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1.  A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species 
Background
Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite.
Methodology
Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument.
Results
The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient.
Conclusions
To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the first report of dual infections due to P. dagmatis and P. multocida in 1988. Our isolate finally identified as P. dagmatis was misidentified as P. pneumotripica by means of the Vitek 2 system. The species name "P. dagmatis" was not included in the database of the system. It is also important for routine clinical microbiology laboratories to know the limitation of the automated Vitek 2 system for the accurate identification of Pasteurella species especially P. dagmatis. It should be emphasized that there still exists much room for improvement in Vitek 2 system. Significant improvement of Vitek 2 system especially in the identification of Pasteurella species is urgently desired.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-16-12-531
PMCID: PMC3351896  PMID: 22112359
dual wound infection; dog bite; Vitek 2 system; misidentification; Pasteurella dagmatis; Pasteurella canis; Pasteurella pneumotropica
2.  Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2001;109(12):1265-1270.
Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity.
PMCID: PMC1240509  PMID: 11748034
3.  Analysis of triplet repeats in the huntingtin gene in Japanese families affected with Huntington's disease. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1995;32(9):701-705.
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Molecular analysis of the repeat in Japanese HD patients and normal controls was performed. The size of the CAG repeat ranged from 37 to 95 repeats in affected subjects and from seven to 29 in normal controls. A significant correlation was found between the age of onset and the CAG expansion. The length of the expanded repeat is unstable in meiotic transmission and large increases occur in paternal transmission. At the same time the CCG repeat polymorphism adjacent to the CAG repeat was analysed and haplotypes of HD chromosomes were identified. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found between the CAG repeat expansion and an allele of (CCG)10 in Japanese HD chromosomes. It is distinct from that described previously in western populations. Western HD chromosomes strongly associate with an allele of (CCG)7. Possible mechanisms underlying the disequilibrium in Japan are discussed.
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PMCID: PMC1051670  PMID: 8544189
4.  Evidence for beta adrenoceptors in proximal tubules. Isoproterenol-sensitive adenylate cyclase in pars recta of canine nephron. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;76(2):474-481.
Observations in vivo suggest that catecholamines modulate reabsorptive functions of proximal tubules by acting on beta-adrenoceptors. However, beta-catecholamine binding sites or beta-adrenoceptor-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AdC) has not been found in segments of proximal tubules of rat, rabbit, or mouse kidney. In the present study, we investigated the responsiveness of AdC to catecholamines, [8-Arg]vasopressin (AVP), and to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), proximal straight tubules (PST), and in late distal convoluted tubules (LDCT) microdissected from canine kidney. Isoproterenol (ISO) caused a marked and dose-dependent stimulation of AdC in PST (maximum: delta + 850%; half maximum stimulation at 10(-7) M ISO), but ISO had no effect on AdC in PCT. The AdC in both PCT and PST was markedly stimulated by PTH; AVP stimulated the AdC in LDCT but not in PST or in PCT. The stimulatory effect of 10(-5) M ISO in PST (delta + 725%) was significantly greater than in LDCT (delta + 307%); norepinephrine and epinephrine had stimulatory effects in PST similar to ISO. The stimulation of AdC in PST by ISO was blocked by propranolol and by beta 2-blocker ICI-118551. On the other hand, alpha-blocker phentolamine and beta 1-blocker metoprolol did not abolish the stimulation of AdC in PST by ISO. The accumulation of cAMP in intact PCT and PST incubated in vitro was stimulated by PTH both in PST and in PCT, but ISO elevated cAMP (delta + 683%) only in PST. Our results show that proximal tubules of canine nephron, PST but not PCT, contain beta-adrenoceptors of beta 2 subtype coupled to AdC. These observations provide direct evidence that the effects of catecholamines, either released from renal nerve endings or arriving from blood supply, can act directly on beta 2-adrenoceptors located in proximal tubules, and also suggest that at least some of the catecholamine effects in proximal tubules are mediated via cAMP generation.
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PMCID: PMC423845  PMID: 2993360
5.  Pathogenesis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to chronic administration of lithium in rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;75(6):1869-1879.
A polyuric syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a frequent consequence of prolonged administration of lithium (Li) salts. Studies in the past, mainly the acute and in vitro experiments, indicated that Li ions can inhibit hydroosmotic effect of [8-arginine]vasopressin (AVP) at the step of cAMP generation in vitro. However, the pathogenesis of the NDI due to chronic oral administration of low therapeutic doses of Li salts is not yet clarified. We conducted a comprehensive study to clarify the mechanism by which Li administered orally for several weeks induces polyuria and NDI in rats. Albino rats consuming a diet which contained Li (60 mmol/kg) for 4 wk developed marked polyuria and polydipsia; at the end of 4 wk the plasma Li was 0.7 +/- 0.09 mM (mean +/- SEM; n = 36). Li-treated rats had a significantly decreased (-33%) tissue osmolality in papilla and greatly reduced cortico-papillary gradient of urea (cortex--43%; medulla--64%; papilla--74%). Plasma urea was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower in Li-treated rats (5.4 +/- 0.2 mM) compared with controls (6.8 +/- 0.3 mM). Medullary collecting tubules (MCT) and papillary collecting ducts (PCD) microdissected from Li-treated animals had higher content of protein than MCT and PCD from the control rats. The cAMP accumulation in response to AVP added in vitro was significantly (delta = -60%) reduced. Also, the cAMP accumulation in MCT and PCD after incubation with forskolin was markedly lower in Li-treated rats. Addition of 0.5 mM 1-methyl,3-isobutyl-xanthine did not restore the cAMP accumulation in response to AVP and forskolin in MCT from Li-treated animals. In collecting tubule segments from polyuric rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro homozygotes) the AVP-dependent cAMP accumulation was not diminished. The activity of adenylate cyclase (AdC) in MCT of Li-treated rats, both the basal and the activity stimulated by AVP, forskolin, or fluoride, was significantly (delta approximately equal to -30%) reduced, while the activity of cAMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDIE) in the same segment showed no significant difference from the controls. Also, the content of ATP in MCT microdissected from Li-treated rats and incubated in vitro did not differ from controls. The rate of [14C]succinate oxidation to 14CO2 in MAL was inhibited (-77%) by 1 mM furosemide, which indicates that this metabolic process is coupled with NaCl cotransport in MAL. The rate of (14)CO(2) production from [14C]succinate in MAL was not significantly different between control and Li-treated rats. In MCT of control rats, the rate of [14C]succinate oxidation was approximately 3 times lower than in MAL. The rate of (14)CO(2) production from [(14)C]succinate in MCT of Li-treated rats was significantly (delta +33%) higher than in MCT dissected from control rats. Based on these results, we conclude that at least two factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of NDI consequent to chronic oral administration of Li: (a) decreased ability of MCT and PCD to generate and accumulate cAMP in response to stimulation by AVP; this defect is primarily due to diminished activity of AdC in these tubular segments caused by prolonged exposure to Li; and (b) lower osmolality of renal papillary tissue, due to primarily to depletion of urea, which decreases osmotic driving force for water reabsorption in collecting tubules. On the other hand, NaCI reabsorption in MAL is apparently not affected by chronic Li treatment.
PMCID: PMC425543  PMID: 2989335
6.  A pharmacokinetic model to study the excretion of trichloroethylene and its metabolites after an inhalation exposure. 
For a better understanding of absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of trichloroethylene the time-course of blood concentration of the vapour and urinary excretion of its metabolites was examined using a pharmacokinetic model. After a single experimental exposure in which four men inhaled 100 parts per million (ppm) of trichloroethylene for four hours an elimination curve showed three exponential components, that is, X=1-0005e(-16.71t)+0-449e(-1.710t)+0-255e(-0.2027t), where X is that blood concentration in mg/l and t the time in hours from 0 to 10. The overall rate constant for the disappearance of trichloroethylene was found to a agree with the theoretical one, estimated by means of a mathematical model for the blood concentration data. A D8- XD plot, developed from a mathematical model for urinary excretion, could also give a good estimate of rate constant for the transfer of trichloroethylene in the body. The rate constant thus estimated from urinary excretion was consistent with data on the blood concentration.
PMCID: PMC1008172  PMID: 843464
7.  Kinetic studies on sex difference in susceptibility to chronic benzene intoxication--with special reference to body fat content. 
The sex difference in the susceptibility to haematopoietic disorders induced by benzene was studied kinetically with a special reference to its relation with the body fat content. In rats of both sexes with a large body fat content, benzene was eliminated more slowly and remained in the body for a longer time than in rats with a small body fat content. In accord with this finding, the decrease in white blood cell numbers during a chronic benzene exposure was observed only in the groups of rats which had a large volume of fat tissue. In an experimental human exposure, the elimination of benzene was slower in the females than in the males. The kinetic study revealed that the slower elimination in the females is due primarily to the bulky distribution of body fat tissue in that sex. From these results obtained from the experimental exposure of men and rats to benzene, it was concluded that the human female, with her massive body fat tissue, shows an inherent disposition to be susceptible to a chemical such as benzene which has a high affinity with fat tissue.
PMCID: PMC1008083  PMID: 1103957

Results 1-7 (7)