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1.  Nationwide Study on Trends in Hospital Admissions for Major Cardiovascular Events and Procedures Among People With and Without Diabetes in England, 2004–2009 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(2):265-272.
OBJECTIVE
It is unclear whether people with and without diabetes equally benefitted from reductions in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to compare recent trends in hospital admission rates for angina, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) among people with and without diabetes in England.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We identified all patients aged >16 years with cardiovascular events in England between 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 using national hospital activity data. Diabetes- and nondiabetes-specific rates were calculated for each year. To test for time trend, we fitted Poisson regression models.
RESULTS
In people with diabetes, admission rates for angina, AMI, and CABG decreased significantly by 5% (rate ratio 0.95 [95% CI 0.94–0.96]), 5% (0.95 [0.93–0.97]), and 3% (0.97 [0.95–0.98]) per year, respectively. Admission rates for stroke did not significantly change (0.99 [0.98–1.004]) but increased for PCI (1.01 [1.005–1.03]) in people with diabetes. People with and without diabetes experienced similar proportional changes for all outcomes, with no significant differences in trends between these groups. However, diabetes was associated with an ~3.5- to 5-fold risk of CVD events. In-hospital mortality rates declined for AMI and stroke, remained unchanged for CABG, and increased for PCI admissions in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS
This national study suggests similar changes in admissions for CVD in people with and without diabetes. Aggressive risk reduction is needed to further reduce the high absolute and relative risk of CVD still present in people with diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1682
PMCID: PMC3263914  PMID: 22210568
2.  Developing a ‘traffic light’ test with potential for rational early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in the community 
The British Journal of General Practice  2011;62(602):e616-e624.
Background
Liver disease develops silently and presents late, with often fatal complications.
Aim
To develop a ‘traffic light’ test for liver disease suitable for community use that could enhance assessment of liver risk and allow rational referral of more severe disease to specialist care.
Design and setting
Two cohorts from Southampton University Hospital Trust Liver Unit: model development and a validation cohort to evaluate prognosis.
Method
A total of 1038 consecutive liver patients (inpatient and outpatient) (development n = 397, validation n = 641) for whom the relevant blood tests had been performed, were followed for a mean of 46 months (range 13–89 months). Blood tests for: hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen-3 N-terminal peptide (P3NP), and platelet count were combined in a diagnostic algorithm to stage liver disease.
Results
A simple clinical rule combined: HA, P3NP, and platelet count into a ‘traffic light’ algorithm, grading the results red — high risk, amber — intermediate risk, and green — low risk. In the validation cohort, no green subjects died or developed varices or ascites (n = 202); in the amber group, 9/267 (3.3%) died, 0/267 developed varices, and 2/267 (0.7%) developed ascites; in the red group, 24/172 died (14%), 24/172 (14%) developed varices, and 20/172 developed (11.6%) ascites. Survival was reduced in red (P<0.001) and amber (P<0.012) groups compared with green.
Conclusion
A simple blood test triages liver disease into three prognostic groups; used in the community, it could enhance the management of risk factors in primary care and rationalise secondary care referrals, including the many patients with fatty liver and relatively minor elevations in alanine transaminase.
doi:10.3399/bjgp12X654588
PMCID: PMC3426600  PMID: 22947582
cirrhosis; diagnosis; early diagnosis; liver diseases; liver fibrosis; primary care

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