Caenorhabditis elegans SNAP-29 is required for the proper morphology and functions of the Golgi and endosomes and general exocytosis.
It is generally accepted that soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors mediate the docking and fusion of transport intermediates with target membranes. Our research identifies Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP-29) as an essential regulator of membrane trafficking in polarized intestinal cells of living animals. We show that a depletion of SNAP-29 blocks yolk secretion and targeting of apical and basolateral plasma membrane proteins in the intestinal cells and results in a strong accumulation of small cargo-containing vesicles. The loss of SNAP-29 also blocks the transport of yolk receptor RME-2 to the plasma membrane in nonpolarized oocytes, indicating that its function is required in various cell types. SNAP-29 is essential for embryogenesis, animal growth, and viability. Functional fluorescent protein–tagged SNAP-29 mainly localizes to the plasma membrane and the late Golgi, although it also partially colocalizes with endosomal proteins. The loss of SNAP-29 leads to the vesiculation/fragmentation of the Golgi and endosomes, suggesting that SNAP-29 is involved in multiple transport pathways between the exocytic and endocytic organelles. These observations also suggest that organelles comprising the endomembrane system are highly dynamic structures based on the balance between membrane budding and fusion and that SNAP-29–mediated fusion is required to maintain proper organellar morphology and functions.
AIM: To compare the outcome of surgical treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma in elderly and younger patients.
METHODS: The outcomes of 122 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical treatment between January 2004 and June 2009 were analyzed. The clinicopathological and blood biochemistry data of the younger group (< 75 years) and the elderly group (≥ 75 years) were compared.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, time to resumption of oral intake, or morbidity. The elderly group had a significantly higher rate of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The perioperative serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the elderly than in the younger group. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was lower in the elderly than in the younger group, and there was a significant decreasing trend after the operation in the elderly group.
CONCLUSION: The short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in elderly patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma were acceptable. Surgical treatment in elderly patients was considered a selectively effective approach.
Colorectal tumor; Elderly patient; Morbidity; Carcinoembryonic antigen; C-reactive protein
A randomized control trial was performed to test whether a lifestyle intervention program, carried out in a primary healthcare setting using existing resources, can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The results of 3 years' intervention are summarized.
Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.5 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group.
After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023) and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045). Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097). In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m2, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027).
The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention.
Trial registration number
Melanogenesis substrate, N-propionyl-cysteaminylphenol (NPrCAP), is selectively incorporated into melanoma cells and inhibits their growth by producing cytotoxic free radicals. Magnetite nanoparticles also disintegrate cancer cells and generate heat shock protein (HSP) upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). This study tested if a chemo-thermo-immunotherapy (CTI therapy) strategy can be developed for better management of melanoma by conjugating NPrCAP on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles (NPrCAP/M). We examined the feasibility of this approach in B16 mouse melanoma and evaluated the impact of exposure temperature, frequency, and interval on the inhibition of re-challenged melanoma growth. The therapeutic protocol against the primary transplanted tumor with or without AMF exposure once a day every other day for a total of three treatments not only inhibited the growth of the primary transplant but also prevented the growth of the secondary, re-challenge transplant. The heat-generated therapeutic effect was more significant at a temperature of 43°C than either 41°C or 46°C. NPrCAP/M with AMF exposure, instead of control magnetite alone or without AMF exposure, resulted in the most significant growth inhibition of the re-challenge tumor and increased the life span of the mice. HSP70 production was greatest at 43°C compared to that with 41°C or 46°C. CD8+T cells were infiltrated at the site of the re-challenge melanoma transplant.
peptide; cancer vaccine; immunotherapy; colon cancer; CTL
Considerable interest has been focused on telomerase because of its potential use in assays for cancer diagnosis, and for anti-telomerase drugs as a strategy for cancer chemotherapy. A number of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for evaluation of telomerase activity. To overcome the disadvantages of the conventional telomerase assay [telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)] related to PCR artifacts and troublesome post-PCR procedures, we have developed a telomeric repeat elongation (TRE) assay which directly measures telomerase activity as the telomeric elongation rate by biosensor technology using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 5′-Biotinylated oligomers containing telomeric repeats were immobilized on streptavidin-pretreated dextran sensor surfaces in situ using the BIACORE apparatus. Subsequently, the oligomers associated with the telomerase extracts were elongated in the BIACORE apparatus. The rate of TRE was calculated by measuring the SPR signals. We examined elongation rates by the TRE assay in 18 cancer and three normal human fibroblast cell lines, and 12 human primary carcinomas and matching normal tissues. The elongation rates increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Those of cancer cells were two to 10 times higher than fibroblast cell lines and normal tissues. Telomerase activities and its inhibitory effects of anti-telomerase agents as measured by both the TRE and TRAP assays showed a good correlation. Our assay allows precise quantitative comparison of a wide range of human cells from somatic cells to carcinoma cells. TRE assay is suitable for practical use in the assessment of telomerase activity in preclinical and clinical trials of telomerase-based therapies, because of its reproducibility, rapidity and simplicity.
In vivo two-photon microscopy has revealed vital information on neural activity for brain function, even in light of its limitation in imaging events at depths greater than several hundred micrometers from the brain surface. We developed a novel semiconductor-laser-based light source with a wavelength of 1030 nm that can generate pulses of 5-picosecond duration with 2-W output power, and a 20-MHz repetition rate. We also developed a system to secure the head of the mouse under an upright microscope stage that has a horizontal adjustment mechanism. We examined the penetration depth while imaging the H-Line mouse brain and demonstrated that our newly developed laser successfully images not only cortex pyramidal neurons spreading to all cortex layers at a superior signal-to-background ratio, but also images hippocampal CA1 neurons in a young adult mouse.
Cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) show intraluminal spread to bile ducts and periductal infiltration associated with vascular, lymphatic and perineural invasion in addition to direct penetration. Recently, the peribiliary gland networks located around the hilar and extrahepatic bile ducts have been reportedly to be involved in a variety of biliary diseases. However, the pathological features and roles of these networks in the carcinogenesis and progression of CCs remain to be explored. Recently, we experienced two cases of hilar CC showing a nodular sclerosing growth grossly and histologically well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, with an extensive involvement of the peribiliary gland networks. In situ like spread of carcinoma cells in the bile duct lumen was focal in one case and not identifiable in the other. In contrast, other 4 cases of ordinary hilar CC which were also well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, showed variable intraductal luminal spread and also extensive periductal infiltration irrespective of the peribiliary gland network. In conclusion, the present study showed a unique form of periductal spread of CCs with preferential and extensive involvement of the peribiliary gland networks.
Biliary tree; peribiliary glands; hilar cholangiocarcinoma
Background:Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers.
Methods:Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was re-evaluated, and AC was assessed in 147 of the male current smokers in 2009 (visit 2). The diagnosis of Mets was based on the criteria used in the Hisayama Study.
Results:No significant relationships were observed between AC and spirometric parameters such as % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC. However, decline in FEV1 was significantly correlated with AC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that AC was a significant discriminating factor for decline in FEV1, independently of age, Brinkman index and change in body mass index from visit 1 to visit 2. At visit 2, there was a greater prevalence of decline in FEV1 among subjects with Mets (n=17) than among those without Mets. Although there were no differences in % predicted FVC, % predicted FEV1 or FEV1/FVC between subjects with or without Mets, the rate of decline in FEV1 was significantly greater in subjects with Mets than in those without.
Conclusions:This retrospective analysis suggested that measuring AC may be useful for discriminating male smokers who show a decline in FEV1.
decline in FEV1; abdominal circumference; smoker; health check.
Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1×108 cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5×108. Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue.
We report a rare case in which hemothorax occurred in addition to hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) originating from the caudate lobe of the liver. The case pertains to a 56-year-old female who was transported to our hospital for impaired consciousness due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated ruptured HCC originating from the caudate lobe and accompanying hemoperitoneum and right hemothorax. Hemostasis was carried out by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), and surgery was conducted approximately one month after TAE. In the present case, no lesions as possible sources of bleeding were observed inside the pleural cavity, and, moreover, the diaphragm had no abnormalities in the intraoperative findings, suggesting that blood from the ruptured tumor may have traversed the intact diaphragm to enter the right pleural cavity soon after the HCC rupture. However, to the best of our knowledge, no similar cases of HCC have been reported to date, and this case is thus believed to be very rare. This unusual phenomenon may therefore be strongly associated with the location of the ruptured tumor and the formation of a hematoma inside the omental bursa. We discuss the mechanism causing hemothorax in the present case and also review the previously reported cases of ruptured HCC complicated by hemothorax.
Hemothorax; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Rupture; Caudate lobe; Omental bursa; Lesser sac; Transcatheter arterial embolization
An 80-year-old woman presented with a huge intrathoracic mass which had increased in size over 4 years. Computed tomography showed a thick calcified capsule and early-enhanced streaks inside the mass. Needle biopsy aspirated pure blood and fibrous connective tissue. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography showed moderate FDG uptake at the periphery with central photon defects. Gallium-67 scintigraphy showed no abnormal uptake. On suspicion of chronic expanding hematoma, we recommended surgical resection, but the patient requested only follow-up. One year later, she was hospitalized with cardiac tamponade and subsequent massive hemoptysis. Repeated embolization was ineffective, and the patient soon succumbed.
Chronic expanding hematoma; fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron-emission tomography; gallium-67 scintigraphy; pyothorax associated lymphoma; trans-arterial embolization
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of multisystem vasculitis in childhood. Although cervical lymphadenitis is one of the major symptoms in KD, lymph node biopsy is rarely performed, because KD is usually diagnosed by clinical symptoms. A cervical lymph node biopsy was taken from a girl aged 1 year and 8 months who had suspected lymphoma, but she was diagnosed with KD after the biopsy. The cervical lymph node specimen was analyzed with multivirus real-time PCR that can detect >160 viruses, and unbiased direct sequencing with a next-generation DNA sequencer to detect potential pathogens in the lymph node. Histologically, focal necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration, including neutrophils and macrophages, was observed in the marginal zone of the cervical lymph node, which was compatible with the acute phase of KD. Multivirus real-time PCR detected a low copy number of torque teno virus in the sample. Comprehensive direct sequencing of the cervical lymph node biopsy sample sequenced more than 8 million and 3 million reads from DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Bacterial genomes were detected in 0.03% and 1.79% of all reads in DNA and RNA samples, respectively. Although many reads corresponded to genomes of bacterial environmental microorganisms, Streptococcus spp. genome was detected in both DNA (77 reads) and RNA (2,925 reads) samples. Further studies are required to reveal any association of microbial or viral infection with the pathogenesis of KD.
Kawasaki disease; lymph node; next-generation sequencer; multivirus real-time PCR; torque teno virus; streptococcus
Aberrant reactivation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been described in a wide variety of human cancers including cancer stem cells. However, involvement of the Hh-signaling system in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment during the development of myeloid neoplasms is unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of Hh-related genes in primary human CD34+ cells, CD34+ blastic cells and BM stromal cells. Both Indian Hh (Ihh) and its signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), were expressed in CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived cells. However, Ihh expression was relatively low in BM stromal cells. Remarkably, expression of the intrinsic Hh-signaling inhibitor, human Hh-interacting protein (HHIP) in AML/MDS-derived stromal cells was markedly lower than in healthy donor-derived stromal cells. Moreover, HHIP expression levels in BM stromal cells highly correlated with their supporting activity for SMO+ leukemic cells. Knockdown of HHIP gene in stromal cells increased their supporting activity although control cells marginally supported SMO+ leukemic cell proliferation. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued HHIP expression via demethylation of HHIP gene and reduced the leukemic cell-supporting activity of AML/MDS-derived stromal cells. This indicates that suppression of stromal HHIP could be associated with the proliferation of AML/MDS cells.
acute myeloid leukemia (AML); myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); human hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP); stromal cells
Several molecular targeted agents have been approved for clinical use for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). A case of a 32-year-old woman with mRCC is presented. These tumors could change vascularity by administration of molecular agents. We could select a drug timely based on findings of computed tomography. To our knowledge, this is the first report that tumor's character change induced by molecular targeted agents can be detected and the efficacy of molecular targeted agents can be predicted.
A new non-invasive continuous cardiac output (esCCO) monitoring system solely utilizing a routine cardiovascular monitor was developed, even though a reference cardiac output (CO) is consistently required. Subsequently, a non-invasive patient information CO calibration together with a new automated exclusion algorithm was implemented in the esCCO system. We evaluated the accuracy and trending ability of the new esCCO system. Either operative or postoperative data of a multicenter study in Japan for evaluation of the accuracy of the original version of esCCO system were used to develop the new esCCO system. A total of 207 patients, mostly cardiac surgical patients, were enrolled in the study. Data were manually reviewed to formulate a new automated exclusion algorithm with enhanced accuracy. Then, a new esCCO system based on a patient information calibration together with the automated exclusion algorithm was developed. CO measured with a new esCCO system was compared with the corresponding intermittent bolus thermodilution CO (ICO) utilizing statistical methods including polar plots analysis. A total of 465 sets of CO data obtained using the new esCCO system were evaluated. The difference in the CO value between the new esCCO and ICO was 0.34 ± 1.50 (SD) L/min (95 % confidence limits of −2.60 to 3.28 L/min). The percentage error was 69.6 %. Polar plots analysis showed that the mean polar angle was −1.6° and radial limits of agreement were ±53.3°. This study demonstrates that the patient information calibration is clinically useful as ICO, but trending ability of the new esCCO system is not clinically acceptable as judged by percentage error and polar plots analysis, even though it’s trending ability is comparable with currently available arterial waveform analysis methods.
Cardiac output; Measurement technique; Non-invasive calibration; Pulse contour analysis; Pulse wave transit time
Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic.
Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit.
Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks.
The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.
Word recall; Word recognition; Divided attention; Executive functions; Mini-Mental State Examination; Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale; Alzheimer's disease
Owing to its aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapies, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a dismal prognosis. New strategies to improve treatment and survival are therefore urgently required. Numerous fucosylated antigens in sera serve as tumor markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Increased expression of fucosyltransferases has also been reported for pancreatic cancer. These enzymes accelerate malignant transformation through fucosylation of sialylated precursors, suggesting a crucial requirement for fucose by pancreatic cancer cells. With this in mind, we developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specifically to cancer cells. L-fucose-bound liposomes containing Cy5.5 or Cisplatin were effectively delivered into CA19-9 expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Excess L-fucose decreased the efficiency of Cy5.5 introduction by L-fucose-bound liposomes, suggesting L-fucose-receptor-mediated delivery. Intravenously injected L-fucose-bound liposomes carrying Cisplatin were successfully delivered to pancreatic cancer cells, mediating efficient tumor growth inhibition as well as prolonging survival in mouse xenograft models. This modality represents a new strategy for pancreatic cancer cell-targeting therapy.
Promoter proximal pausing by initiated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and regulated release of paused polymerase into productive elongation has emerged as a major mechanism of transcription activation. Reactivation of paused Pol II correlates with recruitment of SuperElongationComplexes (SECs) containing ELL/EAF family members, P-TEFb, and other proteins, but the mechanism of their recruitment is currently a major unanswered question. Here, we present evidence for a role of human Mediator subunit Med26 in this process. We identify in the conserved N-terminal domain of Med26 overlapping docking sites for SEC and a second ELL/EAF-containing complex, as well as general initiation factor TFIID. In addition, we present evidence consistent with the model that Med26 can function as a molecular switch that interacts first with TFIID in the Pol II initiation complex and then exchanges TFIID for complexes containing ELL/EAF and P-TEFb to facilitate transition of Pol II into the elongation stage of transcription.
The study describes >400 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B exon 2 and 114 intron 2 sequences of 36 passerine bird species, 13 of which belong to the group of Darwin’s finches (DFs) and the remaining 23 to close or more distant relatives of DFs in Central and South America. The data set is analyzed by a combination of judiciously selected statistical methods. The analysis reveals that reliable information concerning MHC organization, including the assignment of sequences to loci, and evolution, as well as the process of species divergence, can be obtained in the absence of genomic sequence data, if the analysis is taken several steps beyond the standard phylogenetic tree construction approach. The main findings of the present study are these: The MHC class II B region of the passerine birds is as elaborate in its organization, divergence, and genetic diversity as the MHC of the eutherian mammals, specifically the primates. Hence, the reported simplicity of the fowl MHC is an oddity. With the help of appropriate markers, the divergence of the MHC genes can be traced deep in the phylogeny of the bird taxa. Transspecies polymorphism is rampant at many of the bird MHC loci. In this respect, the DFs behave as if they were a single, genetically undifferentiated population. There is thus far no indication of alleles that could be considered species, genus, or even DF group specific. The implication of these findings is that DFs are in the midst of adaptive radiations, in which morphological differentiation into species is running ahead of genetic differentiation in genetic systems such as the MHC or the mitochondrial DNA. The radiations are so young that there has not been enough time to sort out polymorphisms at most of the loci among the morphologically differentiating species. These findings parallel those on Lake Victoria haplochromine fishes. Several of the DF MHC allelic lineages can be traced back to the MHC genes of the species Tiaris obscura, which we identified previously as the closest extant relative of DFs in continental America.
Darwin’s finches; MHC class II; species polymorphism; phylogeny; variability; continental finches
Objective. The bacterial examination has been performed during the course of the root canal treatment. In the present pilot study, the new developed method, using fluorescence reagents and a membrane filter, was applied to the detection and quantification of bacteria in infected root canals, in order to evaluate the outcomes of the treatment. Methods. Six infected root canals with periapical lesions from 5 subjects were included. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 23–79 years). Samples from infected root canals were collected at the beginning of the treatment (termed #25 First), the end of the first day of treatment (termed #55 First), and the next appointment day (termed #55 Second). Then, the bacterial count (CFU) was measured using fluorescence reagents (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide) and the polycarbonate membrane filter by Bioplorer. Results. The mean ± SD of CFU in the sample of “#25 First” was (1.0 ± 1.4) × 105. As the root canal treatment progressed, the CFU decreased as 7.9 × 103 (#55 First) and 4.3 × 102 (#55 Second). Conclusion. In the present pilot study, rapid detection and quantification of bacteria in infected root canals were found to be successfully performed using fluorescence reagents and a membrane filter (Bioplorer analysis).
We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravenous dose peramivir for treatment of influenza B virus infection in ferrets and cynomolgus macaques in the present study. A single dose of peramivir (60 mg/kg of body weight) given to ferrets on 1 day postinfection with influenza B virus significantly reduced median area under the curve (AUC) virus titers (peramivir, 8.3 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50s]·day/ml; control, 10.7 log10 TCID50s·day/ml; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, nasal virus titers on day 2 postinfection in ferrets receiving a single injection of peramivir (30 mg/kg) and AUCs of the body temperature increase in ferrets receiving a single injection of peramivir (30 and 60 mg/kg) were lower than those in ferrets administered oral oseltamivir phosphate (30 and 60 mg/kg/day twice daily for 3 days). In macaques infected with influenza B virus, viral titers in the nasal swab fluid on days 2 and 3 postinfection and body temperature after a single injection of peramivir (30 mg/kg) were lower than those after oral administration of oseltamivir phosphate (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days). The two animal models used in the present study demonstrated that inhibition of viral replication at the early time point after infection was critical in reduction of AUCs of virus titers and interleukin-6 production, resulting in amelioration of symptoms. Our results shown in animal models suggest that the early treatment with a single intravenous injection of peramivir is clinically recommended to reduce symptoms effectively in influenza B virus infection.
Background. A key missing element in the development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is an immunogen that can generate broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of the virus.
Methods. This phase 1 clinical trial employed a DNA prime and subunit envelope protein boost in an attempt to generate cellular and humoral immune responses that might be desirable in a protective HIV vaccine. Priming was performed via intramuscular injection with gag and env DNA adsorbed to polylactide coglycolide microspheres, followed by boosting with a recombinant trimeric envelope (Env) glycoprotein delivered in MF59 adjuvant.
Results. The DNA prime and protein boost were generally safe and well-tolerated. Env-specific CD4+ cellular responses were generated that were predominantly detected after Env protein boosting. Neutralizing antibody responses against the homologous SF162 viral isolate were remarkably strong and were present in the majority of vaccine recipients, including a strong response against CD4-induced epitopes on gp120. Despite the promising potency of this vaccine approach, neutralization breadth against heterologous tier 2 strains of HIV-1 was minimal.
Conclusions. Potent neutralization against neutralization-sensitive strains of HIV is achievable in humans through a DNA prime, recombinant oligomeric Env protein boost regimen. Eliciting substantial breadth of neutralization remains an elusive goal.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00073216.
Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years). Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU) were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU) in root canals was (0.5 ± 1.1) × 106 (range 8.0 × 101–3.1 × 106), and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%). The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%), Mogibacterium (17.7%), Pseudoramibacter (17.7%), Propionibacterium (11.9%) and Parvimonas (5.9%). Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.
Aberrant DNA methylation leads to loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or loss of imprinting (LOI) as the first hit during human carcinogenesis. Recently we developed a new high-throughput, high-resolution DNA methylation analysis method, bisulphite PCR-Luminex (BPL), using sperm DNA and demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel approach in rapidly identifying methylation errors.
In the current study, we applied the BPL method to the analysis of DNA methylation for identification of prognostic panels of DNA methylation cancer biomarkers of imprinted genes. We found that the BPL method precisely quantified the methylation status of specific DNA regions in somatic cells. We found a higher frequency of LOI than LOH. LOI at IGF2, PEG1 and H19 were frequent alterations, with a tendency to show a more hypermethylated state. We detected changes in DNA methylation as an early event in ovarian cancer. The degree of LOI (LOH) was associated with altered DNA methylation at IGF2/H19 and PEG1.
The relative ease of BPL method provides a practical method for use within a clinical setting. We suggest that DNA methylation of H19 and PEG1 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) may provide novel biomarkers useful for screening, diagnosis and, potentially, for improving the clinical management of women with human ovarian cancer.
Genomic imprinting; Ovarian cancer; DNA methylation; Bisulphite PCR-Luminex(BPL)method; LOI (loss of imprinting)