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1.  Household crowding index: a correlate of socioeconomic status and inter-pregnancy spacing in an urban setting 
Objectives: This paper examines the effect of household crowding on inter-pregnancy spacing and its association with socioeconomic indicators, among parous mothers delivered in an urban environment.
Design: Cross sectional survey.
Methods: Sociodemographic data were obtained on 2466 parous women delivering at eight hospitals in Greater Beirut over a one year period. Statistical methodology comprised Pearson χ2 test and logistic regression analysis.
Main results: A significant inverse relation was observed between household crowding and socioeconomic status, defined as education and occupation of women and their spouses. Inter-pregnancy spacing increased with higher levels of crowding. Further analysis suggested that this positive association was confounded by maternal demographic characteristics.
Conclusions: These data have shown that household crowding, a correlate of low parental socioeconomic status, is associated with longer birth intervals. This association, however, seems to be largely explained by maternal age and parity.
PMCID: PMC1732777  PMID: 15143115
3.  Tuberculosis among immigrants in the United Kingdom: the role of occupational health services. 
Immigrant workers in the United Kingdom account for 7.8% of the working population. Their health problems fall into three groups--imported diseases, occupational accidents, and acquired diseases. In the latter group, tuberculosis is still a major problem. A retrospective study tracing notifiable cases of tuberculosis to points of entry at Heathrow Airport indicates that the majority of immigrants acquire the disease after entry. The occupational health services have a great role to play in detecting the new cases very early and in providing appropriate screening and follow-up. Proper co-ordination between occupational and community health services will give the best results and lead to a rapid decline of the disease.
PMCID: PMC1051937  PMID: 490092
4.  Byssinosis: a follow-up study of cotton ginnery workers in the Sudan. 
A follow-up study of lung function tests and dust measurements was undertaken in ginnery workers employed in five ginning factories. Respiratory symptoms and respiratory function tests (FEV1 and FVC) were first recorded in 1967 on a total of 382 workers (323 permanently employed ginnery workers, 35 seasonal farfara workers, and 24 fire brigade men as controls). In 1969 after a six-month break from ginning before the start of the season, a follow-up study of lung function tests was undertaken on 96% of the same workers (306 ginnery workers, 35 farfara, and 24 fire brigade men). Because of the lapse of two years a new adjustment for age and height was made so as to compare the FEV1 measured in the follow-up study. The fire brigade men showed an expected fall in FEV1 during the two-year period, whereas the ginnery workers showed a rise presumably because they had had no dust exposure during the previous six months. The differences between the degree of change in these groups were statistically significant. In 1967 only the fine dust (less than 7 mum) was measured, while in 1969 the concentration of fine and medium dust, that is, less fly was measured. The factories were divided into three groups according to dust concentration. Comparison between the three factory groups and farfara shows a positive association between the level of dust concentration less fly and the prevalence of cough and phlegm. Since age did not appear to be a significant factor in the prevalence of byssinosis, comparisons between permanent workers in these three groups of factories and farfara workers taken separately were made without age standardization. The overall differences were statistically significant. There was a marked trend showing a positive association between prevalence of byssinosis and level of cotton dust concentration in the factories. The correlation between dust levels and the prevalence of byssinosis was nearly perfect when the time factor was included.
PMCID: PMC1008130  PMID: 963001

Results 1-5 (5)