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1.  Use of sophisticated intra-operative monitoring in resuscitation of unexpected cardiovascular collapse during general anaesthesia 
INTRODUCTION
The diagnosis of intraoperative anaphylaxis is important but can be difficult as the symptoms can be varying and dependent on patient factors.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe an acute, unexpected and life threatening cardiovascular (CV) collapse, presumed to be due to an acute anaphylactic reaction secondary to gelatin administration, following induction of general anaesthesia (GA), in an ASA 3 patient scheduled for axillo-bifemoral bypass.
DISCUSSION
The management of the profound cardiovascular (CV) collapse was greatly assisted by sophisticated haemodynamic, depth of anaesthesia and cerebral oximetry monitoring.1 As far as we are aware this is the first such case where the full haemodynamic, depth of anaesthesia and cerebral oxygenation changes during CV collapse, presumed due to an acute anaphylactic reaction under GA have been fully documented.
CONCLUSION
The use of advanced monitoring intraoperatively proved extremely useful in guiding the resuscitation of a life threatening allergic reaction under general anaesthesia.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.09.013
PMCID: PMC3604686  PMID: 23336989
General anaesthesia; Analphylaxis; Haemodynamic monitoring; Cerebral oximetry; Depth of anaesthesia monitoring
2.  Morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in preterm and term neonates: secondary results from the NEOPAIN trial 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2008;101(5):680-689.
Background
Relationships between plasma morphine concentrations and neonatal responses to endotracheal tube (ETT) suctioning are unknown in preterm neonates.
Methods
Ventilated preterm neonates (n=898) from 16 centres were randomly assigned to placebo (n=449) or morphine (n=449). After an i.v. loading dose (100 µg kg−1), morphine infusions [23–26 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) 10 µg kg−1 h−1; 27–29 weeks 20 µg kg−1 h−1; and 30–32 weeks 30 µg kg−1 h−1] were established for a maximum of 14 days. Open-label morphine (20–100 µg kg−1) was given for pain or agitation. Morphine assay and neonatal response to ETT suctioning was measured at 20–28 and 70–76 h after starting the drug infusion and at 10–14 h after discontinuation of the study drug. The concentration–effect response was investigated using non-linear mixed effects models.
Results
A total of 5119 data points (1598 measured morphine concentrations and 3521 effect measures) were available from 875 neonates for analysis. Clearance was 50% that of the mature value at 54.2 weeks PMA (CLmat50) and increased from 2.05 litre h−1 70 kg−1 at 24 weeks PMA to 6.04 litre h−1 70 kg−1 at 32 weeks PMA. The volume of distribution in preterm neonates was 190 litre 70 kg−1 (CV 51%) and did not change with age. There was no relationship between morphine concentrations (range 0–440 µg litre−1) and heart rate changes associated with ETT suctioning or with the Premature Infant Pain Profile.
Conclusions
A sigmoid curve describing maturation of morphine clearance is moved to the right in preterm neonates and volume of distribution is increased compared with term neonates. Morphine does not alter the neonatal response to ETT suctioning.
doi:10.1093/bja/aen248
PMCID: PMC2733178  PMID: 18723857
anaesthesia, paediatric; anaesthetic–analgesic regimens; analgesics opioid, morphine; model, pharmacodynamic; model, pharmacokinetic
3.  Assessment of olfaction in multiple sclerosis: evidence of dysfunction by olfactory evoked response and identification tests 
OBJECTIVE—To resolve whether the olfactory pathways are affected in multiple sclerosis.
METHODS—Olfaction was assessed by: (1) The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT, which uses microencapsulated odours that are released when scratched with a pencil) in 72 patients with multiple sclerosis and 96 controls, (2) olfactory evoked potentials (OEP) to 20 ppm H2S by volume, and 50% CO2 in air for 45 patients with multiple sclerosis and 47 controls. The abnormality rate in patients with multiple sclerosis for both tests (1) and (2) was compared with that for visual evoked potentials measured using a standard checquerboard technique.
RESULTS—By comparison with controls, patients exhibited significantly low scores on the smell identification test with 15% of patients scoring outside the 95% confidence intervals for controls. The UPSIT was occasionally abnormal when the visual evoked potential (VEP) was normal. In general UPSIT scores correlated well with the H2S-evoked response in controls and patients. For H2S, there was a statistically significant increase of latency and decrease of amplitude for patients compared with controls. Increased H2S latency and reduced UPSIT score correlated with greater disability on conventional rating scales. Overall, H2S responses were abnormal in about one quarter of patients with multiple sclerosis. The sensitivity of UPSIT and OEP was similar although disorder on one test did not necessarily indicate abnormality in the other. The visual evoked potential was found to be a more sensitive indicator of disease than OEP or UPSIT.
CONCLUSION—These findings confirm the existence of olfactory dysfunction in multiple sclerosis and validate a new evoked potential technique.


PMCID: PMC2169670  PMID: 9285449
4.  Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. 
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A standardised odour identification test was used, together with an evoked potential assessment with hydrogen sulphide. In addition, histological analysis was performed on the olfactory bulbs of cadavers who died from Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Over 70% of patients studied (71 of 96) were outside the 95% limit of normal on the identification test in an age matched sample and there was an unusual pattern of selective loss to certain odours, not hitherto described. The evoked potentials were significantly delayed but of comparable amplitude to a control matched population. Of the 73 patients studied only 37 had a technically satisfactory record containing a clear response to both gases and of these, 12 were delayed. For H2S there was more delay on stimulating the right nostril than the left. Some patients with normal smell identification test scores had delayed evoked potentials. In the pathological examination of olfactory bulbs from eight brains, changes characteristic of Parkinson's disease (Lewy bodies) were seen in every olfactory bulb, particularly in the anterior olfactory nucleus, and were sufficiently distinct to allow a presumptive diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory damage in Parkinson's disease is consistent and severe and may provide an important clue to the aetiology of the disease.
Images
PMCID: PMC486843  PMID: 9153598

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