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1.  Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark 
Objective
To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats.
Methods
In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs.
Results
All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts.
Conclusions
In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60235-4
PMCID: PMC3609229  PMID: 23569853
Rauvolfia tetraphylla; Root bark; In-vitro antibacterial activity; Inflammation; Anti-inflammatory activity
2.  Immunomodulation of ovalbumin-specific IgG and other classes of antibody response by honey in mice 
It was reported earlier that intraperitoneal administration of honey had immunosuppressive activity on elicitation of allergen-specific murine antibody response as evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and double immunodiffusion methods. In this study, the immunomudulatory effect of honey is evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using ovalbumin as model allergen. It was found that ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG antibody responses elicited with various doses of OVA were significantly suppressed by rock bee honey (p<0.01). Honey was also found to have inhibited the production of OVA-specific IgM, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2b whereas that of IgG2a and IgG3 were not affected. Furthermore, honey also suppressed the OVA-specific total IgG antibody response in various inbred mice with different genetic background. In addition, the suppressive activity of honey was examined in different groups of mice by injecting honey at different time intervals, before and after immunization with OVA. The anti-OVA IgG antibody response was suppressed significantly when honey was injected 12 hours prior/latter to OVA injection. These results confirm the suppressive activity of honey on antibody response and suggest possible clinical application.
doi:10.1007/BF02867574
PMCID: PMC3453599  PMID: 23105298
honey; immunosuppression; humoral antibody response; ELISA
3.  Model and Scenario Variations in Predicted Number of Generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on Peanut during Future Climate Change Scenario 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0116762.
The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)—2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1–2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18–22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116762
PMCID: PMC4324841  PMID: 25671564
4.  To Evaluate the Feasibility of Neurotisation of Facial Nerve Branches with Ipsilateral Masseteric Nerve: An Anatomic Study 
Context: Facial palsy is a common problem encountered in clinical practice. These patients suffer serious functional, cosmetic & psychological problems with impaired ability to communicate. Functional problems around the eye are usually a first priority for the patient with facial palsy.The nerve to masseter as a direct nerve transfer to the zygomatic branch of facial nerve to reinnervate viable facial muscles within a year after the onset of paralysis has been scarcely reported. This study was contemplated to evaluate the feasibility of neurotisation of zygomatic branch of facial nerve with masseteric nerve branch of the trigeminal nerve
Objectives: Establishing the anatomic relationship of masseteric nerve to masseteric muscle, determining feasibility of neurotisation of zygomatic branch of facial nerve using the nerve to the masseter and establishing fascicular correlation of the donor and the recipient nerves.
Materials and Methods: Ninteen hemi-faces in ten fresh cadavers (6 Male and 4 Female)were dissected in a forensic morgue and access was by a standard preauricular incision and anterior skin flap is elevated in a subcutaneous plane. Facial nerve and its two main divisions are dissected in its full A*/extratemporal course. Zygomatic branch dissected upto zygomatic arch and the nerve to the masseter is identified within the masseter muscle, dissected proximodistally to isolate it. Feasibility of transfer of this masseteric nerve to the zygomatic branch without using nerve graft is determined. At the completion of dissection, the ends of both nerves are sent for HPE analysis to determine fascicular anatomy and count.
Results: The dissection of massteric nerve was done taking into consideration of 3 axes, that is anteroposterior (x), vertical (y) axes and mediolateral(z) for locating the nerve and for standardization of the dissection. The nerve was cut and stored in glutaraldehyde solution and subjected to histopathologic examination after fixing and staining with Haematoxilin-eosin stain. Donor masseter neve has 7-10 fascicles. Recipient zygomatic branch has 2-3 fascicles. And the buccal branch has 5-6 fascicles.
Conclusion: The use of the nerve to masseter offers a simpler ipsilateral alternative for neurotisation of the facial nerve branches in patients who have an early facial nerve paralysis.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7708.4302
PMCID: PMC4064881  PMID: 24959474
Facial palsy; Masseter nerve; Orbicularis oculi; Nerve grafting
5.  Mitochondrial Control Region Alterations and Breast Cancer Risk: A Study in South Indian Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85363.
Background
Mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) is the hot spot for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations which influence the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Association of D-loop alterations with breast cancer has been reported in few ethnic groups; however none of the reports were documented from Indian subcontinent.
Methodology
We screened the entire mitochondrial D-loop region (1124 bp) of breast cancer patients (n = 213) and controls (n = 207) of south Indian origin by PCR-sequencing analysis. Haplotype frequencies for significant loci, the standardized disequilibrium coefficient (D′) for pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) were assessed by Haploview Software.
Principal Findings
We identified 7 novel mutations and 170 reported polymorphisms in the D-loop region of patients and/or controls. Polymorphisms were predominantly located in hypervariable region I (60%) than in II (30%) of D-loop region. The frequencies of 310‘C’ insertion (P = 0.018), T16189C (P = 0.0019) variants and 310‘C’ins/16189C (P = 0.00019) haplotype were significantly higher in cases than in controls. Furthermore, strong LD was observed between nucleotide position 310 and 16189 in controls (D′ = 0.49) as compared to patients (D′ = 0.14).
Conclusions
Mitochondrial D-loop alterations may constitute inherent risk factors for breast cancer development. The analysis of genetic alterations in the D-loop region might help to identify patients at high risk for bad progression, thereby helping to refine therapeutic decisions in breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085363
PMCID: PMC3907410  PMID: 24497926
6.  Cutaneous Benign Epithelioid Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Entity 
Benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor, a rare entity is an umbrella term describing benign, neural origin tumors with epithelioid morphology. Clinically indistinguishable from other benign cutaneous lesions, histopathology offers the only source of accurate diagnosis. Morphologic mimics include many benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. Besides a predominant epithelioid component, the lesion can also show a fair share of spindle cells. A circumscribed nodular tumour of low mitotic activity, it often exhibits areas resembling schwannoma or neurofibroma. An awareness of this entity and its varied morphological aspects helps to arrive at the correct diagnosis and hence avoid unnecessary extensive surgical procedures. This case presents features of this benign tumor which occurred in a 47 years old man.
doi:10.4103/0019-5154.117354
PMCID: PMC3778815  PMID: 24082220
Benign; epithelioid; nerve sheath; peripheral
7.  A tool for the post data analysis of screened compounds derived from computer-aided docking scores 
Bioinformation  2013;9(4):207-209.
A method is described for the analysis of the results obtained from the docking studies applied on a protein target and small molecules chemical compounds as ligands from various sources using different docking tools. We show the use of Dempster Shafer Theory (DST) to select the high ranking top compounds for further analysis and consideration.
Availability
Application is freely available at http://allamapparao.org/dst/
doi:10.6026/97320630009207
PMCID: PMC3602891  PMID: 23519364
Docking; Dempster shafer theory; Theory of evidence; Virtual screening
8.  Towards an understating of signal transduction protein interaction networks 
Bioinformation  2012;8(9):437-439.
Protein network analysis has witnessed a number of advancements in the past for understanding molecular characteristics for important network topologies in biological systems. The signaling pathway regulates cell cycle progression and anti-apoptotic molecules. This pathway is also involved in maintaining cell survival by modulating the activity of apoptosis through RAS, P13K, AKT and BAD activities. The importance of protein-protein interactions to improve usability of the interactome by scoring and ranking interaction data for proteins in signal transduction networks is illustrated using available data and resources.
doi:10.6026/97320630008437
PMCID: PMC3374375  PMID: 22715315
Signal transduction; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis
9.  Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea  
If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient).
doi:10.1673/031.012.10301
PMCID: PMC3605029  PMID: 23437971
atmospheric carbon dioxide; consumption; foliage; insect performance indices
10.  Evidence of altered DNA integrity in the brain regions of suicidal victims of Bipolar Depression 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2010;52(3):220-228.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity plays a significant role in cell function. There are limited studies with regard to the role of DNA damage in bipolar affective disorder (BP). In the present study, we have assessed DNA integrity, conformation, and stability in the brain region of bipolar depression (BD) patients (n=10) compared to age-matched controls (n=8). Genomic DNA was isolated from 10 postmortem BD patients’ brain regions (frontal cortex, Pons, medulla, thalamus, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Parietal, temporal, occipital lobe, and hippocampus) and from the age-matched control subjects. DNA from the frontal cortex, pons, medulla, and thalamus showed significantly higher number of strand breaks in BD (P<0.01) compared to the age-matched controls. However, DNA from the hippocampus region was intact and did not show any strand breaks. The stability studies also indicated that the melting temperature and ethidium bromide binding pattern were altered in the DNA of BD patients’ brain regions, except in the hippocampus. The conformation studies showed B-A or secondary B-DNA conformation (instead of the normal B-DNA) in BD patients’ brain regions, with the exception of the hippocampus. The levels of redox metals such as Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) were significantly elevated in the brain regions of the sufferers of BD, while the Zinc (Zn) level was decreased. In the hippocampus, there was no change in the Fe or Cu levels, whereas, the Zn level was elevated. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in the brain regions of the BD. To date, as far as we are aware, this is a new comprehensive database on stability and conformations of DNA in different brain regions of patients affected with BD. The biological significance of these findings is discussed here.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.70974
PMCID: PMC2990821  PMID: 21180406
Bipolar depression; DNA fragmentation; DNA conformation; strand breaks; DNA stability; brain regions; trace metals; oxidative stress
11.  New evidence on iron, copper accumulation and zinc depletion and its correlation with DNA integrity in aging human brain regions 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2010;52(2):140-144.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) conformation and stability play an important role in brain function. Earlier studies reported alterations in DNA integrity in the brain regions of neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, there are only limited studies on DNA stability in an aging brain and the factors responsible for genomic instability are still not clear. In this study, we assess the levels of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in three age groups (Group I: below 40 years), Group II: between 41-60 years) and Group III: above 61 years) in hippocampus and frontal cortex regions of normal brains. The number of samples in each group was eight. Genomic DNA was isolated and DNA integrity was studied by nick translation studies and presented as single and double strand breaks. The number of single strand breaks correspondingly increased with aging compared to double strand breaks. The strand breaks were more in frontal cortex compared to hippocampus. We observed that the levels of Cu and Fe are significantly elevated while Zn is significantly depleted as one progresses from Group I to Group III, indicating changes with aging in frontal cortex and hippocampus. But the elevation of metals was more in frontal cortical region compared to hippocampal region. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in aging brain regions. This indicates that genomic instability is progressive with aging and this will alter the gene expressions. To our knowledge, this is a new comprehensive database to date, looking at the levels of redox metals and corresponding strand breaks in DNA in two brain regions of the aging brain. The biological significance of these findings with relevance to mental health will be discussed.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.64590
PMCID: PMC2927883  PMID: 20838501
Aging brain; DNA strand breaks; DNA stability; brain regions; trace metals; oxidative stress
12.  Assessment of serum L-fucose in brain tumor cases 
Background:
Glycosylation of altered tumor cell in relation to cellular heterogeneity in human intracranial tumors remains relatively unexposed. Serum protein-bound carbohydrate, L-Fucose is reported to be overexpressed during tumor progression by many investigators. Therefore, there is a need to determine the diagnostic, prognostic, functional significance of glycoprotein elevations in various cases of tumors.
Objective:
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of serum L-fucose in patients with brain tumor.
Materials and Methods:
Serum glyco-conjugate levels were estimated in 99 patients with brain tumors. Estimation of L-fucose was carried out colorimetrically by the method of Winzler using cysteine hydrochloride.
Results:
There was a significant increase in L-fucose level in most of the patients. In the posttreatment cases, the L-fucose levels were apparently low compared to preoperative values.
Conclusion:
Our results showed that the rise in serum L-fucose may be used as a general marker for brain tumors in addition to other markers.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.61274
PMCID: PMC2859585  PMID: 20436744
Brain tumors; cysteine hydrochloride; glycosylation; L-Fucose
13.  Integration of Leprosy Elimination into Primary Health Care in Orissa, India 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8351.
Background
Leprosy was eliminated as a public health problem (<1 case per 10,000) in India by December 2005. With this target in sight the need for a separate vertical programme was diminished. The second phase of the National Leprosy Eradication Programme was therefore initiated: decentralisation of the vertical programme, integration of leprosy services into the primary health care (PHC) system and development of a surveillance system to monitor programme performance.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To study the process of integration a qualitative analysis of issues and perceptions of patients and providers, and a review of leprosy records and registers to evaluate programme performance was carried out in the state of Orissa, India. Program performance indicators such as a low mean defaulter rate of 3.83% and a low-misdiagnosis rate of 4.45% demonstrated no detrimental effect of integration on program success. PHC staff were generally found to be highly knowledgeable of diagnosis and management of leprosy cases due to frequent training and a support network of leprosy experts. However in urban hospitals district-level leprosy experts had assumed leprosy activities. The aim was to aid busy PHC staff but it also compromised their leprosy knowledge and management capacity. Inadequate monitoring of a policy of ‘new case validation,’ in which MDT was not initiated until primary diagnosis had been verified by a leprosy expert, may have led to approximately 26% of suspect cases awaiting confirmation of diagnosis 1–8 months after their initial PHC visit.
Conclusions/Significance
This study highlights the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of the integration process. Inadequate monitoring could lead to a reduction in early diagnosis, a delay in initiation of MDT and an increase in disability rates. This in turn could reverse some of the programme's achievements. These findings may help Andhra Pradesh and other states in India to improve their integration process and may also have implications for other disease elimination programmes such as polio and guinea worm (dracunculiasis) as they move closer to their elimination goals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008351
PMCID: PMC2791232  PMID: 20020051
14.  Assessment of total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid in management of brain tumors 
Background:
Glycoconjugate molecules expressed at the plasma membrane of mammalian cells have been reported to be associated with tumor progression. The measurement of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be useful for the diagnosis of brain tumors. But there are very few reports available on the serum glycoconjugate levels in patients with brain tumors.
Objective:
The objective of this study is to check the feasibility of using serum glycoconjugates such as TSA and LBSA as tumor markers in brain tumor patients.
Materials and Methods:
Colorimetric estimation of TSA using diphenylamine was done on 100 patients with intracranial tumors; follow-up study was carried out in 24 cases. The LBSA fraction was isolated from the serum of 68 brain tumor patients and evaluated using phosphotungstic acid and resorcinol; follow-up study was done on 23 patients. The various types of brain tumors included in this study were glioma, meningioma, and acoustic neurinoma as well as some other types such as medulloblastoma, secondary tumors, and craniopharyngioma.
Results:
There was no significant difference between the TSA and LBSA concentrations seen in pretreatment or post-treatment cases and that seen in control subjects.
Discussion:
TSA and LBSA do not have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant brain tumors. TSA and LBSA appear to be tumor markers of very limited value in patients with brain tumors.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.56315
PMCID: PMC2824932  PMID: 20174496
Brain tumors; lipid-bound sialic acid; total sialic acid; tumor markers
15.  Differential Effects of Leptin on the Invasive Potential of Androgen-Dependent and -Independent Prostate Carcinoma Cells 
Obesity has been linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The formation of toxic free oxygen radicals has been implicated in obesity mediated disease processes. Leptin is one of the major cytokines produced by adipocytes and controls body weight homeostasis through food intake and energy expenditure. The rationale of the study was to determine the impact of leptin on the metastatic potential of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) cells as well as androgen-insensitive (PC-3 and DU-145) cells. At a concentration of 200 nm, LNCaP cells showed a significant increase (20% above control; P < .0001) in cellular proliferation without any effect on androgen-insensitive cells. Furthermore, exposure to leptin caused a significant (P < .01 to P < .0001) dose-dependent decrease in migration and invasion of PC3 and Du-145 prostate carcinoma cell lines. At the molecular level, exposure of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to leptin stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK at early time point as well as the transcription factor STAT3, suggesting the activation of the intracellular signaling cascade upon leptin binding to its cognate receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin mediates the invasive potential of prostate carcinoma cells, and that this effect is dependent on their androgen sensitivity.
doi:10.1155/2008/163902
PMCID: PMC2435597  PMID: 18584049
16.  Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn) During Growth Spurt Period in Rats 
Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nem079
PMCID: PMC2686623  PMID: 18955230
amygdaloid neurons; dendritic branches; dendritic intersections; neonatal rat pups; camera lucida
17.  Centella asiatica (L.) Leaf Extract Treatment During the Growth Spurt Period Enhances Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization in Rats 
Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping plant growing in damp places in India and other Asian countries. The leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternative system of medicine in India. In this study, we have investigated the effect during the rat growth spurt period of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions of the brain concerned with learning and memory. Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were fed with 2, 4 or 6 ml kg−1 body weight of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were killed, their brains were removed and the hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using a camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with data for age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in the dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in rats treated with 4 and 6 ml kg−1 body weight per day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that the constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf extract have a neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence, the extract can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and neurodegenerative and memory disorders.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nel024
PMCID: PMC1513148  PMID: 16951719
Centella asiatica; dendritic branches; dendritic intersections; growth spurt period; hippocampal CA3 neurons
18.  Comparative modeling of class 1 lysyl tRNA synthetase from Treponema pallidum 
Bioinformation  2006;1(3):81-82.
Lysyl tRNA synthetases facilitate amino acylation and play a crucial role in the essential cellular process of translation. They are grouped into two distinct classes (class I and class II). Class I lysyl tRNA synthetase is considered as a drug target for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Comparative genome analysis shows the absence of its sequence homolog in eukaryotes. The structure of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from Treponema pallidum is unknown and the difficulties in the in vitro culturing of Treponema makes it non-trivial. We used the structural template of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from the archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii for modeling the Treponema pallidum lysyl tRNA synthetase structure. Thus, we propose the usefulness of the modeled class I lysyl tRNA synthetase for the design of suitable inhibitors towards the treatment of syphilis.
PMCID: PMC1891664  PMID: 17597860
Treponema pallidum; lysyl tRNA synthetase; modeller; syphilis; comparative modeling
19.  Induction of IgE antibody response by the green seed extract ofVigna sinensis in mice 
Sensitization to ingested foods is a known fact and several food allergens have been characterized. It has been observed in our survey that the people complained of allergic symptoms after consumption of the vegetableVigna sinensis. In this study, the experiments were carried to investigate the IgE antibody response against the green seed extract of vigna sinensis in mice and found that the primary, secondary and tertiary immunization with or without adjuvant by different doses induced a significant production of IgE antibodies. The presence of IgE antibodies in the mice sera were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It was also confirmed that these allergens were found to be heat resistant and shared a common epitope(s) with the other legume foods, as evidenced by the cross-reactive studies.
doi:10.1007/BF02867662
PMCID: PMC3453736  PMID: 23105368
Vigna sinensis; Food allergy; PCA; ELISA
20.  Oxidative stress and antioxidants in tubercular meningitis 
Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Therefore, in the present study, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, percentage hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, vitamins A,E and C have been determined in 19 patients with tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 50 normals. Six patients who were treated with antibiotics were considered for the follow up. The statistical analysis was carried out by Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Lipid peroxidation (P<0.02), percentage hemolysis (P<0.001) and plasma ceruloplasmin (P<0.0001) of TBM patients were significantly higher, whereas erythrocyte glutathione reductase (P<0.05) and plasma antioxidant vitamins A, E and C (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively) were significantly lower than those of the controls. In the follow up patients the glutathione reductase and catalase levels were significantly high (P<0.05) compared to their pre-treated condition. Vitamin C and E levels have attained normal range. This study indicated that the blood antioxidant status of TBM patients which was low compared to controls improved after treatment, suggesting the role of free radicals in TBM.
doi:10.1007/BF02867939
PMCID: PMC3453718  PMID: 23105334
Antioxidant enzymes; antioxidant vitamins; lipid peroxidation; tubercular meningitis
21.  ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES AND BARK OF DELONIX ELATA 
Ancient Science of Life  1997;17(2):141-143.
Delonix elata is known to be used for joint pains and in flatulence. It was accidentally observed that local people of some regions using the leaves and bark of Delonix elata in inflammation. There was n report on anti-inflammatory activity of Delonix elata. Antiinflammatory activity of the alcoholic extracts of the leaves and bark of Delonix elata was found to be significant.
PMCID: PMC3331094  PMID: 22556835
22.  Soft Tissue Myxoma- A Rare Differential Diagnosis of Localized Oral Cavity Lesions 
Myxomas have a common histologic appearance of myxoid ground substance and are classified in group of soft tissue tumors. According to literature myxomas occurring in every decade of life have been reported. Very often intraoral soft tissue myxoma can be misinterpreted as malignant and are difficult to differentiate from the other tumours with myxoid stroma. Of the different variants of soft tissue myxoma, intraoral is extremely rare, slow growing, benign mesenchymal tumour. We report a case of a 22-year-old male who presented with swelling in the right cheek and mass in the right buccal mucosa that appeared gradually over two year. No history of pain over the lesion or bleeding on touch. On intraoral examination a lesion measuring 3 X 3 cm was seen in the right buccal mucosa. Biopsy of the lesion revealed oral soft tissue myxoma. Wide excision with clinically clear margins was done under general anaesthesia. Histopathological report revealed the diagnosis as to be oral soft tissue myxoma. A case of oral soft tissue myxoma is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localized oral cavity lesions.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10189.5288
PMCID: PMC4316281  PMID: 25653975
Buccal mucosa; Myxoma; Oral cavity
23.  Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka 
Aims: To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities.
Design: Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. All children from nursery up to 10th standard were screened.
Materials and Methods: Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist.
Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Student’s unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%).
Conclusion: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8769.5233
PMCID: PMC4316303  PMID: 25653997
Dental caries; Obesity; Refractory error; Stunting; Thinness
24.  Left Ventricular Function during Acute High-Altitude Exposure in a Large Group of Healthy Young Chinese Men 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0116936.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.
Methods
A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.
Results
Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and left ventricular (LV) Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD), end-systolic volume (ESV), SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET) were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.
Conclusion
Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116936
PMCID: PMC4309605  PMID: 25629435
25.  Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2015;7(1):38-44.
Background:
Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
Aim:
To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
Materials and Methods:
Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats’ general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
Results:
Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
Conclusion:
The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.147197
PMCID: PMC4285647  PMID: 25598633
Diabetes; sky fruit; Swietenia macrophylla; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit

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