Recently, PFTK1 was identified as a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family; however, its expression and clinical significance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been evaluated.
PFTK1 expression was initially examined by expression microarray in 77 ESCC patients. Using independent samples of 223 patients, PFTK1 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically to assess the relationship between expression and various clinicopathological parameters. The association between PFTK1 and the response to chemotherapy was also investigated in pretreatment samples of 85 patients who received chemotherapy as first treatment.
Significant upregulation of PFTK1 expression was noted in ESCC compared with normal epithelium. PFTK1 expression was positive in 51.6% (115 out of 223) of the tumours, but did not correlate with any clinicopathological parameter. The 5-year overall survival rate was poorer in patients positive for PFTK1 (43.6%) than those with negative expression (66.2%, P<0.001). Uni- and multivariate analyses identified PFTK1 as an independent marker of prognosis (RR=2.428, 95% CI=1.615–3.711, P<0.001). Out of 85 biopsy samples, 40 (47.1%) tumours showed PFTK1-positive expression, and the response rate to chemotherapy was significantly lower than PFTK1-negative tumours (27.9% vs 72.1%, P<0.001).
PFTK1 is not only useful as a prognostic marker, but also as a predictor of the response to chemotherapy.
oesophagus squamous cell carcinoma; PFTK1; immunohistochemistry; chemotherapy; prediction, biological marker
Magnetic semiconductors with coupled magnetic and electronic properties are of high technological and fundamental importance. Rare-earth elements can be used to introduce magnetic moments associated with the uncompensated spin of 4f-electrons into the semiconductor hosts. The luminescence produced by rare-earth doped semiconductors also attracts considerable interest due to the possibility of electrical excitation of characteristic sharp emission lines from intra 4f-shell transitions. Recently, electroluminescence of Eu-doped GaN in current-injection mode was demonstrated in p-n junction diode structures grown by organometallic vapour phase epitaxy. Unlike most other trivalent rare-earth ions, Eu3+ ions possess no magnetic moment in the ground state. Here we report the detection of an induced magnetic moment of Eu3+ ions in GaN which is associated with the 7F2 final state of 5D0→7F2 optical transitions emitting at 622 nm. The prospect of controlling magnetic moments electrically or optically will lead to the development of novel magneto-optic devices.
Although multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) confers chemoresistance in some cancer types, its implication on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear.
We evaluated MRP2 expression by immunohistochemistry and RT–PCR using 81 resected specimens from ESCC patients who did or did not receive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), including 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (CDDP). Correlation between MRP2 expression and response to chemotherapy was also examined in 42 pre-therapeutic biopsy samples and eight ESCC cell lines.
MRP2-positive immunostaining was more frequently observed in ESCCs with NACT than in those without NACT (27.3 vs 5.4%). The MRP2-positive patients showed poorer prognosis than MRP2-negative patients (5-year survival rate, 25.6 vs 55.7%). Concordantly, ESCC with NACT showed 2.1-fold higher mRNA expression of MRP2 than those without NACT (P=0.0350). In pre-therapeutic biopsy samples of patients with NACT, non-responders showed 2.9-fold higher mRNA expression of MRP2 than responders (P=0.0035). Among the panel of ESCC cell lines, TE14 showed the highest MRP2 mRNA expression along with the strongest resistance to CDDP. Inhibition of MRP2 expression by small-interfering RNA reduced chemoresistance to CDDP.
Our data suggested that MRP2 is one of molecules, which regulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy including CDDP in advanced ESCC patients.
multidrug resistance protein 2; MRP2 expression; prognosis; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; chemoresistance; neo-adjuvant chemotherapy
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the incidence and course of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) related to an implanted central venous port (CV-port) system in cancer patients. From July 2007 to July 2008, 92 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a CV-port for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients were examined at prescribed intervals by ultrasonography (US) to estimate the incidence of catheter-related venous thrombosis. We categorised ultrasound diagnosis into three types: Type 0, no thrombus; Type I, thrombi around catheter without obstruction of venous flow; Type II: thrombi with obstruction of venous flow. Upon initial ultrasound examination, 25 cases (27%) were categorised as Type 0, 64 (70%) as Type I and III (3%) as Type II. Of the 64 Type-I cases, 4 cases worsened to Type II within a month, and 3 others (including 1 patient who developed pulmonary embolism) became Type II after 1 month. Of the other Type-I cases, 12 cases improved to Type 0 and 45 cases remained Type I. All 10 patients categorised as Type II underwent anticoagulant therapy and resumed their chemotherapy without exacerbations of thrombosis. In cancer patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy, there is an unexpectedly high prevalence of catheter-related UEDVT, which can be detected by ultrasound at an early stage after implantation of a CV-port. Given that cancer patients with UEDVT may have worse outcomes than those without, clinicians should consider careful monitoring for UEDVT and introducing anticoagulant therapy.
Although a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with favourable outcomes, a small proportion of patients with pCR have recurrence. This study was designed to identify factors predictive of recurrence in patients with pCR.
A total of 449 breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 88 evaluable patients had a pCR, defined as no evidence of invasive carcinoma in the breast at surgery. The clinical stage was II in 61 patients (69%), III in 27 (31%). All patients received taxanes and 92% received anthracyclines. Among 43 patients with HER2-positive tumours, 27 received trastuzumab. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of recurrence.
Median follow-up was 46.0 months. There were 12 recurrences, including 8 distant metastases. The rate of locoregional recurrence was 10.4% after breast-conserving surgery, as compared with 2.5% after mastectomy. Multivariate analysis revealed that axillary metastases (hazard ratio (HR), 13.6; P<0.0001) and HER2-positive disease (HR, 5.0; P<0.019) were significant predictors of recurrence. Five of six patients with both factors had recurrence. Inclusion of trastuzumab was not an independent predictor among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Our study results suggest that HER2 status and axillary metastases are independent predictors of recurrence in patients with pCR.
breast cancer; pathologic complete response; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; predictive factor; trastuzumab
The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.01–1.0 mg kg−1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.01–1.0 mg kg−1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.04–4.0 mg kg−1) and rikkunshito (125–500 mg kg−1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4 mg kg−1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway.
HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) relapsing after trastuzumab-based therapy may require continued HER2 receptor inhibition to control the disease and preserve the patients' quality-of-life. Efficacy and safety of lapatinib monotherapy was evaluated in Japanese breast cancer patients after trastuzumab-based therapies.
In studies, EGF100642 and EGF104911 evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral lapatinib given 1500 mg once daily in patients with advanced or MBC. All patients progressed on anthracyclines and taxanes; HER2-positive patients had also progressed on trastuzumab.
For HER2-positive tumours (n=100), objective response rate was 19.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.8–28.1) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 25.0% (95% CI: 16.9–34.7). One out of 22 HER2-negative tumour was documented as complete response (n=22). The median time-to-progression (TTP) in the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups was 13.0 and 8.0 weeks (P=0.007); median overall survival was 58.3 and 40.0 weeks, respectively. The most frequent adverse event was diarrhoea. TTP and CBR were significantly associated with HER2 expression. Patients with tumours harbouring an H1047R PIK3CA mutation or low expression of PTEN derived clinical benefit from lapatinib.
Lapatinib monotherapy had shown anti-tumour activity in Japanese patients with HER2-positive MBC that relapsed after trastuzumab-based therapy, including those with brain metastases. Patients benefiting from lapatinib may have biomarker profiles differing from that reported for trastuzumab.
lapatinib; monotherapy; HER2; metastatic breast cancer; biomarker; trastuzumab
To evaluate the impact of change in the hormone receptor (HR) status (HR status conversion) on the long-term outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
We investigated 368 patients for the HR status of their lesions before and after NAC. On the basis of the HR status and the use/non-use of endocrine therapy (ET), the patients were categorised into four groups: Group A, 184 ET-administered patients with HR-positive both before and after NAC; Group B, 47 ET-administered patients with HR status conversion; Group C, 12 ET-naive patients with HR status conversion; Group D, 125 patients with HR-negative both before and after NAC.
Disease-free survival in Group B was similar to that in Group A (hazard ratio, 1.16; P=0.652), but that in Group C was significantly lesser than that in Group A (hazard ratio, 6.88; P<0.001). A similar pattern of results was obtained for overall survival.
Our results indicate that the HR status of tumours is a predictive factor for disease-free and overall survival and that ET appears to be suitable for patients with HR status conversion. Therefore, both the CNB and surgical specimens should be monitored for HR status.
breast cancer; endocrine therapy; hormone receptor status change; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; prognosis
Cytokeratins (CKs) are structural marker proteins specific for epithelial cells. However, recent studies indicate their involvement in cancer progression.
We evaluated CK18 and its filament partner, CK8 expression, by immunohistochemistry in 210 resected specimens from patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We also analysed the relationship between their expression and various clinicopathological parameters including prognosis.
Neither CK18 nor CK8 was expressed in non-cancerous squamous epithelium whereas proper oesophageal glands expressed both CKs. Ninety (42.9%) tumours were CK18 positive and 85 (40.5%) CK8 positive, and the concordance rate for immunohistochemical classification for CK18 and CK8 was 82.4%. CK18 expression correlated with poorly differentiated tumours, use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and advanced stage. Prognosis of patients with CK18-positive tumours was poorer than that of patients with negative OSCC (P<0.001). A similar trend was noted for CK8 expression. Multivariate analysis identified pT (P=0.020), pN number (P=0.001), and CK18 expression (P=0.004) as independent prognostic factors. CK18 expression in 83 pretreatment biopsy specimens was detected in 47 cases (56.6%) and also correlated with prognosis (P=0.045).
CK18/CK8 expression correlated with progression of OSCC. The significant correlation with prognosis and stable expression in biopsy specimen suggest usefulness of CK18 in selection of treatment strategies for OSCC.
cytokeratin18 (CK18); cytokeratin8 (CK8); oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); immunohistochemistry (IHC); quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR)
Carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) is rarely encountered in clinical practice and optimal chemotherapy has not yet been established. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combined irinotecan+carboplatin therapy in chemotherapy-naive patients with CUP. Irinotecan was administered at 60 mg m−2 as a 90-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 8 and 15. Carboplatin was administered at an area-under-the curve of 5 mg ml−1 min as a 60-min intravenous infusion on day 1. This cycle was repeated every 28 days for up to six cycles. Forty-five patients were enrolled in the study. An intent-to-treat analysis revealed an objective response rate to the treatment of 41.9% (95% confidence interval, 27.0–57.9%). The median time to progression was 4.8 months and the median survival was 12.2 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 44 and 27%, respectively. The most frequent grade 3 or more severe adverse events were leukopaenia (21%), neutropaenia (33%), anaemia (25%) and thrombocytopaenia (20%). Thus, the combination of irinotecan plus carboplatin was found to be active in patients with CUP. Therefore, the regimen may be one of the potentially available chemotherapeutic options for community standard of care in patients with a good performance status.
carboplatin; chemotherapy; irinotecan; unknown primary
Gene expression profiling is a valuable tool for identifying differentially expressed genes in studies of disease subtype and patient outcome for various cancers. However, it remains difficult to assign biological significance to the vast number of genes. There is an increasing awareness of gene expression profile as an important part of the contextual molecular network at play in complex biological processes such as cancer initiation and progression. This study analysed the transcriptional profiles commonly activated at different stages of gastric cancers using an integrated approach combining gene expression profiling of 222 human tissues and gene regulatory dynamic mapping. We focused on an inferred core network with CDKN1A (p21WAF1/CIP1) as the hub, and extracted seven candidates for gastric carcinogenesis (MMP7, SPARC, SOD2, INHBA, IGFBP7, NEK6, LUM). They were classified into two groups based on the correlation between expression level and stage. The seven genes were commonly activated and their expression levels tended to increase as disease progressed. NEK6 and INHBA are particularly promising candidate genes overexpressed at the protein level, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. This integrated approach could help to identify candidate players in gastric carcinogenesis and progression. These genes are potential markers of gastric cancer regardless of stage.
gastric cancer; gene expression profiling; network mapping; focus genes; common gene activation; integrative approach
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a component of mildly-oxidized LDL and the lipid rich core of atherosclerotic plaques, elicits platelet activation. LPA is the ligand of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) of the EDG family (LPA1–3) and the newly identified LPA 4–7 subcluster. LPA4, LPA5 and LPA7 increase cellular cAMP levels that would induce platelet inhibition rather than activation. In the present study we quantified the mRNA levels of the LPA1–7 GPCR in human platelets and found a rank order LPA4=LPA5>LPA7>LPA6=LPA2>>LPA1>LPA3. We examined platelet shape change using a panel of LPA receptor subtype-selective agonists and antagonists and compared them with their pharmacological profiles obtained in heterologous LPA1–5 receptor expression systems. Responses to different natural acyl and alkyl species of LPA, and octyl phosphatidic acid analogs, alpha-substituted phosphonate analogs, N-palmitoyl-tyrosine phosphoric acid, N-palmitoyl-serine phosphoric acid were tested. All of these compounds elicited platelet activation and also inhibited LPA-induced platelet shape change after pre-incubation, suggesting that receptor desensitization is likely responsible for the inhibition of this response. Fatty acid free albumin (10 µM) lacking platelet activity completely inhibited platelet shape change induced by LPA with an IC50 of 1.1 µM but had no effect on the activation of LPA1,2,3,&5 expressed in endogenously non-LPA-responsive RH7777 cells. However, albumin reduced LPA4 activation and shifted the dose-response curve to the right. LPA5 transiently expressed in RH7777 cells showed preference to alkyl-LPA over acyl-LPA that is similar to that in platelets. LPA did not increase cAMP levels in platelets. In conclusion, our results with the pharmacological compounds and albumin demonstrate that LPA does not induce platelet shape change simply through activation of LPA1–5, and the receptor(s) mediating LPA-induced platelet activation remains elusive.
lysophosphatidic acid; G protein-coupled receptor; agonist; antagonist; albumin
The zinc finger protein glioma-associated oncogene homologue 1 (Gli-1) is a critical component of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway, which is essential for morphogenesis and stem-cell renewal, and is dysregulated in many cancer types. As data were not available on the role of Gli-1 expression in oesophageal cancer progression, we analysed whether it could be used to predict disease progression and prognosis in oesophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Among 69 patients with histologically confirmed oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 25 showed a pathological complete response after preoperative CRT. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with lymph-node metastasis, distant metastasis, and CRT, and was further correlated with the absence of both Gli-1 nuclear expression and residual tumour. All patients with Gli-1 nuclear expression (10.1%) had distant or lymph-node metastasis, and six out of seven died within 13 months. Furthermore, patients with Gli-1 nuclear-positive cancers showed significantly poorer prognoses than those without (disease-free survival: mean DFS time 250 vs 1738 months, 2-year DFS 0 vs 54.9%, P=0.009; OS: mean OS time 386 vs 1742 months, 2-year OS 16.7 vs 54.9%, P=0.001). Our study provides the first evidence that Gli-1 nuclear expression is a strong and independent predictor of early relapse and poor prognosis in ESCC after CRT. These findings suggest that Hh signal activation might promote cancer regrowth and progression after CRT.
cancer stem cell; chemoradiotherapy (CRT); Gli-1; Hedgehog (Hh); oesophageal cancer
Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‐2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES‐1) are known to play a role in various inflammatory events, their roles in the pathogenesis of gastro‐oesophageal reflux disease are not known.
We examined the dynamics of COX‐1, COX‐2, mPGES‐1, mPGES‐2, cytosolic PGES (cPGES), and PGE2 synthetic activity in rat acid reflux oesophagitis and the effects of COX‐2 inhibitors on the severity of oesophagitis.
Acid reflux oesophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats were killed on day 3 (acute phase) or day 21 (chronic phase) after induction of oesophagitis.
Expression of COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 was markedly increased in oesophagitis while modest changes in COX‐1, cPGES, and mPGES‐2 expression were observed. COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 were colocalised in epithelial cells of the basal layer, as well as inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in the lamina propria and submucosa. COX‐2 inhibitors significantly reduced the severity of chronic oesophagitis but did not affect acute oesophageal lesions. COX‐2 inhibitors significantly inhibited the increase in PGE2 synthesis in oesophageal lesions on both days 3 and 21. Epithelial proliferation was significantly increased in the basal layer on day 21. Inflammatory cells and epithelial cells of the basal layer exhibited reactions for EP4 in oesophagitis.
PGE2 derived from COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic acid reflux oesophagitis, and possibly in basal hyperplasia and persistent inflammatory cell infiltration.
cyclooxygenase 2; microsomal prostaglandin E synthesis 1; prostaglandin E2; cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors; reflux oesophagitis
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are strong determinants of tumour response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pleural effusion is a common complication of lung cancer. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of detection of EGFR mutations in samples of pleural effusion fluid. We obtained 43 samples, which was the cell-free supernatant of pleural fluid, from Japanese NSCLC patients, and examined them for EGFR mutations. The epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status was determined by a direct sequencing method (exons 18–21 in EGFR). EGFR mutations were detected in 11 cases (E746_A750del in seven cases, E746_T751del insA in one case, L747_T751del in one case, and L858R in two cases). The EGFR mutations were observed more frequently in women and non-smokers. A comparison between the EGFR mutant status and the response to gefitinib in the 27 patients who received gefitinib revealed that all seven patients with partial response and one of the seven patients with stable disease had an EGFR mutation. No EGFR mutations were detected in the patients with progressive disease. The results suggest that DNA in pleural effusion fluid can be used to detect EGFR mutations and that the EGFR mutation status may be useful as a predictor of the response to gefitinib.
pleural effusion; EGFR; mutation; gefitinib
BACKGROUND—In a previous study we showed that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) caused recurrence of gastric ulcers in rats, and that adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and leucocytic β2 integrins) play a role in this recurrence. Although gastric acid plays an important role in many types of gastric injuries, including peptic ulcer recurrence, the mechanism(s) remains unclear.
AIMS—To examine the involvement of gastric acid in induction of ulcer recurrence by IL-1β, and to investigate the role of gastric acid in inflammatory responses during ulcer recurrence.
METHODS—Rats with healed ulcers were used. Rats were given 1 µg/kg IL-1β intraperitoneally. Another group of rats was given 20 mg/kg omeprazole for three days to inhibit acid secretion, and received IL-1β 20 hours after the first administration of omeprazole. They were then given 0.15 N HCl or vehicle at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours after IL-1β treatment. Some rats were given acid alone at the same time points. Expression of adhesion molecules was examined immunohistochemically and concentrations of IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA in scar tissue 24 hours after IL-1β treatment.
RESULTS—IL-1β increased expression of adhesion molecules and concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in scar tissue by 24 hours after IL-1β treatment, and nine of 11 healed ulcers had recurred by 48 hours. Omeprazole inhibited the effects of IL-1β. HCl acid abolished the inhibitory effects of omeprazole. Acid alone affected neither expression of adhesion molecules nor cytokine concentrations, and did not cause recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS—Gastric acid is required for recurrence of gastric ulcers caused by IL-1β, and gastric acid stimulates the inflammatory process in scarred mucosa during ulcer recurrence.
Keywords: ulcer recurrence; gastric acid; inflammatory cytokines; adhesion molecules; inflammation
CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C belong to a family of protein phosphatases which activate the cyclin-dependent kinase at different points of the cell cycle. According to accumulating evidence, CDC25A and CDC25B seem to possess oncogenic properties. We have analysed these expressions by immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR in a series of 100 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. When compared with non-cancerous cells, CDC25A and CDC25B were strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells, with positive (+) classification in 46% (46 cases) and 48% (48 cases), respectively. There was no significant correlation between CDC25A and CDC25B expression, nor was there any association with the expression of other cell cycle-regulating molecules, including cyclin D1, Rb, p16INK4, p27KIP1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). CDC25A (+), as well as CDC25B (+), was more frequently found in patients with deeper tumour invasion and lymph node metastasis, while tumour size was correlated only with CDC25A expression. Postoperative survival was significantly poorer for CDC25A (+) patients than CDC25A (–) patients, but was not affected by the CDC25B status. Nuclear localization of CDC25A was observed in 51 cases (51%), regardless of its cytoplasmic expression, and was not associated with clinico-pathological factors or prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed only the CDC25A status to be an independent significant prognostic factor among these biological and clinico-pathological factors. CDC25A but not CDC25B may be a new prognostic factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Thus, regulation of the G1 checkpoint in the cell cycle may be important in oesophageal carcinogenesis, which may also involve many other oncogenes. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus; CDC25A; CDC25B; prognosis
Heparanase activity is correlated with the metastatic potential of several cancer cells and is a key enzyme in the breakdown of tissue barriers. It is also involved in the regulation of growth factor and cytokine activity. However, little is known about the factors that induce heparanase in cancer cells. We investigated the effect of three growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), on heparanase mRNA induction in lung cancer cells in vitro. In addition, we examined the effect of erythromycin (EM) and clarithromycin (CAM), which are 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotics that act as biological response modifiers, on the expression of heparanase mRNA induced by growth factors. PDGF, HGF and bFGF stimulated cell migration activity and enhanced the expression of heparanase mRNA in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Via different mechanisms, EM and CAM modulate the induction by these factors of heparanase mRNA expression on A549 cells. EM also significantly suppressed A549 cell migration induced by PDGF and HGF, and CAM significantly suppressed A549cell migration induced by bFGF. The results suggest that the growth factors PDGF, HGF and bFGF are important inducers of heparanase in potentially invasive and metastatic cancer cells. The suppressive effect of heparanase mRNA expression by EM and CAM may have interestingtherapeutic applications in the prevention of metastasis.
Two members of the S100 gene family, S100A6 and S100A4 have been suggested to be associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. To study their involvement in the malignancy of human colorectal adenocarcinoma, we examined the protein expression levels of S100A6 and S100A4 in the primary colorectal adenocarcinoma (T) and paired adjacent normal colorectal mucosa (N) from 12 cases, quantitatively by Western blot analysis. In 11 of 12 and seven of 12 cases, S100A6 and S100A4 expression levels were higher in T than in N, respectively. Average S100A6 level in T was significantly higher than in N (about × 2.3;P= 0.001), whereas average S100A4 level in T was not. When S100A6 expression levels in three sets of matched samples of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma (T) and liver metastasis (M) were examined, S100A6 levels were higher in M than in T in two of three cases. Immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal anti-S100A6 antibody showed that 23 of 42 (55%) primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and 15 of 16 (94%) liver metastasis specimens were positively stained. S100A6 immunostaining of primary colorectal adenocarcinomas was significantly more intense in the invading fronts with structural atypia than in central portions with glandular structure (P< 0.0001), whereas Ki-67 staining (a growth marker) was similar in these two portions. Interestingly, S100A6 and Ki-67 immunostaining patterns in liver metastases were also the same as in primary lesions. These results suggest that S100A6 is involved in the invasive process of human colorectal adenocarcinomas and that S100A6 expression levels decrease when carcinoma cells form glandular structure again at the central portions of metastatic nodules. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
S100A6 expression; colorectal adenocarcinoma; invading front
In the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct using a dinucleotide building block, considerable amounts of by-products were found as the chain length increased. The by-products were the major product when a 49mer was synthesized on a 40 nmol scale. It was assumed that these by-products were formed by the coupling of phosphoramidites with the N3 imino function of the 5' component of the (6-4) photoproduct. We examined imidazolium triflate and benzimidazolium triflate to find an alternative activator for DNA synthesis. Imidazolium triflate prevented by-product formation to some extent, but the coupling yields were low. Benzimidazolium triflate was comparable to tetrazole in coupling efficiency and reduced by-product formation to a great extent, without modification of the synthesizer program. The obtained 49mer was used to detect proteins that recognize UV-damaged DNA in HeLa cell extracts. Two major protein-DNA complexes were found when a 49mer duplex was used as probe, while a 30mer duplex failed to detect one of them. This application showed the usefulness of long chain 'damaged' oligonucleotides in biochemical studies.
We examined the steady-state levels of mRNA for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) in human lung cancer specimens to elucidate their roles in relation to platinum drug resistance in vivo. Seventy-six autopsy samples (38 primary tumours and their corresponding normal lung tissues) obtained from 38 patients were analysed using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Both subunits (heavy and light subunits) of gamma-GCS expression levels of normal lung and tumour tissues exposed to platinum drugs during life were significantly higher than those of non-exposed tissues, whereas only the MRP expression levels of tumours were elevated in association with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. The gamma-GCS and MRP expression levels correlated significantly. The cMOAT expression levels did not correlate with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. Next, we monitored gamma-GCS heavy subunit expression levels in peripheral mononuclear cells of eight previously untreated lung cancer patients after platinum drug administration, which revealed that these drugs induced gamma-GCS expression in vivo. These results suggest that gamma-GCS expression is induced by platinum drugs in vivo and/or the physiological stress response to xenobiotics.
The distribution of the nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) alleles from human strain AU-1 and canine strain K9 among rotaviruses of human, feline, canine, bovine, and simian origin was studied by a dot blot hybridization assay. Human and feline strains belonging to the AU-1 genogroup had the same NSP1 allele, while canine and feline strains belonging to the canine-feline genogroup shared another NSP1 allele. This canine-feline NSP1 allele had a significant level of homology with the NSP1 of rhesus rotavirus strain MMU18006.
CACCC boxes are among the critical sequences present in regulatory elements of genes expressed in erythroid cells, as well as in selected other cell types. While an erythroid cell-specific CACCC-box-binding protein, EKLF, has been shown to be required in vivo for proper expression of the adult beta-globin gene, it is dispensable for the regulation of several other globin and nonglobin erythroid cell-expressed genes. In the work described here, we searched for additional CACCC-box transcription factors that might be active in murine erythroid cells. We identified a major gel shift activity (termed BKLF), present in yolk sac and fetal liver erythroid cells, that could be distinguished from EKLF by specific antisera. Through relaxed-stringency hybridization, we obtained the cDNA encoding BKLF, a highly basic, novel zinc finger protein that is related to EKLF and other Krüppel-like members in its DNA-binding domain but unrelated elsewhere. BKLF, which is widely but not ubiquitously expressed in cell lines, is highly expressed in the midbrain region of embryonic mice and appears to correspond to the gel shift activity TEF-2, a transcriptional activator implicated in regulation of the simian virus 40 enhancer and other CACCC-box-containing regulatory elements. Because BKLF binds with high affinity and preferentially over Sp1 to many CACCC sequences of erythroid cell expressed genes, it is likely to participate in the control of many genes whose expression appears independent of the action of EKLF.
The concept that genetic changes accumulate during development and progression of cancer is widely accepted. Frequent allelic losses at chromosome 13q have been found in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and a known tumour-suppressor at 13q14, the retinoblastoma (RB) gene, is thought to be the target of those events. However, no strong evidence has emerged to support a significant role of RB during hepatocarcinogenesis. To investigate the minimal area(s) of loss on chromosome 13q in HCCs, we analysed DNAs isolated from 92 tumours for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 13 loci on chromosome 13q, using polymorphic microsatellite markers. In 30 (32.6%) of 92 cases we detected LOH for at least one locus on chromosome 13q and 20 revealed a partial or interstitial deletion of chromosome 13q. Deletion mapping of these 20 tumours indicated two separate commonly deleted regions: one was located in the region including RB and the other was located in the region including the BRCA2 locus. These findings suggest that at least one putative tumour-suppressor gene for HCC other than RB, possibly BRCA2, exists on chromosome 13q.