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1.  ISOLATION, ENUMERATION, AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTEOLYTIC RUMINAL BACTERIA1 
Journal of Bacteriology  1963;85(4):808-815.
Fulghum, Robert S. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg) and W. E. C. Moore. Isolation, enumeration, and characteristics of proteolytic ruminal bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:808–815. 1963.—Colony counts of proteolytic ruminal bacteria in the order of 109 organisms per g of whole rumen contents, and total colony counts in the order of 2 to 3 × 109 organisms per g, were obtained from rumen contents of cattle fed a maintenance ration of hay and grain. The proteolytic counts averaged 38% of the total counts. An anaerobic, differential medium characterizing proteolytic colonies by clear zones in an opaque skim-milk suspension was utilized. Proteolytic isolates were assigned to the following taxa: Butyrivibrio sp., Succinivibrio sp., Selenomonas ruminantium var. lactilytica, Borrelia sp., Bacteroides sp., and selenomonadlike organisms similar to the B-385 group of Bryant.
PMCID: PMC278229  PMID: 14044947
2.  VALIDITY OF PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNES (GILCHRIST) DOUGLAS AND GUNTER COMB. NOV 
Journal of Bacteriology  1963;85(4):870-874.
Moore, W. E. C. (Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg) and Elizabeth P. Cato. Validity of Propionibacterium acnes (Gilchrist) Douglas and Gunter comb. nov. J. Bacteriol. 85:870–874. 1963.—ATCC strains of Corynebacterium acnes 11827, 6921, and 6922 were tested and consistently found to ferment lactate with the production of propionate, acetate, and succinate under strictly anaerobic conditions. ATCC strains of eight species of Propionibacterium fermented lactate under strictly anaerobic or under deep broth aerobic culture conditions. The ratios of fermentation products of each of the organisms were essentially identical, indicating that C. acnes should properly be classified in the genus Propionibacterium as suggested by Douglas and Gunter. Serological tests demonstrated that this organism shares antigens in common with several of the other species of Propionibacterium.
PMCID: PMC278238  PMID: 14044956
3.  RENAL HETEROTRANSPLANTATION FROM BABOON TO MAN: EXPERIENCE WITH 6 CASES1 
Transplantation  1964;2:752-776.
SUMMARY
Six patients with terminal uremia due to glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis were treated with heterografts from East African baboons. Immunosuppressive therapy was provided both before and after operation with azathioprine and prednisone and postoperatively local transplant irradiation and actinomycin C were administered intermittently. The individual rejection episodes in the post-transplant period could be reversed relatively easily but these reemred vigorously and repetitively, making it impossible to relax the stringent requirements of antirejectmion therapy. The continued need for high-dose immunosuppressive therapy precipitated lethal infections in the majority of cases.
The patients lived for 19 to 98 days after heterotransplantation. Four died with the baboon kidneys still in placc after 19, 23, 35, and 49 days. In the other two cases the heterografts were removed after 60 and 49 days respectively, at a time when urine excretion was still present, and homografts from volunteer convict donors were placed on the opposite side. Both the latter recipients died of septic complications following the second operation, after 39 and 44 days. Complete cessation of heterograft urine excrelion appeared only in two cases, although rend function was failing in the remainder prior to death or before removal of the heterografts. The relation of renal function to changes in heteroagglutinin and hemagglutinin titers is described.
After residence in the host for 19 to 60 days, all the heterotransplants were heavily infiltrated with plasma cells and large lymphoid cells with pyroninophilic cytoplasm. There was also disruption of peritubular capillaries, interstitial edema, widespread tubular damage, swelling of endothelial cells lining arterioles, fibrinoid necrosis of the walls of arterioles and interlobular arteries, and narrowing and obstruction of interlobular arteries by fibrin and platelet deposits on the intima. The pre-glomerular vascular lesions were accompanied by focal infarcts and extensive interstitial hemorrhages. All the pathologic changes were more severe than those seen by Reemtsma in a comparable series of chimpanzee-to-man heterotransplants, where cellular infiltration was slight and vascular lesions uncommon in the presence of major blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient.
PMCID: PMC2972727  PMID: 14224657
5.  Death under Chloroform 
British Medical Journal  1861;2(46):544-545.
PMCID: PMC2288059
8.  Phase Variation in Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(1):70-76.
Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expresses the human blood group antigen Lewis x (Lex) in a polymeric form. Lex is β-d-galactose-(1-4)-[α-l-fucose-(1-3)]-β-d-acetylglucosamine. Schematically the LPS structure is (Lex)n-core-lipid A. In this report, we show that Lex expression is not a stable trait but that LPS displays a high frequency (0.2 to 0.5%) of phase variation, resulting in the presence of several LPS variants in one bacterial cell population. One type of phase variation implied the loss of α1,3-linked fucose, resulting in variants that expressed nonsubstituted polylactosamines (also called the i antigen), i.e., Lex minus fucose; LPS: (lactosamine)n-core-lipid A. The switch of Lex to i antigen was reversible. A second group of variants arose by loss of polymeric main chain which resulted in expression of monomeric Ley; LPS: (Ley)-core-lipid A. A third group of variants arose by acquisition of α1,2-linked fucose which hence expressed Lex plus Ley; LPS: (Ley)(Lex)n-core-lipid A. The second and third group of variants switched back to the parental phenotype [(Lex)n-core-lipid A] in lower frequencies. Part of the variation can be ascribed to altered expression levels of glycosyltransferase levels as assessed by assaying the activities of galactosyl-, fucosyl-, and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases. Clearly phase variation increases the heterogeneity of H. pylori, and this process may be involved in generating the very closely related yet genetically slightly different strains that have been isolated from one patient.
PMCID: PMC107860  PMID: 9423841
14.  Ether Inhalers 
British Medical Journal  1873;1(632):154.
PMCID: PMC2293373
15.  Treatment of Ulcers of the Leg 
British Medical Journal  1872;1(600):693-694.
PMCID: PMC2296590  PMID: 20746686
17.  Acetone, Isopropanol, and Butanol Production by Clostridium beijerinckii (syn. Clostridium butylicum) and Clostridium aurantibutyricum 
Thirty-four strains representing 15 species of anaerobic bacteria were screened for acetone, isopropanol, and n-butanol (solvent) production. Under our culture conditions, several strains of Clostridium beijerinckii and C. aurantibutyricum produced at least 40 mM n-butanol (C. acetobutylicum strains produced up to 41 mM n-butanol under similar conditions). Both solvent-producing and non-solvent-producing strains of C. beijerinckii have high DNA homology with a reference strain of C. beijerinckii. Strains labeled “Clostridium butylicum” are phenotypically similar to C. beijerinckii and showed at least 78% DNA homology to a reference strain of C. beijerinckii. Therefore, these “C. butylicum” strains are members of C. beijerinckii. An earlier DNA homology study has shown that C. beijerinckii, C. aurantibutyricum, and C. acetobutylicum are distinct species.
PMCID: PMC242427  PMID: 16346237
18.  Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis of Soluble Proteins for Studies of Bacterial Floras 
A polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis procedure was used to compare cellular proteins from bacterial isolates of gingival crevice floras. Isolates with identical protein patterns consistently were shown to be members of the same species. When used to screen isolates, the procedure reduced total analytical time and expense without sacrificing accuracy, and it provided additional verification of the identity of strains characterized by conventional phenotypic tests.
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PMCID: PMC291441  PMID: 16345555
19.  Contact-Inhibited Revertant Cell Lines Isolated from Simian Virus 40-Transformed Cells. VII. Serum Detachment-Resistant Revertant Cells 
Journal of Virology  1977;21(3):1228-1231.
Flat revertant cells of simian virus 40-transformed mouse fibroblasts have been isolated on the basis of resistance to a selective detachment procedure. The revertants are generally similar to those isolated by other procedures.
PMCID: PMC515666  PMID: 191645
20.  Micromethod for Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria: Design and Operation of Apparatus 
Applied Microbiology  1975;30(5):831-837.
A replicator is described for transferring 48 bacterial cultures into separate wells of microtiter plates. The device was designed for determination of carbohydrate fermentation patterns of anaerobic bacteria but should be useful for other applications. A simple device for filling microtiter wells with media is also described.
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PMCID: PMC187280  PMID: 1106325
21.  Isolation of Ureolytic Peptostreptococcus productus from Feces Using Defined Medium; Failure of Common Urease Tests 
Applied Microbiology  1974;28(4):594-599.
Colony counts of fecal samples from three persons, obtained by using a chemically defined anaerobic roll-tube medium (containing glucose, maltose, glycerol, minerals, hemin, B-vitamins, methionine, volatile fatty acids, sulfide, bicarbonate, agar, carbon dioxide (gas phase), and 1 mM NH4+ as main nitrogen source), averaged 60% of the 8.8 × 1010 bacteria per g obtained when 0.2% Trypticase and 0.05% yeast extract were added to the otherwise identical medium. When 0.2% vitamin-free Casitone replaced Trypticase and yeast extract, counts were 94% those of the more complex medium. When urea-nitrogen was added to the defined medium as the main nitrogen source in place of NH4+, counts of relatively large colonies averaged 1.0 × 109 per g of feces from five persons—1.1% of counts on the medium containing Trypticase and yeast extract. All of the organisms from the large colonies in the urea roll tubes were morphologically similar, and all six representative strains isolated were identified as urease-forming Peptostreptococcus productus, a species not previously known to produce urease. Ureolytic strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and P. productus were negative for urease activity in three assay media when inocula were from media containing complex nitrogen sources. The study documents that P. productus is the most numerous ureolytic species so far found in human feces and suggests that NH4+ and more complex organic nitrogen sources strongly repress its production of urease. The study also indicates the efficacy of chemically defined media for direct selective isolation of nutritional groups of bacteria from feces.
PMCID: PMC186779  PMID: 4213672
22.  Human Fecal Flora: The Normal Flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians 
Applied Microbiology  1974;27(5):961-979.
Quantitative and qualitative examination of the fecal flora of 20 clinically healthy Japanese-Hawaiian males was carried out by using anaerobic tube culture techniques. Cultural counts were 93% of the microscopic clump counts. Isolated colonies were selected in a randomized manner to give an unbiased sampling of the viable bacterial types. Each isolate was characterized for species identification. From a total of 1,147 isolates, 113 distinct types of organisms were observed. Statistical estimates indicate that these types account for 94% of the viable cells in the feces. The quantitative composition of the flora of this group of people, together with differential characteristics of previously unreported species, is presented for those kinds of bacteria which each represented at least 0.05% of the flora.
PMCID: PMC380185  PMID: 4598229
23.  Standardized Single-Disc Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria 
A method was developed for determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria by use of a single-disc diffusion technique and incorporation of the inoculum in pour plates. The method was standardized by correlation of zone diameters with minimal inhibitory concentrations determined in broth. Zone diameters could be used to approximate the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the seven antibiotics tested: ampicillin, bacitracin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline.
PMCID: PMC444242  PMID: 4680809
24.  Occurrence of Lysophosphatides in Bacteriophage T4rII-Infected Escherichia coli S/6 
Journal of Virology  1971;8(4):437-445.
Hydrolysis of phospholipids was observed to start about 15 min after Escherichia coli S/6 cells were infected with T4rII bacteriophage mutants. Hydrolysis continued through the latent period and well past the time when cell lysis occurs. The hydrolytic products that accumulated were free fatty acids, 2-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and various lysocardiolipins. These products indicated the action of phospholipase A1. From 15 to 22 min after infection, there were equivalent amounts of fatty acids and lysophosphatides in extracts of cellular lipids. Thereafter, free fatty acids were produced in excess. This suggests that lysophospholipase was active at the later time. We also observed a stoichiometric relation between loss of phosphatidylglycerol and increase of cardiolipin plus lysocardiolipins. This continued well past the normal lysis time (25 min). The appearance of lipase activities during the latent period seems to be specific to infection with rII mutants. Neither the wild-type bacteriophage nor rI mutants produced similar activities by 22 min after infection.
PMCID: PMC376217  PMID: 5002011
25.  IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES IN HUMAN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION  
Twenty-eight patients with chronic renal diseases and uremia were investigated with respect to their cutaneous responsiveness to a panel of antigens expected to elicit immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Compared to a control group, there was a marked decrease in the incidence of responses of both types. Eighteen patients received renal allografts from members of the control group and were available for restudy in the postoperative period prior to the institution of adrenal steroid therapy. Each recipient acquired delayed responsiveness with specificity identical with that of the kidney donor. The donor group was reactive to 49 antigens to which the recipients were non-reactive preoperatively. Postoperatively, 40 of these reactivities were observed in the recipients. This successful demonstration of the transfer of immunologically competent tissue in association with renal transplantation indicates that the cause of depressed cutaneous hypersensitivity in uremia is not an inability of the skin per se to react.
PMCID: PMC2137740  PMID: 14157027

Results 1-25 (28)