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2.  Prothrombin complex concentrate mitigates diffuse bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass in a porcine model 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;105(5):576-582.
Background
Extracorporeal circuit priming and intravascular volume expansion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to dilutional coagulopathy and excessive diffuse postoperative bleeding. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) containing clotting factors II (FII), VII (FVII), IX (FIX), and X (FX) could be of potential value in correcting dilutional coagulopathy and reducing blood loss.
Methods
Anaesthetized pigs underwent CPB with hypothermia for 2 h at 25°C followed by 1 h of normothermia. Approximately 1 h after CPB, animals randomly received either isotonic saline 1 ml kg−1 or PCC 30 IU kg−1 in a volume of 1 ml kg−1. Diffuse coagulopathic bleeding was assessed as suture hole blood loss from a Gore-Tex patch placed over a full-thickness incision in the left carotid artery.
Results
After CPB, levels of FII, FVII, FIX, and FX declined from baseline by 32% to 48%, and PCC fully or partially reversed those deficits. Median suture hole blood loss after administration of saline placebo was 74 ml. PCC reduced suture hole bleeding by a median of 54 ml with a 95% confidence interval of 6–112 ml (P=0.026) compared with saline. PCC, but not saline, normalized skin bleeding time. Peak thrombin generation markedly decreased after CPB, but then returned in PCC-treated animals to a level higher than baseline by 28.7 nM (14.5–41.1 nM; P=0.031).
Conclusions
PCC was effective in correcting dilutional coagulopathy and reducing diffuse bleeding in an in vivo large-animal CPB model. Further research is warranted on PCC as a haemostatic agent in CPB.
doi:10.1093/bja/aeq216
PMCID: PMC2955534  PMID: 20716565
blood coagulation disorders; cardiopulmonary bypass; haemodilution; haemorrhage; prothrombin complex concentrates
4.  Stimulation of cell-mediated immunity by bestatin correlates with reduction of bacterial persistence in experimental chronic Salmonella typhimurium infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;44(1):168-174.
The effect of bestatin, a low-molecular-weight immunomodulating drug isolated from Streptomyces olivoreticuli, on Salmonella typhimurium infection was elaborated. Bestatin enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against S. typhimurium in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Parallel to the activation of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, bestatin reduced the amount of persistent bacteria in livers and spleens as well as the amount of necrotic foci found in these organs. This was shown when bestatin was given either prophylactically or therapeutically. The therapeutic effect of bestatin was even seen when the drug was given in the chronic phase of the infection, i.e., 6 days after inoculation of the animals with the infectious agent. No influence of bestatin, however, could be observed on the initial multiplication rate of S. typhimurium and concomitantly on the initial mortality rate of the infected mice. As bestatin has no direct antibiotic effect on S. typhimurium, it must be concluded that the therapeutic effects of the drug on chronic infection must be solely contributed to elevation of the host's own defense mechanisms.
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PMCID: PMC263488  PMID: 6368392

Results 1-4 (4)