It was reported earlier that intraperitoneal administration of honey had immunosuppressive activity on elicitation of allergen-specific murine antibody response as evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and double immunodiffusion methods. In this study, the immunomudulatory effect of honey is evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using ovalbumin as model allergen. It was found that ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG antibody responses elicited with various doses of OVA were significantly suppressed by rock bee honey (p<0.01). Honey was also found to have inhibited the production of OVA-specific IgM, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2b whereas that of IgG2a and IgG3 were not affected. Furthermore, honey also suppressed the OVA-specific total IgG antibody response in various inbred mice with different genetic background. In addition, the suppressive activity of honey was examined in different groups of mice by injecting honey at different time intervals, before and after immunization with OVA. The anti-OVA IgG antibody response was suppressed significantly when honey was injected 12 hours prior/latter to OVA injection. These results confirm the suppressive activity of honey on antibody response and suggest possible clinical application.
honey; immunosuppression; humoral antibody response; ELISA
Protein network analysis has witnessed a number of advancements in the past for understanding molecular characteristics for
important network topologies in biological systems. The signaling pathway regulates cell cycle progression and anti-apoptotic
molecules. This pathway is also involved in maintaining cell survival by modulating the activity of apoptosis through RAS, P13K,
AKT and BAD activities. The importance of protein-protein interactions to improve usability of the interactome by scoring and
ranking interaction data for proteins in signal transduction networks is illustrated using available data and resources.
Signal transduction; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity plays a significant role in cell function. There are limited studies with regard to the role of DNA damage in bipolar affective disorder (BP). In the present study, we have assessed DNA integrity, conformation, and stability in the brain region of bipolar depression (BD) patients (n=10) compared to age-matched controls (n=8). Genomic DNA was isolated from 10 postmortem BD patients’ brain regions (frontal cortex, Pons, medulla, thalamus, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Parietal, temporal, occipital lobe, and hippocampus) and from the age-matched control subjects. DNA from the frontal cortex, pons, medulla, and thalamus showed significantly higher number of strand breaks in BD (P<0.01) compared to the age-matched controls. However, DNA from the hippocampus region was intact and did not show any strand breaks. The stability studies also indicated that the melting temperature and ethidium bromide binding pattern were altered in the DNA of BD patients’ brain regions, except in the hippocampus. The conformation studies showed B-A or secondary B-DNA conformation (instead of the normal B-DNA) in BD patients’ brain regions, with the exception of the hippocampus. The levels of redox metals such as Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) were significantly elevated in the brain regions of the sufferers of BD, while the Zinc (Zn) level was decreased. In the hippocampus, there was no change in the Fe or Cu levels, whereas, the Zn level was elevated. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in the brain regions of the BD. To date, as far as we are aware, this is a new comprehensive database on stability and conformations of DNA in different brain regions of patients affected with BD. The biological significance of these findings is discussed here.
Bipolar depression; DNA fragmentation; DNA conformation; strand breaks; DNA stability; brain regions; trace metals; oxidative stress
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) conformation and stability play an important role in brain function. Earlier studies reported alterations in DNA integrity in the brain regions of neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, there are only limited studies on DNA stability in an aging brain and the factors responsible for genomic instability are still not clear. In this study, we assess the levels of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in three age groups (Group I: below 40 years), Group II: between 41-60 years) and Group III: above 61 years) in hippocampus and frontal cortex regions of normal brains. The number of samples in each group was eight. Genomic DNA was isolated and DNA integrity was studied by nick translation studies and presented as single and double strand breaks. The number of single strand breaks correspondingly increased with aging compared to double strand breaks. The strand breaks were more in frontal cortex compared to hippocampus. We observed that the levels of Cu and Fe are significantly elevated while Zn is significantly depleted as one progresses from Group I to Group III, indicating changes with aging in frontal cortex and hippocampus. But the elevation of metals was more in frontal cortical region compared to hippocampal region. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in aging brain regions. This indicates that genomic instability is progressive with aging and this will alter the gene expressions. To our knowledge, this is a new comprehensive database to date, looking at the levels of redox metals and corresponding strand breaks in DNA in two brain regions of the aging brain. The biological significance of these findings with relevance to mental health will be discussed.
Aging brain; DNA strand breaks; DNA stability; brain regions; trace metals; oxidative stress
Glycosylation of altered tumor cell in relation to cellular heterogeneity in human intracranial tumors remains relatively unexposed. Serum protein-bound carbohydrate, L-Fucose is reported to be overexpressed during tumor progression by many investigators. Therefore, there is a need to determine the diagnostic, prognostic, functional significance of glycoprotein elevations in various cases of tumors.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of serum L-fucose in patients with brain tumor.
Materials and Methods:
Serum glyco-conjugate levels were estimated in 99 patients with brain tumors. Estimation of L-fucose was carried out colorimetrically by the method of Winzler using cysteine hydrochloride.
There was a significant increase in L-fucose level in most of the patients. In the posttreatment cases, the L-fucose levels were apparently low compared to preoperative values.
Our results showed that the rise in serum L-fucose may be used as a general marker for brain tumors in addition to other markers.
Brain tumors; cysteine hydrochloride; glycosylation; L-Fucose
Leprosy was eliminated as a public health problem (<1 case per 10,000) in India by December 2005. With this target in sight the need for a separate vertical programme was diminished. The second phase of the National Leprosy Eradication Programme was therefore initiated: decentralisation of the vertical programme, integration of leprosy services into the primary health care (PHC) system and development of a surveillance system to monitor programme performance.
To study the process of integration a qualitative analysis of issues and perceptions of patients and providers, and a review of leprosy records and registers to evaluate programme performance was carried out in the state of Orissa, India. Program performance indicators such as a low mean defaulter rate of 3.83% and a low-misdiagnosis rate of 4.45% demonstrated no detrimental effect of integration on program success. PHC staff were generally found to be highly knowledgeable of diagnosis and management of leprosy cases due to frequent training and a support network of leprosy experts. However in urban hospitals district-level leprosy experts had assumed leprosy activities. The aim was to aid busy PHC staff but it also compromised their leprosy knowledge and management capacity. Inadequate monitoring of a policy of ‘new case validation,’ in which MDT was not initiated until primary diagnosis had been verified by a leprosy expert, may have led to approximately 26% of suspect cases awaiting confirmation of diagnosis 1–8 months after their initial PHC visit.
This study highlights the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of the integration process. Inadequate monitoring could lead to a reduction in early diagnosis, a delay in initiation of MDT and an increase in disability rates. This in turn could reverse some of the programme's achievements. These findings may help Andhra Pradesh and other states in India to improve their integration process and may also have implications for other disease elimination programmes such as polio and guinea worm (dracunculiasis) as they move closer to their elimination goals.
Glycoconjugate molecules expressed at the plasma membrane of mammalian cells have been reported to be associated with tumor progression. The measurement of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be useful for the diagnosis of brain tumors. But there are very few reports available on the serum glycoconjugate levels in patients with brain tumors.
The objective of this study is to check the feasibility of using serum glycoconjugates such as TSA and LBSA as tumor markers in brain tumor patients.
Materials and Methods:
Colorimetric estimation of TSA using diphenylamine was done on 100 patients with intracranial tumors; follow-up study was carried out in 24 cases. The LBSA fraction was isolated from the serum of 68 brain tumor patients and evaluated using phosphotungstic acid and resorcinol; follow-up study was done on 23 patients. The various types of brain tumors included in this study were glioma, meningioma, and acoustic neurinoma as well as some other types such as medulloblastoma, secondary tumors, and craniopharyngioma.
There was no significant difference between the TSA and LBSA concentrations seen in pretreatment or post-treatment cases and that seen in control subjects.
TSA and LBSA do not have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant brain tumors. TSA and LBSA appear to be tumor markers of very limited value in patients with brain tumors.
Brain tumors; lipid-bound sialic acid; total sialic acid; tumor markers
Obesity has been linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The formation of toxic free oxygen radicals has been implicated in obesity mediated disease processes. Leptin is one of the major cytokines produced by adipocytes and controls body weight homeostasis through food intake and energy expenditure. The rationale of the study was to determine the impact of leptin on the metastatic potential of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) cells as well as androgen-insensitive (PC-3 and DU-145) cells. At a concentration of 200 nm, LNCaP cells showed a significant increase (20% above control; P < .0001) in cellular proliferation without any effect on androgen-insensitive cells. Furthermore, exposure to leptin caused a significant (P < .01 to P < .0001) dose-dependent decrease in migration and invasion of PC3 and Du-145 prostate carcinoma cell lines. At the molecular level, exposure of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to leptin stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK at early time point as well as the transcription factor STAT3, suggesting the activation of the intracellular signaling cascade upon leptin binding to its cognate receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin mediates the invasive potential of prostate carcinoma cells, and that this effect is dependent on their androgen sensitivity.
Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.
amygdaloid neurons; dendritic branches; dendritic intersections; neonatal rat pups; camera lucida
Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping plant growing in damp places in India and other Asian countries. The leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternative system of medicine in India. In this study, we have investigated the effect during the rat growth spurt period of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions of the brain concerned with learning and memory. Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were fed with 2, 4 or 6 ml kg−1 body weight of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were killed, their brains were removed and the hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using a camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with data for age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in the dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in rats treated with 4 and 6 ml kg−1 body weight per day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that the constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf extract have a neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence, the extract can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and neurodegenerative and memory disorders.
Centella asiatica; dendritic branches; dendritic intersections; growth spurt period; hippocampal CA3 neurons
Lysyl tRNA synthetases facilitate amino acylation and play a crucial role in the essential cellular process of translation.
They are grouped into two distinct classes (class I and class II). Class I lysyl tRNA synthetase is considered as a drug
target for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Comparative genome analysis shows the absence of its sequence homolog in
eukaryotes. The structure of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from Treponema pallidum is unknown and the difficulties in the in
vitro culturing of Treponema makes it non-trivial. We used the structural template of class I lysyl tRNA synthetase from the
archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii for modeling the Treponema pallidum lysyl tRNA synthetase structure. Thus, we propose the
usefulness of the modeled class I lysyl tRNA synthetase for the design of suitable inhibitors towards the treatment of
Treponema pallidum; lysyl tRNA synthetase; modeller; syphilis; comparative modeling
Sensitization to ingested foods is a known fact and several food allergens have been characterized. It has been observed in our survey that the people complained of allergic symptoms after consumption of the vegetableVigna sinensis. In this study, the experiments were carried to investigate the IgE antibody response against the green seed extract of vigna sinensis in mice and found that the primary, secondary and tertiary immunization with or without adjuvant by different doses induced a significant production of IgE antibodies. The presence of IgE antibodies in the mice sera were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It was also confirmed that these allergens were found to be heat resistant and shared a common epitope(s) with the other legume foods, as evidenced by the cross-reactive studies.
Vigna sinensis; Food allergy; PCA; ELISA
Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Therefore, in the present study, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, percentage hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, vitamins A,E and C have been determined in 19 patients with tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 50 normals. Six patients who were treated with antibiotics were considered for the follow up. The statistical analysis was carried out by Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Lipid peroxidation (P<0.02), percentage hemolysis (P<0.001) and plasma ceruloplasmin (P<0.0001) of TBM patients were significantly higher, whereas erythrocyte glutathione reductase (P<0.05) and plasma antioxidant vitamins A, E and C (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively) were significantly lower than those of the controls. In the follow up patients the glutathione reductase and catalase levels were significantly high (P<0.05) compared to their pre-treated condition. Vitamin C and E levels have attained normal range. This study indicated that the blood antioxidant status of TBM patients which was low compared to controls improved after treatment, suggesting the role of free radicals in TBM.
Antioxidant enzymes; antioxidant vitamins; lipid peroxidation; tubercular meningitis
Delonix elata is known to be used for joint pains and in flatulence. It was accidentally observed that local people of some regions using the leaves and bark of Delonix elata in inflammation. There was n report on anti-inflammatory activity of Delonix elata. Antiinflammatory activity of the alcoholic extracts of the leaves and bark of Delonix elata was found to be significant.
Cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are postulated to play key roles in glioma invasion. Calcineurin is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Hence, we studied subcellular localization of calcineurin after transcriptional downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B in glioma. In the present study, efficient downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B increased the translocation of calcineurin A from the mitochondria to the cytosol, decreased pBAD (S136) expression and its interaction with 14-3-3ζ, and increased the interaction of BAD with Bcl-Xl. Co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B induced mitochondrial translocation of BAD and caspase 3 as well as PARP activation, cytochrome c and SMAC release. These effects were inhibited by FK506 (10 μM), a specific inhibitor of calcineurin. Calcineurin A was co-localized and also co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2. This interaction decreased with co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B and also with Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA 14-1 (20 μg/mL). Altered localization and interaction of calcineurin A with Bcl-2 was also observed in vivo when uPAR and cathepsin B were downregulated. In conclusion, downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induced apoptosis by targeting calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in glioma.
Calcineurin; BAD; Bcl2; glioma
Mercury is one of the noxious heavy metal environmental toxicants and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone found in Mangifera indica, reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of MGN, against mercury chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line. The cytoprotective effect of MGN on HgCl2 induced toxicity was assessed by colony formation assay, while antiapoptotic effect by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and DNA fragmentation pattern assays. Further, the cytoprotective effect of MGN against HgCl2 toxicity was assessed by using biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) by spectrophotometrically, mitochondrial membrane potential by flowcytometry and the changes in reactive oxygen species levels by DCFH-DA spectrofluoremetric analysis. A significant increase in the surviving fraction was observed with 50 µM of MGN administered two hours prior to various concentrations of HgCl2. Further, pretreatment of MGN significantly decreased the percentage of HgCl2 induced apoptotic cells. Similarly, the levels of ROS generated by the HgCl2 treatment were inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) by MGN. MGN also significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited the HgCl2 induced decrease in GSH, GST, SOD, and CAT levels at all the post incubation intervals. Our study demonstrated the cytoprotective potential of MGN, which may be attributed to quenching of the ROS generated in the cells due to oxidative stress induced by HgCl2, restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and normalization of cellular antioxidant levels.
apoptosis; cytotoxicity; mangiferin; mercury chloride and reactive oxygen species
Our previous studies have shown the role of radiation-induced urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in the progression of meningioma. In the present study, we investigated whether modulation of DNA methylation profiles could regulate uPA expression. Initially, radiation treatment was found to induce hypomethylation in meningioma cells with a decrease in DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (MBD) expression. However, oxidative damage by H2O2 or pretreatment of irradiated cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not show any influence on these proteins, thereby indicating a radiation-specific change in the methylation patterns among meningioma cells. Further, we identified that hypomethylation is coupled to an increase in uPA expression in these cells. Azacytidine treatment induced a dose-dependent surge of uPA expression, whereas pre-treatment with sodium butyrate inhibited radiation-induced uPA expression, which complemented our prior results. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction on bisulfite-treated genomic DNA revealed a diminished methylation of uPA promoter in irradiated cells. Transfection with small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing plasmids targeting CpG islands of the uPA promoter showed a marked decline in uPA expression with subsequent decrease in invasion and proliferation of meningioma cells. Further, radiation treatment was found to recruit SP1 transcription factor, which was abrogated by shRNA treatment. Analysis on signaling events demonstrated the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in radiation-treated cells, while U0126 (MEK/ERK inhibitor) blocked hypomethylation, recruitment of SP1, and uPA expression. In agreement with our in vitro data, low DNMT1 levels and high uPA were found in intracranial tumors treated with radiation compared to untreated tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that radiation-mediated hypomethylation triggers uPA expression in meningioma cells.
Our previous studies showed that overexpression of Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) induced autophagy-mediated apoptosis in PNET cells. In the present study, we attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and signaling cascades associated with SPARC overexpression in combination with radiation therapy that eventually leads to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma. SPARC expression in SK-N-AS and NB-1691 cells demonstrated the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP and induction of apoptosis. The experiments to unravel the mechanisms associated with autophagy -apoptosis illustrated that SPARC overexpression triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and thereby unfolded protein response (UPR). This was apparent with the activation of stress receptors, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE 1α), RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and BiP. The study further demonstrated the induction of transcription factor CHOP as a result of IRE-JNK activation in response to increased SPARC levels. Inhibition of ER stress and JNK activation led to inhibition of autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Further, the apparent expression of ER stress molecules among the orthotopic tumors treated by SPARC overexpression plasmids substantiated our in vitro observations. Taken together, these results illustrate the critical role of ER stress in regulating autophagy-mediated apoptosis in SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells and radiation treatment.
SPARC; Neuroblastoma; Autophagy; Apoptosis; ER stress
In continuation to our studies on radioresistance in meningioma, here we show that radiation treatment (7Gy) induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in meningioma cells. Phosphorylation of Chk2, Cdc25c and Cdc2 were found to be key events since interference with Chk2 activation and cyclin B1/Cdc2 interaction led to permanent arrest followed by apoptosis. Irradiated cells showed recovery and formed aggressive intracranial tumors with rapid spread and morbidity. Nevertheless, knock down of uPAR with or without radiation induced permanent arrest in G2/M phase and subsequent apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that combination treatment with radiation and uPAR knockdown or other inhibitors resulting in non-reversible G2/M arrest may be beneficial in the management of meningiomas.
meningioma; radiotherapy; G2/M cell cycle arrest; Chk2
A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectro-metric (LC–MS/MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of atorvastatin and aspirin in human plasma using a polarity switch. Proguanil and furosemide were used as the internal standards for the quantification of atorvastatin and aspirin, respectively. The analytes were extracted from human plasma by the liquid–liquid extraction technique using methyl tert-butyl ether. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on a Zorbax XDB Phenyl column by using a mixture of 0.2% acetic acid buffer, methanol, and acetonitrile (20:16:64, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Prior to detection, atorvastatin and aspirin were ionized using an ESI source in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The ions were monitored at the positive m/z 559.2→440.0 transition for atorvastatin and the negative m/z 179.0→136.6 transition for aspirin. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r2 ≥ 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.20–151 ng/mL for atorvastatin and 15.0–3000 ng/mL for aspirin. The method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 3.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.
Atorvastatin; Aspirin; Acetylsalicylic acid; Liquid–liquid extraction; Chromatography; Pharmacokinetics
The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi.
Aphelenchoides besseyi; diagnosis; distribution; host; India; morphology; rice; tuberose
Despite advances in radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic techniques and aggressive surgical resection, the prognosis of glioblastoma patients is dismal. There is an accumulation of evidence that indicates that some cancer cells survive even the most aggressive treatments, and these surviving cells, which are resistant to therapy and are perhaps essential for the malignancy, may be cancer stem cells. The CD133 surface marker is commonly used to isolate these extremely resistant glioma-initiating cells (GICs). In the present study, GICs which tested positive for the CD133 marker (CD133+) were isolated from both the established U251 cell line and the 5310 xenograft glioma cell line to study the events related to the molecular pathogenesis of these cells. Simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B by shRNA (pUC) treatment caused the disruption of radiation-induced complex formation of pPKC θ/δ, integrin β1 and PKC ζ, integrin β1 in glioma cells. Further, pUC treatment inhibited PKC/integrin signaling via FAK by causing disassociation of FAK and the cytoskeletal molecules vinculin and α-actinin. Also, we observed the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. This inhibition was mediated by pUC and directed a negative feedback mechanism over the FAK signaling molecules, which led to an extensive reduction in the signal for cytoskeletal organization generating migratory arrest. Altogether, it can be hypothesized that knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B using shRNA is an effective strategy for controlling highly invasive glioma cells and extremely resistant glioma-initiating cells.
α-actinin; Cathepsin B; Cytoskeleton; FAK; Glioblastoma stem cells; Integrins; PKCs; uPAR; Vinculin
Our previous studies showed that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) induced autophagy-mediated apoptosis in PNET cells. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and signaling cascades associated with SPARC overexpression in combination with radiation therapy that eventually leads to autophagy-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma. SPARC expression in SK-N-AS and NB-1691 cells demonstrated the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP and induction of apoptosis. The experiments to unravel the mechanisms associated with autophagy-apoptosis illustrated that SPARC overexpression triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and thereby unfolded protein response (UPR). This was apparent with the activation of stress receptors, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE 1α), RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and BiP. This study further demonstrated the induction of transcription factor CHOP as a result of IRE-JNK activation in response to increased SPARC levels. Inhibition of ER stress and JNK activation led to inhibition of autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Further, the apparent expression of ER stress molecules among the orthotopic tumors treated by SPARC overexpression plasmids substantiated our in vitro observations. Taken together, these results illustrate the critical role of ER stress in regulating autophagy-mediated apoptosis in SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells and radiation treatment.
secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine; neuroblastoma; autophagy; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress
Cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are overexpressed in gliomas. Deregulation of the G1 phase cell cycle machinery is a common feature of cancers. p27Kip1 (p27) is one of the major cyclin-CDK regulators in the G1 phase. uPAR and cathepsin B downregulation was recently shown to induce p27 expression through PI3K/Akt/ FOXO3a signaling. Since uPAR and cathepsin B knockdown also decreased phosphorylation of ERK, we hypothesized that ERK also has a role to play in p27 induction. As induction of p27 is due to an increase in gene transcription, we investigated the roles of c-Myc and E2F1 transcription factors which have been shown to potently affect p27 promoter activity. In the present study, shRNA against cathepsin B and uPAR as well as specific inhibitors, Wortmannin (10 μM) and U0126 (10 μM), were used to determine the roles of AKT and ERK signaling on p27 expression. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that downregulation of both p-ERK and p-AKT downstream of EGFR and β1 integrin are involved in the p27 upregulation. Cathepsin B and uPAR downregulation induced E2F1 and decreased phosphorylaion of pocket proteins and c-Myc expression. CHIP analysis and luciferase expression studies confirmed the functional association of transcription factor E2F1 to the p27 promoter. Further, c-Myc-Max interaction inhibitor studies showed an inverse pattern of c-Myc and p27 expression. Also, cathepsin B and uPAR downregulation reduced tumor growth and increased p27 nuclear expression in vivo. In summary, cathepsin B and uPAR downregulation reduced p-ERK levels and c-Myc expression, increased expression of E2F1 and FOXO3a, decreased phosphorylation of pocket proteins and thus upregulated p27 expression in glioma cells.
G0/G1; cell cycle; transcription factors; E2F1