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1.  A trace gas technique for measuring clothing microclimate air exchange rates 
Crockford, G. W., Crowder, M., and Prestidge, S. P. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 378-386. A trace gas technique for measuring clothing microclimate air exchange rates. The rate at which clothing microclimate air is exchanged for ambient air influences the sensible and insensible heat loss from the microclimate. Factors which influence this air exchange are clothing permeability, wind speed, body movements, clothing design, and fabric properties. The influence of the first four factors has been studied using a trace gas technique for measuring the rate at which microclimate air is exchanged for ambient air. The trace gas technique and the mathematical model describing the loss of the trace gas from the microclimate are described. The technique is shown to have a high resolving power, enabling small changes in the four factors studied to be identified, and as the method is also very quick detailed studies of garment design can be made.
PMCID: PMC1009453  PMID: 4636659
2.  Heat-protective Ventilated Jackets: A Comparison of Humid and Dry Ventilating Air 
A comparison has been made between humid and dry air for ventilating a heat-protective jacket. At sensible cooling capacities of 4·5 kcal./min. and above, humid and dry air provided equal protection. At sensible cooling capacities of 4 kcal./min. and above, the subject achieved thermal equilibrium within 65 min. with both humid and dry air, but below this value humid ventilating air is associated with elevated sweat rates and a failure to achieve thermal equilibrium within 65 minutes.
PMCID: PMC1008508  PMID: 6017139
4.  Lipopolysaccharide-free Escherichia coli OmpF and Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein P porins are functionally active in lipid bilayer membranes. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1986;165(2):523-526.
Escherichia coli porin OmpF and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein P were eluted from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The resultant porin preparations were found to be devoid of detectable lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for LPS, direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with LPS-specific monoclonal antibodies, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid assays. The average conductances, ionic selectivities and incorporation rates of the electroeluted porins were identical to those of their conventionally purified counterparts. These data suggest that LPS is not required per se for porin function.
PMCID: PMC214450  PMID: 3003028
10.  Outer membrane protein NmpC of Escherichia coli: pore-forming properties in black lipid bilayers. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1984;159(3):1053-1055.
The purified NmpC outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli, when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, gave rise to channels with a single-channel conductance of 1.8 nS in 1 M KCl. This suggests that the NmpC protein is a porin.
PMCID: PMC215767  PMID: 6384178
11.  Design and Evaluation of a Ventilated Garment for Use in Temperatures up to 200°C 
The protection of personnel against high air and radiant temperatures is a problem that has been confronting industry for many years now, and for many industrial situations it still has not been solved. The experiments reported here were intended to determine the most suitable form of insulation for a hot entry suit for use primarily in furnace wrecking where mean radiant temperatures of 200°C. are met and where heat-reflecting garments are unsuitable due to the rapid deterioration of the reflecting surface.
From a preliminary consideration of the problem it was concluded that a ventilated garment was required and that conventional ventilated garments in which air is induced to flow parallel to the body surfaces (axial ventilation) are basically unsound in design as the air is not utilized for the transfer of heat in the most efficient manner. A new form of ventilation was therefore developed in which air flows out through a permeable suit (radial ventilation). This form of ventilation produces what is called dynamic insulation, and this method of insulation, when compared with two alternative methods on a physical model, was found to be very effective.
The model experiments were confirmed by comparative trials of three ventilated suits each using one of three different forms of insulation thought to be suitable for use in heat-protective clothing.
Physiological measurements made on the subjects and physical measurement made on the suits confirmed that dynamic insulation is the most suitable insulation for a hot entry suit for furnace wrecking.
With the air flows used in these experiments, dynamic insulation had a thermal conductance one-fifth that of conventional static insulation, and sweat losses and oral temperature rises were reduced by one-third and one-half respectively.
PMCID: PMC1038354  PMID: 14180476

Results 1-11 (11)