in patients with a duration of multiple sclerosis greater than five years compared with those with a duration less than or equal to one year (P = 0.008).
Conclusions:
Patients with a history of multiple sclerosis had RNFL thinning that was detectable on SDOCT. Decreasing RNFL thickness in eyes with optic neuritis was found, and the odds of having optic neuritis were increased significantly with decreasing RNFL thickness. Average RNFL thinning with increasing duration of disease was an excellent predictor of a reported history of optic neuritis. SDOCT retinal imaging may represent a high-resolution, objective, noninvasive, and easily quantifiable in vivo biomarker of the presence of optic neuritis and severity of multiple sclerosis.
PMCID: PMC2946989  PMID: 20922034
multiple sclerosis; spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; optical coherence tomography; nerve fiber layer; nerve fiber layer thickness; optic neuritis

Results 1-5 (5)