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1.  Revised cardiac risk index and postoperative morbidity after elective orthopaedic surgery: a prospective cohort study 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;105(6):744-752.
The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) is associated strongly with increased cardiac ischaemic risk and perioperative death. Associations with non-cardiac morbidity in non-cardiac surgery have not been explored. In the elective orthopaedic surgical population, morbidity is common but preoperative predictors are unclear. We hypothesized that RCRI would identify individuals at increased risk of non-cardiac morbidity in this surgically homogenous population.
Five hundred and sixty patients undergoing elective primary (>90%) and revision hip and knee procedures were studied. A modified RCRI (mRCRI) score was calculated, weighting intermediate and low risk factors. The primary endpoint was the development of morbidity, collected prospectively using the Postoperative Morbidity Survey, on postoperative day (POD) 5.
Morbidity on POD 5 was more frequent in patients with mRCRI ≥3 {relative risk 1.7, [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–2.1]; P<0.001}. Time to hospital discharge was delayed in patients with mRCRI score ≥3 (log-rank test, P=0.0002). Pulmonary (P<0.001), infectious (P=0.001), cardiovascular (P=0.0003), renal (P<0.0001), wound (P=0.02), and neurological (P=0.002) morbidities were more common in patients with mRCRI score ≥3. Pre/postoperative haematocrit, anaesthetic/analgesic technique, and postoperative temperature were similar across mRCRI groups. There were significant associations with hospital stay, as measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves for mRCRI 0.64 (95% CI: 0.58–0.70) and POSSUM 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63–0.75).
mRCRI score ≥3 is associated with increased postoperative non-cardiac morbidity and prolonged hospital stay after elective orthopaedic procedures. mRCRI can contribute to objective risk stratification of postoperative morbidity.
PMCID: PMC2982697  PMID: 20876700
assessment, preanaesthetic; complications, morbidity; surgery, non-cardiac; surgery, orthopaedic
4.  Public Health Laboratory Service enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Toxoplasma specific IgM antibody. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1987;40(3):276-281.
An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the antibody class capture method for the detection of specific IgM against Toxoplasma gondii, using the microtitre plate format, was developed. Antigen binding was detected using a monoclonal antibody, CIE3, conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Prior mixing of the conjugate and antigen improved the stability of these reagents as well as removing an incubation stage from the assay. The incubation time of less than four hours permits a rapid throughput of specimens. Using the assay, a total of 163 sera were examined in a three centre study and good agreement was found. Results were expressed as arbitrary enzyme immunoassay units (EIUs) against a freeze dried standard. Throughout the study the standard serum showed a coefficient of variation less than 10% across the microtitre plate. By measuring IgM titres in patients having toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy with a known date of onset, IgM class antibodies were shown to peak at two months, persisting for about six months. In addition, a case of laboratory acquired toxoplasmosis was monitored. Sera shown to contain rheumatoid factor and antinuclear factor did not give false positive results. This rapid, robust, and simplified assay is used by the Public Health Laboratory Service Toxoplasma Reference Units and will provide a standard with which other assays can be compared.
PMCID: PMC1140898  PMID: 3558860

Results 1-4 (4)