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1.  Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:276.
Background
This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Syncarpia glomulifera and the aqueous extracts of Smilax australis and Smilax glyciphylla were tested against common wound pathogens, including antibiotic resistant bacterial strains.
Methods
Plant material was prepared as aqueous extractions modelled on customary preparations and using 80% aqueous ethanol. Extracts were assayed against a selection of clinically relevant Gram positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and sensitive and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria and a fungus (Candida albicans) using disc diffusion and MTT microdilution methods. Viability of treated microorganisms was determined by subculturing from microdilution assays.
Results
The extracts of Corymbia intermedia, Lophostemon suaveolens and Syncarpia glomulifera had promising levels of antimicrobial activity (MIC 31–1,000 µg/mL) against both antibiotic sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans (clinical isolate).
Conclusion
Aqueous and 80% aqueous ethanolic extracts of Lophostemon suaveolens, Corymbia intermedia and Syncarpia glomulifera exhibited promising levels of antimicrobial activity against a range of both antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of microorganisms. This is the first report of antimicrobial activities for C. intermedia and L. suaveolens and the leaves of S. glomulifera. This study demonstrates the value of customary knowledge in the identification of new sources of antimicrobial treatments.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1258-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1258-x
PMCID: PMC4485878  PMID: 26122212
Antimicrobials; Multidrug resistant; Wound healing; Traditional medicine; Ethnobotany
2.  Curriculum mapping within an Australian master of chiropractic program: Congruence between published evidence for chiropractic and student assessment tasks 
Objective
This study sought to determine congruence between student assessment tasks within the master of chiropractic curriculum at Macquarie University and 2 separate but related domains: (1) disorders commonly presenting to chiropractors and (2) musculoskeletal conditions for which there is published evidence that chiropractic treatment is effective.
Methods
A literature review was undertaken to determine which musculoskeletal disorders commonly present to chiropractors and the conditions for which there is published evidence that chiropractic treatment is effective. These 2 domains were then mapped to the assessment tasks within the curriculum and analyzed. The proportion of time allocated to theory versus skill acquisition was also determined.
Results
Assessment tasks within the curriculum specifically focus on low back pain, neck pain, lower extremity pain, thoracic pain, and adhesive capsulitis. This curriculum mapping demonstrates congruence between the student assessment tasks and published evidence for chiropractic. The assessments also contain an appropriate balance between theory and skills acquisition.
Conclusion
There is congruence between the assessment tasks within the curriculum and the 2 domains against which it was mapped. Thus, completion of the curriculum provides training relevant to conditions that commonly present to chiropractors and musculoskeletal conditions for which chiropractic treatment is effective.
doi:10.7899/JCE-14-9
PMCID: PMC4360768  PMID: 25162981
Chiropractic; Curriculum; Education; Evaluation; Program
3.  Ameloblastic carcinoma: A clinicopathologic dilemma – Report of two cases with total review of literature from 1984 to 2012 
Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare primary odontogenic tumor that has histological features of both ameloblastoma and carcinoma. A total number of 92 case reports speak about its rare incidence, affecting mostly the mandible as a locally destructive lesion. The maxilla is affected even more rarely as only 35 cases have been reported until 2012 in scientific literature. The clinical course of AC is generally aggressive, with extensive local bone destruction. The most common clinical features include swelling, pain, trismus, significant bone resorption with tooth mobility, dysphonia and intraoral fistula. We report two cases of AC with aggressive behavior.
doi:10.4103/2231-0746.133070
PMCID: PMC4073467  PMID: 24987603
Ameloblastoma; ameloblastic carcinoma; odontogenic carcinoma
4.  Intraoral malignant melanoma 
Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm and accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas. It is a malignant neoplasm of melanocytes that may arise from a benign melanocytic lesion or de novo from melanocytes within normal skin or mucosa. It is considered to be the most deadly and biologically unpredictable of all human neoplasms, having the worst prognosis. In this article, we report a case of oral melanoma in a 52-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of black discolouration of the maxillary gingiva and palate.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.119667
PMCID: PMC3821234  PMID: 24249959
Gingiva; malignant neoplasm; oral mucosal melanoma; palate
5.  High STOP-Bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;108(5):768-775.
Background
The STOP-Bang questionnaire is used to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We evaluated the association between STOP-Bang scores and the probability of OSA.
Methods
After Institutional Review Board approval, patients who visited the preoperative clinics for a scheduled inpatient surgery were approached for informed consent. Patients answered STOP questionnaire and underwent either laboratory or portable polysomnography (PSG). PSG recordings were scored manually. The BMI, age, neck circumference, and gender (Bang) were documented. Over 4 yr, 6369 patients were approached and 1312 (20.6%) consented. Of them, 930 completed PSG, and 746 patients with complete data on PSG and STOP-Bang questionnaire were included for data analysis.
Results
The median age of 746 patients was 60 yr, 49% males, BMI 30 kg m−2, and neck circumference 39 cm. OSA was present in 68.4% with 29.9% mild, 20.5% moderate, and 18.0% severe OSA. For a STOP-Bang score of 5, the odds ratio (OR) for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 4.8 and 10.4, respectively. For STOP-Bang 6, the OR for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 6.3 and 11.6, respectively. For STOP-Bang 7 and 8, the OR for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 6.9 and 14.9, respectively. The predicted probabilities for moderate/severe OSA increased from 0.36 to 0.60 as the STOP-Bang score increased from 3 to 7 and 8.
Conclusions
In the surgical population, a STOP-Bang score of 5–8 identified patients with high probability of moderate/severe OSA. The STOP-Bang score can help the healthcare team to stratify patients for unrecognized OSA, practice perioperative precautions, or triage patients for diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1093/bja/aes022
PMCID: PMC3325050  PMID: 22401881
mass screening; obstructive/ep (epidemiology); polysomnography; prospective studies; questionnaires; sleep apnoea; snoring/di (diagnosis); snoring/ep (epidemiology)
6.  False aneurysm following modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. 
Thorax  1994;49(4):383-384.
A nine month old infant with life threatening tracheal compression due to a Blalock-Taussig shunt aneurysm is described. Successful surgical management is discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC475379  PMID: 8202915

Results 1-6 (6)