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2.  Possible environmental hazards of gas cooking. 
British Medical Journal  1979;1(6156):125.
PMCID: PMC1598191  PMID: 760985
4.  Interaction between Bronchoconstrictor Stimuli on Human Airway Smooth Muscle 1 
In healthy human subjects, the simultaneous aerosol administration of histamine and methacholine results in a pronounced decrease in maximum flow rates on partial expiratory flow-volume (PEFV) curves. When given alone in the same concentrations, these drugs produced no or minimal decreases in flow rates. The results suggest an interaction of histamine and cholinergic stimuli on airway smooth muscle (ASM). This mechanism might explain many experiments where vagal blockade diminished or abolished ASM response to histamine and other stimuli, simply by interfering with histamine-cholinergic interaction at the ASM level. These findings confirm similar findings of animal in vitro experiments. The experiments clearly confirm the sensitivity and value of assessing drug effects prior to a deep breath. Flow-rate changes after a full inspiration, taken from the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, show either no relationship to the concentration of inhaled methacholine or significantly less effect than that seen on the PEFV curve.
PMCID: PMC2595490  PMID: 997592
5.  Lung function in textile workers. 
Acute changes in ventilatory function during a workshift with exposure to hemp, flax, and cotton dust were measured on Mondays in a group of 61 textile workers, all working on carding machines. In addition, single-breath diffusing capacity (DLCOSB) was measured before dust exposure on Monday in 30 of the 61 workers. Large acute reductions during dust exposure were recorded in maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% VC (MEF50%), ranging from 38 to 22%. Acute reductions of FEV1-0 were considerably smaller, ranging from 17 to 9%. There was a statistically significant increase in residual volume (RV) with very small and insignificant changes in total lung capacity (TLC). Although preshift FEV1-0 and FVC were decreased, DLCOSB was within normal limits. Plethysmographic measurements in six healthy volunteers exposed to hemp-dust extract confirmed the results obtained in textile workers, that is, that TLC does not change significantly during dust-induced airway constriction and that maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% VC (MEF50%) is a more sensitive test than FEV1-0 in detecting acute ventilatory changes caused by the dust extract.
PMCID: PMC1008077  PMID: 1103956
9.  Respiratory mechanics and dust exposure in byssinosis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1970;49(1):106-118.
Acute exposures to hemp dust, in healthy subjects as well as hemp workers with byssinosis, resulted in two different responses. Men with symptoms (chest tightness, coughing, and wheezing) after exposure showed decreases of forced expiratory volumes (FEV1.0), flow rates on maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves, and of vital capacity (VC), while airway conductance (Gaw: TGV ratio) did not decrease significantly (“flow rate response”). Men without symptoms after exposure showed no changes of VC, FEV1.0, and MEFV curves, but had a significantly decreased airway conductance (“conductance response”). The flow rate response is attributed to a pharmacological bronchoconstrictor effect of hemp dust on small airways, the conductance response to a mechanical or reflex effect of hemp dust on large airways. Both responses were abolished by a bronchodilator drug. The type of response reflects a difference between individuals and is not related to age, smoking habits, or prior exposure history. Men with normal control function data had either a flow rate or a conductance response. All men with abnormal control data had a flow rate response.
Long-term hemp dust exposure causes irreversible obstructive lung disease, in particular among men who respond to acute dust exposure with symptoms and flow rate decreases. The detection of this response, with FEV1.0 measurements and MEFV curves, is essential in the study of byssinosis. Decreases of airway conductance after dust exposure have no consistent relation to the development of clinical symptoms. The relative value of measurements of maximum expiratory flow rates and of airway conductance in other lung diseases needs to be reassessed.
PMCID: PMC322449  PMID: 5409799
10.  Sudden death in a young asthmatic. 
British Medical Journal  1969;3(5661):53-54.
PMCID: PMC1983798  PMID: 5787293
11.  Maximum expiratory flow rates in induced bronchoconstriction in man 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1969;48(6):1159-1168.
We evaluated changes of maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves and of partial expiratory flow-volume (PEFV) curves caused by bronchoconstrictor drugs and dust, and compared these to the reverse changes induced by a bronchodilator drug in previously bronchoconstricted subjects. Measurements of maximum flow at constant lung inflation (i.e. liters thoracic gas volume) showed larger changes, both after constriction and after dilation, than measurements of peak expiratory flow rate, 1 sec forced expiratory volume and the slope of the effort-independent portion of MEFV curves. Changes of flow rates on PEFV curves (made after inspiration to mid-vital capacity) were usually larger than those of flow rates on MEFV curves (made after inspiration to total lung capacity). The decreased maximum flow rates after constrictor agents are not caused by changes in lung static recoil force and are attributed to narrowing of small airways, i.e., airways which are uncompressed during forced expirations. Changes of maximum expiratory flow rates at constant lung inflation (e.g. 60% of the control total lung capacity) provide an objective and sensitive measurement of changes in airway caliber which remains valid if total lung capacity is altered during treatment.
PMCID: PMC322331  PMID: 5771195
12.  Commentaries 
PMCID: PMC1936205  PMID: 20328781
13.  Commentaries 
PMCID: PMC1936149  PMID: 20328842
The prevalence of byssinosis and chronic respiratory symptoms was studied in 117 workers in four Swedish cotton mills. Changes of forced expiratory volume in 0·75 sec. (F.E.V.0·75) during a Monday and a Wednesday were assessed in 64 male workers in four cardrooms in these mills. Dust sampling was performed with weighed millipore filters.
Prevalences of byssinosis as judged from the workers' histories were 68%, 55%, 44%, and 25% in the four mills; the lowest prevalence of 25% was found in a mill spinning both high grade cotton yarn and rayon. Among 67 workers in the mills having a byssinosis prevalence of 68% and 55%, 60% were non-smokers, 70% had chronic cough, and 27% had chronic dyspnoea. The F.E.V.0·75 decreased on Monday in workers who gave a history of Monday dyspnoea, and to a lesser degree, but still significantly, in those who did not.
In spite of marked differences in fine dust (i.e., dust smaller than 2 mm. diameter) concentrations in the four cardrooms, no significant relations between dust content, byssinosis prevalence, and F.E.V.0·75 changes on Monday could be demonstrated.
The prevention and treatment of byssinosis is discussed. Workers at risk should receive a periodical medical examination including at least a spirographical pulmonary function test at intervals of one year or less.
PMCID: PMC1008256  PMID: 14278797
15.  Byssinosis Prevalence and Flax Processing* 
Previous evidence suggested that byssinosis in flax workers is caused by the inhalation of dust of biologically retted flax. In the present study no cases of byssinosis were found among workers in a flax plant which produces yarn by chemical degumming instead of biological retting. The absence of byssinosis in this plant could not be attributed to differences in the quantities of dust developed as compared with the conventional retting procedure.
These findings support the view that the agent in flax dust which causes symptoms of byssinosis originates during biological retting of flax and is absent from unretted flax. Chemical degumming of flax appears to be superior to biological retting procedures with respect to the health of the workers.
PMCID: PMC1038385  PMID: 14072625
16.  World-wide Byssinosis 
British Medical Journal  1962;2(5316):1396.
PMCID: PMC1926659
17.  Peak-flow Meter 
British Medical Journal  1960;1(5180):1209.
PMCID: PMC1967131
18.  Experimental Studies on Byssinosis 
British Medical Journal  1960;1(5169):324-326.
PMCID: PMC1966469  PMID: 13803226

Results 1-18 (18)