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1.  Effect of age on intraoperative cerebrovascular autoregulation and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived cerebral oxygenation 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;107(5):742-748.
Background
Age is an important risk factor for perioperative cerebral complications such as stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and delirium. We explored the hypothesis that intraoperative cerebrovascular autoregulation is less efficient and brain tissue oxygenation lower in elderly patients, thus, increasing the vulnerability of elderly brains to systemic insults such as hypotension.
Methods
We monitored intraoperative cerebral perfusion in 50 patients aged 18–40 and 77 patients >65 yr at two Swiss university hospitals. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured continuously using a plethysmographic method. An index of cerebrovascular autoregulation (Mx) was calculated based on changes in transcranial Doppler flow velocity due to changes in MAP. Cerebral oxygenation was assessed by the tissue oxygenation index (TOI) using near-infrared spectroscopy. End-tidal CO2, O2, and sevoflurane concentrations and peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded continuously. Standardized anaesthesia was administered in all patients (thiopental, sevoflurane, fentanyl, atracurium).
Results
Autoregulation was less efficient in patients aged >65 yr [by 0.10 (se 0.04; P=0.020)] in a multivariable linear regression analysis. This difference was not attributable to differences in MAP, end-tidal CO2, or higher doses of sevoflurane. TOI was not significantly associated with age, sevoflurane dose, or Mx but increased with increasing flow velocity [by 0.09 (se 0.04; P=0.028)] and increasing MAP [by 0.11 (se 0.05; P=0.043)].
Conclusions
Our results do not support the hypothesis that older patients' brains are more vulnerable to systemic insults. The difference of autoregulation between the two groups was small and most likely clinically insignificant.
doi:10.1093/bja/aer252
PMCID: PMC3192482  PMID: 21835838
age groups; anaesthesia; cerebrovascular circulation
2.  Superior antitumoral activity of dimerized targeted single-chain TRAIL fusion proteins under retention of tumor selectivity 
Cell Death & Disease  2012;3(4):e295-.
Although targeting of the death receptors (DRs) DR4 and DR5 still appears a suitable antitumoral strategy, the limited clinical responses to recombinant soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) necessitate novel reagents with improved apoptotic activity/tumor selectivity. Apoptosis induction by a single-chain TRAIL (scTRAIL) molecule could be enhanced >10-fold by generation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific scFv-scTRAIL fusion proteins. By forcing dimerization of scFv-scTRAIL based on scFv linker modification, we obtained a targeted scTRAIL composed predominantly of dimers (Db-scTRAIL), exceeding the activity of nontargeted scTRAIL ∼100-fold on Huh-7 hepatocellular and Colo205 colon carcinoma cells. Increased activity of Db-scTRAIL was also demonstrated on target-negative cells, suggesting that, in addition to targeting, oligomerization equivalent to an at least dimeric assembly of standard TRAIL per se enhances apoptosis signaling. In the presence of apoptosis sensitizers, such as the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib, Db-scTRAIL was effective at picomolar concentrations in vitro (EC50 ∼2 × 10−12 M). Importantly, in vivo, Db-scTRAIL was well tolerated and displayed superior antitumoral activity in mouse xenograft (Colo205) tumor models. Our results show that both targeting and controlled dimerization of scTRAIL fusion proteins provides a strategy to enforce apoptosis induction, together with retained tumor selectivity and good in vivo tolerance.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.29
PMCID: PMC3358007  PMID: 22495350
Apo2L; TRAIL oligomers; EGFR-targeting; apoptosis; scFv

Results 1-3 (3)