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2.  Malathion Poisoning 
British Medical Journal  1971;3(5767):184.
PMCID: PMC1800252
6.  Electric Shock 
British Medical Journal  1956;1(4979):1365.
PMCID: PMC1980043
12.  Protection of Employees with Defective Vision 
An employer has a special duty towards a one-eyed man (Paris v. Stepney Borough Council, 1951) but does not have a special duty to a man with normal sight because employment could normally continue with good monocular vision. Clearly, a man with very defective vision in one eye needs the same consideration as a one-eyed man so we examined the level of visual acuity which should alert the employer to giving a man special consideration.
Two consultant oculists examined a chemist with Leber's syndrome and found 6/24 vision in each eye. One consultant advised taking greater care of the man's eyes because if one eye was lost, or became further damaged, he would have difficulty in continuing laboratory work. His colleague advised that the loss to the man would be of binocular vision and a no greater proportional loss than to the man with normal sight.
Loss of binocular vision is considered greater in a man with poor eyesight because his visual acuity might, as in the present case, go from 6/18 using both eyes to 6/24 using one. We consider that wherever an employee's (corrected) sight is 6/18 or less in either eye then his case should be given special consideration which may then indicate the need for the provision of extra eye protection.
PMCID: PMC1008586  PMID: 4961507
14.  Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study 
A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio.
In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability.
Images
PMCID: PMC1038164  PMID: 14449812
15.  A Study on the Acute Toxicity of the Tri-aryl Phosphates Used as Plasticizers 
Paralysis in man and the domestic fowl caused by “ToCP” (tri-cresyl phosphate, tri-tolyl phosphate or TTP) is reviewed, and the search for a non-toxic plasticizer derived either from TTP or tri-xylenyl phosphate (tri-dimethylphenyl phosphate or TXP) is described. It had been previously shown that the ortho-tolyl esters are toxic but we found that their removal does not make the mixture non-toxic. The meta- and para-tolyl esters were known to be free from toxic effects and the 2: 4 and 2: 5 dimethylphenyl esters were equally shown to be non-toxic except in massive doses. We confirmed that the tri-ortho-ethylphenyl ester was non-toxic, but found the mono- and di-ortho-ethylphenyl phosphates to be highly toxic. We showed that TTP made from phenols with all the ortho-cresol and ortho-ethylphenol removed is non-toxic.
With TXP, however, elimination of all ortho-cresol and ortho-ethylphenol from the raw materials does not result in a non-toxic plasticizer. Tri-ortho-n-propylphenyl phosphate was shown to non-toxic but esters containing one or two ortho-propylphenyl groups are toxic.
The toxicity of the ortho-tolyl, ortho-ethylphenyl and ortho-propylphenyl groups is much reduced in the presence of the 3: 5-dimethylphenyl group. This influence is greatest in mono-ortho-propylphenyl-di-3: 5-dimethylphenyl phosphate which is non-toxic in five consecutive daily doses of 500 mg./kg. body weight.
The removal of all ortho-cresol, ortho-ethylphenol and ortho-propylphenol from the raw material results in a non-toxic product which we termed non-toxic plasticizer “NTP”. This has been fed in various doses to a variety of mammals and a large number of chickens in short term tests without toxic effects.
Our experiments showed that tri-meta-ethylphenyl phosphate is non-toxic but tri-para-ethylphenyl phosphate is highly toxic. The mixture from which NTP is made contains 10% of para-ethylphenol. Based on chemical statistics the tri-para-ethylphenyl ester can be present only in minute quantities, and we have shown that esters containing one or two para-ethylphenyl groups are non-toxic. An ester with a methyl group in the ortho, and an ethyl group in the para position in the same benzene nucleus (tri-2-methyl-4-ethylphenyl phosphate) we showed, surprisingly, to be non-toxic.
PMCID: PMC1039179  PMID: 13802477
16.  Gamma Radiography in Industry 
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PMCID: PMC1037803  PMID: 13446350
17.  Electric Shock and Associated Accidents 
British Medical Journal  1956;1(4971):852-855.
PMCID: PMC1979509  PMID: 13304359

Results 1-22 (22)