The first purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) 0–48 h after anesthesia at a Japanese cancer center. The second purpose of this study was to collect information on PONV risk factors, independently, in the categories of patient-related, anesthesia-related, and surgery-related factors.
The frequency of nausea and vomiting was prospectively investigated from 0 to 48 h after anesthesia in 1645 patients (11–94 years of age) at a single medical institution. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting and the use of antiemetics were recorded up to 48 h after anesthesia. Patient-related, anesthesia-related, and surgery-related factors were also recorded and submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship of these factors to nausea and vomiting.
The incidences of nausea and vomiting from 0 to 24 h after anesthesia were 40 and 22 %, respectively. The incidences 24–48 h after anesthesia were 10 and 3 %, respectively. Female sex, previous history of PONV, prolonged anesthesia, and remifentanil use during surgery were identified as risk factors for both nausea and vomiting. The use of a volatile anesthetic, use of fentanyl during surgery, postoperative use of opioids, nonsmoking status, and drinking alcohol on 4 or fewer days per week were identified as risk factors for nausea alone.
The incidence of and risk factors for PONV at a Japanese cancer center according to this study are comparable to those reported elsewhere.