Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcoma are largely physically inactive, a behavior which potentially compounds their health burden. Altering this behavior requires understanding those factors that contribute to their physical inactivity. Therefore, this investigation sought to identify factors associated with inactivity in this subpopulation of cancer survivors.
Demographic, personal, treatment and physical activity information from adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas was obtained from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables that best identified those individuals who were physically inactive.
Only 41% of survivors met Center for Disease Control (CDC) activity guidelines. Survivors were 1.20 (95% CI 1.11–1.30) more likely compared to CCSS sibling cohort and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10–1.15) times more likely than the general population to fail to meet CDC guidelines. Significant predictors of physical inactivity included female sex, hemipelvectomy surgery, and platinum and vinca alkaloid chemotherapy.
The primary findings of this study are that survivors of childhood onset lower-extremity sarcoma are 1) highly likely to be physically inactive and 2) less likely than their siblings or the general population to regularly exercise. This study has identified treatment related risk factors associated with inactivity that will help health and wellness practitioners develop successful exercise interventions to help these survivors achieve recommended levels of physical activity for health.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS
These results suggest that physical activity interventions for adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas should be sex specific and responsive to unique physical late effects experienced by these survivors.
Childhood cancer; physical activity; exercise; late-effects; sedentary
Objective. The primary purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of pain distribution on gait characteristics in subjects with low back problems (LBP) during walking at preferred and fastest speeds. Design. Cross-sectional, observational study. Setting. Gait analysis laboratory in a health professions university. Participants. A convenience age- and gender-matched sample of 20 subjects with back pain only (BPO), 20 with referred leg pain due to back problems (LGP), and 20 pain-free individuals (CON). Methods and Measures. Subjects completed standardized self-reports on pain and disability and were videotaped as they walked at their preferred and fastest speeds along a walkway embedded with a force plate. Temporal and spatial gait characteristics were measured at the midsection of the walkway, and peak medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior components of horizontal ground reaction forces (hGRFs) were measured during the stance phase. Results. Patients with leg pain had higher levels of pain intensity and affect compared to those with back pain only (t = 4.91, P < .001 and t = 5.80, P < 0.001, resp.) and walking had an analgesic effect in the BPO group. Gait velocity was highest in the control group followed by the BPO and LGP group and differed between groups at both walking speeds (F2.57 = 13.62, P < .001 and F2.57 = 9.09, P < .001, for preferred and fastest speed condition, resp.). When normalized against gait velocity, the LGP group generated significantly less lateral force at the fastest walking speed (P = .005) and significantly less posterior force at both walking speeds (P ≤ .01) compared to the control group. Conclusions. Pain intensity and distribution differentially influence gait velocity and hGRFs during gait. Those with referred leg pain tend to utilize significantly altered gait strategies that are more apparent at faster walking speeds.
This pilot study compared the risk predictive value of preoperative physiological capacity (PC: defined by gas exchange measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing) with the ASA physical status classification in the same patients (n=32) undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery.
Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to measurements of PC and ASA rank data determining their predictive value for postoperative morbidity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to discriminate between the predictive abilities, exploring trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity.
Individual statistically significant predictors of postoperative morbidity included the ASA rank [P=0.038, area under the curve (AUC)=0.688, sensitivity=0.630, specificity=0.750] and three newly identified measures of PC: PAT (% predicted anaerobic threshold achieved, <75% vs ≥75%), ΔHR1 (heart rate response from rest to the anaerobic threshold), and HR3 (heart rate at the anaerobic threshold). A two-variable model of PC measurements (ΔHR1+PAT) was also shown to be statistically significant in the prediction of postoperative morbidity (P=0.023, AUC=0.826, sensitivity=0.813, specificity=0.688).
Three newly identified PC measures and the ASA rank were significantly associated with postoperative morbidity; none showed a statistically greater association compared with the others. PC appeared to improve predictive sensitivity. The potential for new unidentified measures of PC to predict postoperative outcomes remains unexplored.
assessment, preanaesthetic; complications, morbidity; measurement techniques, gas exchange metabolic; metabolism, oxygen consumption; oxygen uptake; risk; surgery, postoperative
• Background and Aims Evidence from pea rms1, Arabidopsis max4 and petunia dad1 mutant studies suggest an unidentified carotenoid-derived/plastid-produced branching inhibitor which moves acropetally from the roots to the shoots and interacts with auxin in the control of apical dominance. Since the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), known to inhibit some growth processes, is also carotenoid derived/plastid produced, and because there has been indirect evidence for its involvement with branching, a re-examination of the role of ABA in apical dominance is timely. Even though it has been determined that ABA probably is not the second messenger for auxin in apical dominance and is not the above-mentioned unidentified branching inhibitor, the similarity of their derivation suggests possible relationships and/or interactions.
• Methods The classic Thimann–Skoog auxin replacement test for apical dominance with auxin [0·5 % naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] applied both apically and basally was combined in similar treatments with 1 % ABA in Ipomoea nil (Japanese Morning Glory), Solanum lycopersicum (Better Boy tomato) and Helianthus annuus (Mammoth Grey-striped Sunflower).
• Key Results Auxin, apically applied to the cut stem surface of decapitated shoots, strongly restored apical dominance in all three species, whereas the similar treatment with ABA did not. However, when ABA was applied basally, i.e. below the lateral bud of interest, there was a significant moderate repression of its outgrowth in Ipomoea and Solanum. There was also some additive repression when apical auxin and basal ABA treatments were combined in Ipomoea.
• Conclusion The finding that basally applied ABA is able partially to restore apical dominance via acropetal transport up the shoot suggests possible interactions between ABA, auxin and the unidentified carotenoid-derived branching inhibitor that justify further investigation.
Abscisic acid; auxin; branching; apical dominance; branching inhibitor; decapitated shoot; Ipomoea nil; strain violet; Solanum lycopersicum; Helianthus annuus
The interactions between freezing kinetics and subsequent storage temperatures and their effects on the biological activity of lactic acid bacteria have not been examined in studies to date. This paper investigates the effects of three freezing protocols and two storage temperatures on the viability and acidification activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1 in the presence of glycerol. Samples were examined at −196°C and −20°C by freeze fracture and freeze substitution electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure proportions of ice and glass transition temperatures for each freezing condition tested. Following storage at low temperatures (−196°C and −80°C), the viability and acidification activity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus decreased after freezing and were strongly dependent on freezing kinetics. High cooling rates obtained by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen resulted in the minimum loss of acidification activity and viability. The amount of ice formed in the freeze-concentrated matrix was determined by the freezing protocol, but no intracellular ice was observed in cells suspended in glycerol at any cooling rate. For samples stored at −20°C, the maximum loss of viability and acidification activity was observed with rapidly cooled cells. By scanning electron microscopy, these cells were not observed to contain intracellular ice, and they were observed to be plasmolyzed. It is suggested that the cell damage which occurs in rapidly cooled cells during storage at high subzero temperatures is caused by an osmotic imbalance during warming, not the formation of intracellular ice.
Aims: To investigate a population of individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome for hypocalcaemia.
Methods: A detailed clinical history enquiring into symptoms of hypocalcaemia and blood sampling to assess for hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism, of patients outside the neonatal period known to have the 22q11 microdeletion from fluorescent in situ hybridisation studies was taken.
Results: Sixty one individuals were identified, of whom 23 were untraceable and one was unable to give informed consent. Biochemical investigations were performed on 27 subjects. Ten subjects had review of notes only. Four subjects had previously identified hypoparathyroidism. A new case of hypoparathyroidism was identified. Three subjects had borderline hypocalcaemia.
Discussion: In this population of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome, 13% of the total or 30% of those biochemically assessed had evidence of reduced serum calcium concentrations. It is likely that 13–30% of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome have possible hypoparathyroidism outside the neonatal period. Reported symptoms of hypocalcaemia did not correlate with biochemical evidence of persisting hypocalcaemia. We have shown that previously undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism occurs in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome and conclude that screening of this population should be considered.
Conventional approaches to target labelling for expression microarray analysis typically require relatively large amounts of total RNA, a serious limitation when the sample available is small. Here we explore the cycle-dependent amplification characteristics of Template-Switching PCR and validate its use for microarray target labelling. TS-PCR identifies up to 80% of the differentially expressed genes identified by direct labelling using 30-fold less input RNA for the amplification, with the equivalent of 1000-fold less starting material being used for each hybridisation. Moreover, the sensitivity of microarray experiments is increased considerably, allowing the identification of differentially expressed transcripts below the level of detection using targets prepared by direct labelling. We have also validated the fidelity of amplification and show that the amplified material faithfully represents the starting mRNA population. This method outperforms conventional labelling strategies, not only in terms of sensitivity and the identification of differentially expressed genes, but it is also faster and less labour intensive than other amplification protocols.
Clinical studies of the treatment of glioma and cutaneous melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are currently taking place in the USA, Europe and Japan. New BNCT clinical facilities are under construction in Finland, Sweden, England and California. The observation of transient acute effects in the oral mucosa of a number of glioma patients involved in the American clinical trials, suggests that radiation damage of the oral mucosa could be a potential complication in future BNCT clinical protocols, involving higher doses and larger irradiation field sizes. The present investigation is the first to use a high resolution surface analytical technique to relate the microdistribution of boron-10 (10B) in the oral mucosa to the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,α)7Li neutron capture reaction in this tissue. The two boron delivery agents used clinically in Europe/Japan and the USA, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), respectively, were evaluated using a rat ventral tongue model. 10B concentrations in various regions of the tongue mucosa were estimated using ion microscopy. In the epithelium, levels of 10B were appreciably lower after the administration of BSH than was the case after BPA. The epithelium:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.2:1 and 1:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. The 10B content of the lamina propria was higher than that measured in the epithelium for both BSH and BPA. The difference was most marked for BSH, where 10B levels were a factor of six higher in the lamina propria than in the epithelium. The concentration of 10B was also measured in blood vessel walls where relatively low levels of accumulation of BSH, as compared with BPA, was demonstrated in blood vessel endothelial cells and muscle. Vessel wall:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.3:1 and 0.9:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. Evaluation of tongue mucosal response (ulceration) to BNC irradiation indicated a considerably reduced radiation sensitivity using BSH as the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 ± 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 ± 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
borocaptate sodium; p-boronophenylalanine; rat ventral tongue mucosa; compound biological effectiveness factor; ion microscopy imaging
In two recently described human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50, derived from one tumour, we detected identical E-cadherin and β-catenin gene mutations as in colon carcinoma cell line HCT 116. We demonstrate by HLA-typing, mutation analysis and microsatellite analysis that cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50 are admixtures of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT 116. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
adenocarcinoma; oesophagus; colon; cell lines; admixtures
Conventionally, nonsense mutations within a gene preclude synthesis of a full-length functional protein. Obviation of such a blockage is seen in the mdx mouse, where despite a nonsense mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene, occasional so-called revertant muscle fibers are seen to contain near-normal levels of its protein product. Here, we show that reversion of dystrophin expression in mdx mice muscle involves unprecedented massive loss of up to 30 exons. We detected several alternatively processed transcripts that could account for some of the revertant dystrophins and could not detect genomic deletion from the region commonly skipped in revertant dystrophin. This, together with exon skipping in two noncontiguous regions, favors aberrant splicing as the mechanism for the restoration of dystrophin, but is hard to reconcile with the clonal idiosyncrasy of revertant dystrophins. Revertant dystrophins retain functional domains and mediate plasmalemmal assembly of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. Physiological function of revertant fibers is demonstrated by the clonal growth of revertant clusters with age, suggesting that revertant dystrophin could be used as a guide to the construction of dystrophin expression vectors for individual gene therapy. The dystrophin gene in the mdx mouse provides a favored system for study of exon skipping associated with nonsense mutations.
reversion; dystrophin; nonsense mutation; splicing; exon mapping
Background—Colonic motor function has not been
studied in the ambulatory setting over a prolonged period in the
unprepared state. Furthermore, the disturbance of this function in
patients with faecal incontinence is unknown.
Aim—To study colonic function over two to three
days in the ambulatory, unprepared state in health and in patients
with idiopathic faecal incontinence.
Methods—Six healthy women and six women with
faecal incontinence and a structurally intact anal sphincter ingested a
dual radioisotope meal, and had a six sensor, solid state manometric probe colonoscopically inserted into the left colon. Scanning was
performed until radioisotope left the gut and pressure was recorded for
a median of 44hours.
Results—Three of six patients showed abnormal
gastric emptying. Patients showed no disturbance of colonic
radioisotope transit. Controls had a median of 12, whereas patients had
a median of 16, high amplitude propagated waves per 24 hours. In three
patients urge incontinence was associated with high amplitude (up to
500 cm water) propagated waves which often reached the rectum. These high pressure waves were identical to those occuring in healthy subjects, the only difference being the lack of adequate sphincter response. Passive incontinence was not associated with colonic motor activity. Defaecation in all subjects was associated with identical propagated waves, and distal movement of 13%
(median) of right colonic content and excretion of 32% from the left
colon and rectum. The urge to defaecate was associated with either
propagated waves (45%) or non-propagated contractions (55%). Rectal
motor complexes were recorded in both groups of subjects, but similar rhythmic activity was also recorded in the sigmoid and descending colon.
Conclusions—Normal colonic function consists of
frequent high pressure propagated waves. Rhythmic activity occurs both
proximal to and in the rectum. Defaecation is characterised by high
pressure propagated waves associated with coordinated anal sphincter
relaxation. Patients with faecal incontinence may have a widespread
disturbance of gut function. Urge incontinence, an urge to defaecate,
and defaecation can all be associated with identical high amplitude propagated pressure waves.
colonic motility; gastric emptying; faecal
AIMS: Little information is available on the patterns of integration into the host chromosomal DNA of cervical carcinomas of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) DNA, which is associated with up to 20% of these carcinomas. Because integration of the viral genome may be extremely important in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma, the aim of this study was to investigate which regions of HPV-18 DNA are integrated into the cellular DNA of cervical carcinomas. METHODS: Southern analysis using four subgenomic probes covering the entire HPV-18 genome was used to map viral DNA integrated within cellular DNA. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the presence of specific regions of the viral genome. RESULTS: In all 11 carcinomas there was a single major HPV-18 DNA integrant, retaining approximately 4000 bp of HPV-18 DNA, indicating that approximately half of the virus genome had been lost upon integration. Southern analysis suggested strongly that the viral breakpoint was within the E1/E2 gene boundary, with concomitant loss of part or all of the E2 ORF (open reading frame), all of the E4, E5, and L2 ORFs and part of the L1 ORF. These data were supported by the PCR results, which confirmed that the region of integrated HPV-18 DNA from nucleotides 6558 to 162 was present in all the carcinoma samples studied. Assuming that no genomic rearrangements, deletions, or insertions had occurred, 4131 bp of integrated HPV-18 DNA could be accounted for in eight cervical carcinoma samples. The results of Southern analysis also suggested that integration of HPV-18 DNA may have occurred at a specific host chromosomal site. CONCLUSIONS: Broadly, the viral sequences retained upon HPV-18 integration resemble those found when HPV-16 is integrated. However, it appears that the HPV-18 E2 region is more consistently deleted.
A subacute self-resolving illness associated with bilateral pulmonary infiltration developed in a patient following renovation in her home. This may have been related to exposure to silicaceous plaster dust which was found in an environmental sample as well as on microanalysis of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in workers exposed to metal removal fluids (MRFs) is increasing. This study supports the hypothesis that aerosolized mycobacteria colonizing the MRFs likely cause the disease. Three case studies of HP outbreaks among metal workers showed potentially high exposures to a rare and newly proposed Mycobacterium species. Retrospective review of samples submitted to our laboratory showed an association between presence of mycobacteria and HP.
Infiltration by T lymphocytes into oesophageal carcinomas was assessed immunohistochemically, total T lymphocyte numbers by staining for CD3 and activated T lymphocytes by staining for CD25. Five squamous carcinomas and seven adenocarcinomas, resected without neoadjuvant treatment, were studied. Computer aided quantitation showed that total numbers of tumour infiltrating CD3 positive cells were highly variable (range 48-1673 cells/mm2). They were located largely in the stromal (87.9-99.2%) rather than intratumoral regions. Up to 84% of tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes were CD25 positive, although the median figure was 33%. There was no correlation between T lymphocyte infiltration or activation and expression of class I and II histocompatibility antigens, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumour stage or grade. These results imply that the local inflammatory response in oesophageal carcinomas is deregulated, which may be a factor contributing to the aggressive nature of the tumours.
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial aspergillosis is a well known complication of immunosuppression in cancer patients and those undergoing transplantation and has usually been associated with major building construction or demolition. An observational study is reported of the hospital environment associated with an outbreak of aspergillosis in a paediatric oncology ward. METHODS: All cases of aspergillosis were identified from the hospital records and categorised as definite or probable according to the extent of supportive clinical and laboratory findings. All relevant aspects of building ventilation, air filtration, and aerosol generation considered relevant were examined and air samples for fungi were taken in triplicate at 25 sites using a slit sampler with appropriate culture media. RESULTS: Six cases of aspergillosis were identified over one year out of the 148 patients who attended the unit - the only part of the hospital where cases were found. Examination of the building services and function suggested that the cause or source was isolated to this paediatric oncology/haematology ward and may have been attributed to a defective disposal conduit door as well as the dispersal of a contaminated aerosol from the ward vacuum cleaner which had the highest measured concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus in or around the building (65 colony forming units (cfu)/m3 compared with 0-6 cfu/m3 elsewhere). No further cases were identified in the two years after these hygiene arrangements were changed. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation of this outbreak of nosocomial aspergillosis identified several possible sources of fungally contaminated aerosol which could have been implicated as the cause. Their modification was followed by a reduction in the incidence of further cases. Each should be incorporated as an issue of importance in hospital building design and hygiene.
AIM--To examine the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in normal, inflamed, metaplastic, and neoplastic oesophageal tissue and in freshly disaggregated tumours. METHODS--Sequential sections of frozen tissue and cytospins of freshly disaggregated tumour were stained using the ABC peroxidase system and monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and ICAM-1. RESULTS--Normal oesophageal tissue showed positive staining for HLA-ABC in the basal layers of the oesophageal squamous epithelium and on the epithelial cells of the submucosal oesophageal glands. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were not detected in either of these cell types. In 20 of 37 (54%) carcinomas HLA-ABC was expressed weakly, with heterogeneous expression in nine (24%). Two tumours showed strong expression of HLA-ABC, but 15 of 37 (41%) were negative. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were expressed weakly in six of 37 (16%) carcinomas without correlation with each other or with the expression of HLA-ABC. CONCLUSIONS--HLA-ABC is absent from a high proportion of oesophageal carcinomas (41%) and is otherwise variably and weakly expressed with strong expression in only a small fraction (3%). In other carcinomas there is a higher level of HLA-ABC expression. This discrepancy may partly explain the aggressive nature of oesophageal carcinomas. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 are not normally expressed on those cells from which oesophageal carcinomas are thought to arise. The limited expression found here could suggest a partial or inhibited immune response against oesophageal carcinoma. In vivo repressive factors may be involved.
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease is essential for virion maturation and subsequent viral replication in that it cleaves the Gag and Gag/Pol polyproteins at eight sites to release the respective structural proteins and enzymes. During purification of a recombinant FIV protease (PR), we noted that it underwent autoproteolysis (autolysis) to give discrete cleavage products. These additional PR cleavage sites were defined using N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and mass spectrometry. Protease breakdown products were also found in FIV virions and were of the same apparent molecular weights as the in vitro autolysis products. Four primary PR autolysis sites were blocked via substitution of either the P1 amino acid with a beta-branched amino acid or the P1' amino acid with lysine. Cleavage-resistant PRs which had Km and k(cat) values similar to those of FIV PR were constructed. An autolysis time course determined that blocking all four primary autolysis sites yielded a cleavage-resistant PR which was enzymatically stable. Concomitant with autolysis is the generation of an N-terminally truncated form of the PR (Thr6/PR) which has enhanced stability with respect to that of FIV PR. A structural basis for the Thr6/PR activity is presented, as are the possible roles of autolysis in the viral replication cycle.
AIM: To determine the contributions of gastrointestinal transit and pouch characteristics to bowel frequency in patients with an ileoanal reservoir and no pouchitis. METHODS: Twenty one patients who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy, with ileostomy closure at least eight months previously, and who had no history of pouchitis were recruited. They were prospectively classified on the basis of their bowel frequency: 11 patients had good pouch function (bowel frequency less than six per day) and 10 had poor function (bowel frequency more than six per day). Gastrointestinal transit was studied using a dual isotope technique and anal and pouch physiological examination was performed on all patients. RESULTS: Lag phase, 25% and 50% gastric emptying, small bowel transit time, and 10% and 50% pouch filling times, all for solids and liquids, were not significantly different between patients with good and poor function. Anal manometry and pouch and anal electrical sensitivity were also similar in the two groups. The volume of air and water required to elicit an initial sensation and the urge to defaecate were similar in both groups, but the maximum tolerated volume to both air (525 v 245 ml, good v poor function, median values) and water (625 v 370 ml) infusion was significantly (both p < 0.02) lower in patients with poor function. CONCLUSION: Maximum tolerated volume in the pouch, which may reflect pouch size, sensitivity, compliance, or a combination of these is the major determinant of pouch function. Gastrointestinal transit does not seem to be an important determinant of function.