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1.  Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;103(Suppl 1):i41-i46.
Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are topics of special importance in the geriatric surgical population. They are separate entities, whose relationship has yet to be fully elucidated. Although not limited to geriatric patients, the incidence and impact of both are more profound in geriatric patients. Delirium has been shown to be associated with longer and more costly hospital course and higher likelihood of death within 6 months or postoperative institutionalization. POCD has been associated with increased mortality, risk of leaving the labour market prematurely, and dependency on social transfer payments. Here, we review their definitions and aetiology, and discuss treatment and prevention in elderly patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Good basic care demands identification of at-risk patients, awareness of common perioperative aggravating factors, simple prevention interventions, recognition of the disease states, and basic treatments for patients with severe hyperactive manifestations.
PMCID: PMC2791855  PMID: 20007989
age factors; anaesthesia, geriatric; brain; complications
2.  Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction 
Anaesthesia  2008;63(9):941-947.
The purpose of this analysis was to determine if postoperative delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 7 days) and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 3 months). The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited 1218 subjects ≥60 yr old undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. Postoperatively, subjects were evaluated for delirium using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Subjects underwent neuropsychological testing pre-operatively and postoperatively at 7 days (n = 1018) and 3 months (n = 946). Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as a composite Z-score >2 across tests or at least two individual test Z-scores >2. Subjects with delirium were significantly less likely to participate in postoperative testing. Delirium was associated with an increased incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (adjusted risk ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), but not long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (adjusted risk ratio 1.3, 95% CI 0.6– 2.4). Delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction, but the relationship of delirium to long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction remains unclear.
PMCID: PMC2562627  PMID: 18547292

Results 1-2 (2)