Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest malignancies worldwide. Prognosis is predicted by size at diagnosis, vascular invasion and tumour proliferation markers. This study investigates if MRI features of histologically proven HCCs correlate with vascular invasion.
Between 2006 and 2008, 18 consecutive patients, with a total of 27 HCCs, had comprehensive MRI studies performed at our institution within a median of 36 days of histology sampling. Each lesion was evaluated independently on MRI by 3 radiologists (blinded to both the radiology and histopathology reports) using a 5-point confidence scale for 23 specific imaging features. The mean of the rating scores across readers was calculated to determine interobserver consistency. The most consistent features were then used to examine the value of features in predicting vascular invasion, using a χ2 test for trend, having eliminated those features without sufficient variability.
22 of the 23 imaging features showed sufficient variability across lesions. None of these significantly correlated with the presence of vascular invasion, although a trend was identified with the presence of washout in the portal venous phase on MRI and the median size of lesions, which was greater with vascular invasion.
This study suggests that no single MRI feature accurately predicts the presence of vascular invasion in HCCs, although a trend was seen with the presence of washout in the portal venous phase post gadolinium. Larger prospective studies are required to investigate this further.
Reliable information can improve patients' knowledge of chemotherapy. As internet chemotherapy information (ICI) is increasingly viewed as a valuable patient education tool, we investigated the impact of ICI on patient care and analysed health professionals' (HPs') attitudes towards ICI.
The following questionnaires were distributed: (1) self-administered questionnaire randomly given to 261 patients receiving chemotherapy (80% returned); and (2) separate questionnaire given to 58 HPs at the same UK Oncology Centre (83% returned).
Just over half of the patient respondents accessed the internet regularly. They were younger, with higher incomes and qualifications. Key search topics included chemotherapy modes of action, symptom management and treatment success, and most considered ICI useful. More than half wanted to discuss ICI with HPs but most did not get the opportunity. Although the majority of HP respondents supported the need for patients to retrieve ICI, most questioned the accuracy of ICI and did not routinely recommend its use.
This study has shown that ICI is generally perceived by patients to be a valuable information resource. Given the potential impact of ICI, the following should be addressed in future studies: (1) inequalities in accessing ICI; (2) maintaining the quality of ICI (with clear guidance on recommended websites); (3) bridging the gap between the perception of ICI by patients and HPs; (4) integration of ICI with traditional consultation models.
internet; chemotherapy; education of patients; physicians; nurses; health personnel
This study aimed to examine the incidence and survival of lung cancer patients from several different ethnic groups in a large ethnically diverse population in the United Kingdom.
Data on residents of South East England diagnosed with lung cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age- and socioeconomic deprivation-standardised incidence rate ratios were calculated for males and females in each ethnic group. Overall survival was examined using Cox regression, adjusted for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment. Results are presented for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese patients, apart from female survival results where only the White, South Asian and Black ethnic groups were analysed.
Compared with other ethnic groups of the same sex, Bangladeshi men, White men and White women had the highest incidence rates. Bangladeshi men had consistently higher survival estimates compared with White men (fully adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; P<0.001). Indian (0.84; P=0.048), Black Caribbean (0.87; P=0.47) and Black African (0.68; P=0.007) men also had higher survival estimates. South Asian (0.73; P=0.006) and Black (0.74; P=0.004) women had higher survival than White women.
Smoking prevention messages need to be targeted for different ethnic groups to ensure no groups are excluded. The apparent better survival of South Asian and Black patients is surprising, and more detailed follow-up studies are needed to verify these results.
ethnicity; lung cancer; incidence; survival
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) is a rare primary immune disorder caused by defects of the CD18 β-integrin molecule on immune cells. The condition usually presents in early infancy and is characterised by deep tissue infections, leukocytosis with impaired formation of pus and delayed wound healing. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the possibility of curative therapy, and with patient numbers at any individual centre being limited, we surveyed the transplant experience at 14 centres worldwide.
PATIENTS & METHODS
The course of 36 children with a confirmed diagnosis of LAD who underwent HSCT between 1993 and 2007 was retrospectively analysed. Data was collected by the registries of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)/European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR)
At median followup of 62 months (extending to 14 years) overall survival was 75%. Myeloablative conditioning regimens were used in 28 patients, and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in 8 patients, with no deaths in this subgroup. Survival after matched family donor and unrelated donor transplants was similar, with 11/14 matched family donor and 12/14 unrelated donor recipients alive; mortality was greatest following haplo-identical transplants, where 4/8 children did not survive. Twenty seven transplant recipients are alive, with full donor engraftment in 17 cases, mixed multi-lineage chimerism in 7 patients, and mononuclear cell restricted chimerism in a further 3 cases.
HSCT offers long term benefit in LAD and should be considered as an early therapeutic option if a suitable HLA-matched stem cell donation is available. Reduced intensity conditioning was particularly safe, and mixed donor chimersim appears sufficient to prevent significant symptoms, although careful long term monitoring will be required for these patients.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency; Stem cell transplantation; Reduced Intensity Conditioning
Autosomal recessive interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 deficiencies impair Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin-1 receptor-mediated immunity. We documented the clinical features and outcome of 48 patients with IRAK-4 deficiency and 12 patients with MyD88 deficiency, from 37 kindreds in 15 countries. The clinical features of IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency were indistinguishable. There were no severe viral, parasitic, and fungal diseases, and the range of bacterial infections was narrow. Noninvasive bacterial infections occurred in 52 patients, with a high incidence of infections of the upper respiratory tract and the skin, mostly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The leading threat was invasive pneumococcal disease, documented in 41 patients (68%) and causing 72 documented invasive infections (52.2%). P. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus documented invasive infections also occurred (16.7% and 16%, respectively, in 25% and 25% of patients). Systemic signs of inflammation were usually weak or delayed. The first invasive infection occurred before the age of 2 years in 53 (88.3%) and in the neonatal period in 19 (32.7%) patients. Multiple or recurrent invasive infections were observed in most survivors (n = 36/50, 72%).
Breast cancer 5-year relative survival is low in the North East London Cancer Network (NELCN).
We compared breast cancer that was diagnosed during 2001–2005 with that in the rest of London.
North East London Cancer Network women more often lived in socioeconomic quintile 5 (42 vs 21%) and presented with advanced disease (11 vs 7%). Cox regression analysis showed the survival difference (hazard ratio: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–1.41) reduced to 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89–1.11) after adjustment for age, stage, socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and treatment. Major drivers were stage and deprivation. Excess mortality was in the first year.
Late diagnosis occurs in NELCN.
breast cancer; stage; socioeconomic deprivation; survival; cancer network; cancer inequalities
Immunodeficiency in ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is less severe in patients expressing some mutant or normal ATM kinase activity. We, therefore, determined whether expression of residual ATM kinase activity also protected against tumour development in A-T.
From a total of 296 consecutive genetically confirmed A-T patients from the British Isles and the Netherlands, we identified 66 patients who developed a malignant tumour; 47 lymphoid tumours and 19 non-lymphoid tumours were diagnosed. We determined their ATM mutations, and whether cells from these patients expressed any ATM with residual ATM kinase activity.
In childhood, total absence of ATM kinase activity was associated, almost exclusively, with development of lymphoid tumours. There was an overwhelming preponderance of tumours in patients <16 years without kinase activity compared with those with some residual activity, consistent with a substantial protective effect of residual ATM kinase activity against tumour development in childhood. In addition, the presence of eight breast cancers in A-T patients, a 30-fold increased risk, establishes breast cancer as part of the A-T phenotype.
Overall, a spectrum of tumour types is associated with A-T, consistent with involvement of ATM in different mechanisms of tumour formation. Tumour type was influenced by ATM allelic heterogeneity, residual ATM kinase activity and age.
ataxia telangiectasia; ATM; ATM kinase; lymphoma; breast cancer
The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in STAT3 and severe reductions of Th17 cells.
To determine whether there is a correlation between the genotype and phenotype of HIES patients and to establish diagnostic criteria to distinguish between STAT3 mutated and STAT3 wild-type patients.
We collected clinical data, determined Th17 cell numbers, and sequenced STAT3 100 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of HIES and serum IgE >1000 IU/mL. explored diagnostic criteria by using a machine-learning approach to identify which features best predict a STAT3 mutation.
In 64 patients we identified 31 different STAT3 mutations, 18 of which are novel. These included mutations at splice sites and outside the previously implicated DNA-binding and SH2 domains. A combination of five clinical features predicted STAT3 mutations with 85% accuracy. Th17 cells were profoundly reduced in patients harboring STAT3 mutations, while 10 out of 13 patients without mutations had low (<1%) Th17 cells but were distinct markedly reduced IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells.
We propose the following diagnostic guidelines for STAT3-deficient HIES: Possible: IgE >1000 IU/mL plus a weighted score of clinical features >30 based on recurrent pneumonia, newborn rash, pathologic bone fractures, characteristic face, and high palate. Probable: Above plus lack of Th17 cells or a family history for definitive HIES. Definitive: Above plus a dominant-negative heterozygous mutation in STAT3.
Hyper-IgE Syndrome; HIES; Job syndrome; Th17 cells; STAT3-mutations; diagnostic guidelines
BACKGROUND: Studies from around the world have shown that suicide risk is increased in cancer patients, but no previous detailed analysis has been carried out in England.
METHODS: We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide in 206 129 men and 211 443 women diagnosed with cancer in South East England between 1996 and 2005, relative to suicide rates in the general population.
RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of suicide in men (SMR 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–1.73) and a moderately increased risk in women (SMR 1.19, 95% CI 0.88–1.57). In both sexes, relative risk of suicide was greatest in the first year after cancer diagnosis (SMR for men 2.42, 95% CI 1.84–3.13; SMR for women 1.44, 95% CI 0.82–2.33), and was also greater in individuals diagnosed with types of cancer with high fatality (SMR for men 2.67, 95% CI 1.71–3.97; SMR for women 2.17, 95% CI 0.80–4.73).
CONCLUSION: There is a critical period immediately after the diagnosis of cancer during which the excess risk of suicide is particularly high. Carers need to be aware of the importance of attending to both the physical and emotional needs of cancer patients and cancer survivors.
suicide; standardised mortality ratio; fatality; deprivation
Studies from the US have shown variations in breast cancer incidence, stage distribution, treatment and survival between ethnic groups. Data on 35 631 women diagnosed with breast cancer in South East England between 1998 and 2003 with self-assigned ethnicity information available were analysed. Results are reported for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese women. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence rate ratios, patterns of stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, overall and breast cancer-specific survival were examined. All ethnic groups studied had lower age-standardised breast cancer incidence rates than White women, with Bangladeshi women having the lowest rate ratio (0.23, 95% CI: 0.20–0.26). White women were the most likely to have a stage recorded at diagnosis (adjusted proportion 75%), and least likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease (7%). Black African women were the least likely to have a record of cancer surgery (63%) or hormone therapy (32%), and most likely to receive chemotherapy (38%). After fully adjusting for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment received, there was no significant variation in breast cancer-specific survival. However, Black African women had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.24, P=0.025). These findings suggest that a strategy of earlier detection should be pursued in Black and South Asian women.
ethnicity; breast cancer; incidence; stage; treatment; survival
We analysed data on 8987 larynx and 174060 lung cancer patients diagnosed between 1985 and 2004, of which 17.3% of larynx and 35.5% of lung cancers were in females. The age-standardised rates for each cancer declined in both sexes, but since the 1990s, the rates in females over 70 years of age have been diverging.
larynx cancer; lung cancer; epidemiology; trends; incidence
Acetaminophen is often used with a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug for acute pain. Hitherto, these drugs have had to be given separately, typically at different time intervals. Maxigesic® tablets combine acetaminophen and ibuprofen in clinically appropriate doses to simplify administration and dosage regimen. We compared this combination with each of the constituent drugs for the relief of pain after extraction of third molar teeth.
Adults (more than 16 yr) having one or more wisdom teeth removed under general or local anaesthesia were instructed to take two tablets before operation, then two tablets every 6 h for up to 48 h of: (i) a combination of acetaminophen 500 mg and ibuprofen 150 mg per tablet (Maxigesic®); (ii) acetaminophen 500 mg per tablet alone; or (iii) ibuprofen 150 mg per tablet alone. The primary outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) of the 100 mm visual analogue scale pain measurements taken for up to 48 h after surgery, divided by time, at rest and on activity. Pharmacokinetic data were collected in a subset of patients.
The mean (sem) time-corrected AUC on rest and activity, respectively, were: combination group 22.3 (3.2) and 28.4 (3.4); acetaminophen group 33.0 (3.1) and 40.4 (3.3); and ibuprofen group 34.8 (3.2) and 40.2 (3.4); P<0.01 for each of the four comparisons of combination vs constituent drug. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between acetaminophen and ibuprofen administered together.
Maxigesic® tablets provide superior pain relief after oral surgery to acetaminophen or ibuprofen alone.
anaesthesia, dental; analgesia, postoperative; analgesics non-opioid, acetaminophen; analgesics non-opioid, ibuprofen; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
The application of quantum dots (QDs) as labels in immunoassay microarrays for the multiplex detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) and atrazine-mercapturate (AM) has been demonstrated. PBA and AM are biomarkers of exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and to the herbicide atrazine, respectively. Microarrays were fabricated by microcontact printing of the coating antigens in line patterns onto glass substrates. Competitive immunoassays were successfully performed using QDs (QD560 and QD620) as reporters. The multiplexed immunoassays were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The application of QD fluorophores facilitates multiplex assays and therefore can contribute to enhanced throughput in biomonitoring.
Quantum dot; microarrays; immunoassay; microconatct printing; pyrethroid; atrazine
Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement.
Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature.
Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care.
Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers).
Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas.
Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with technical expertise with the data.
Objective: To explore the views of bereaved relatives about quality of survival after radiotherapy for malignant cerebral glioma.
Design: Semistructured interviews with the bereaved relatives of 56 previously studied patients with glioma.
Setting: Patients treated at six London hospitals from 1990 to 1992 surviving between one and 46 months (median, eight).
Subjects: Fifty six relatives (44 spouses, 12 others) seen four to six months after bereavement and 20 again at 13 months.
Main outcome measures: Views about quality of life and satisfaction with radiotherapy.
Results: Relatives described quality of life as "good or acceptable" when patients carried on some normal activities or enjoyed social relationships. They described restricted and dependent states, constant deterioration, or loss of social interaction as giving "poor or unacceptable" quality of life. Length of time lived in such states also appeared important. Relatives' views of good or acceptable quality of life were independently related to low initial cognitive or personality change or low distress in the patient after diagnosis, and to their subsequent survival free from physical disability for at least one month. Satisfaction with radiotherapy was related to low initial distress, some degree of surgical resection, and overall length of survival longer than six months.
Conclusions: Carefully exploring the views of bereaved relatives can bring a useful perspective to difficult treatment decisions. Their values support including disability and distress in quality of life measures, but cast doubt on the QALY-type approach of using full years of survival or time free from disability to judge whether treatments are worthwhile.
Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) giving a rim-like/membranous (RL/M) or a multiple nuclear dot (MND) pattern are highly specific for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
Aim and subjects: To assess the prevalence of PBC specific ANAs, their Ig isotype, and their clinical significance in 90 PBC patients from Greece and Spain. Twenty eight patients with chronic hepatitis C, 23 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 17 healthy subjects were studied as controls.
Methods: PBC specific ANA reactivity was tested by indirect immunofluorescence using HEp2 cells as substrate and individual Ig class (IgG, IgA, IgM) and IgG subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) specific antisera as revealing reagents.
Results: Fourteen of 90 (15.6%) PBC patients had PBC specific ANA reactivity when an anti-IgG (total) antiserum was used as the revealing reagent while 58 (64.4%) were positive when specific antisera to each of the four IgG isotypes were used. The prevailing isotype was IgG3 for MND and IgG1 for RL/M. PBC patients with specific ANA, in particular of the IgG3 isotype, had significantly more severe biochemical and histological disease compared with those who were seronegative. None of the controls was positive.
Conclusions: Disease specific ANA are present in the majority of patients with PBC when investigated at the level of immunoglobulin isotype. PBC specific ANA, in particular of the IgG3 isotype, are associated with a more severe disease course, possibly reflecting the peculiar ability of this isotype to engage mediators of damage.
antinuclear antibodies; primary biliary cirrhosis; autoantibody; nuclear dot; gp210; sp100
severe combined immune deficiency; interstitial keratitis; tonic pupil; infants
We aimed to compare trends in place of cancer death with the growth of palliative care and nursing home services, and investigate demographic, disease-related and area influences on individual place of death, using registration data for 216404 patients with breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer and aggregate data on services in South East England. Between 1985 and 1994 there was a trend away from hospital death (67–44%), to home (17–30%) and hospice death (8–20%). After 1995, this partly reversed. By 2002, hospital death rose to 47%, home death dropped to 23%, hospice death remained stable and nursing home death rose from 3 to 8%. Numbers of palliative care services increased, but trends for hospice and nursing home deaths most clearly followed the beds available. Cancer diagnosis and treatment influenced individual place of death, but between 1998 and 2002, age and area of residence were associated with most variation. Older patients and those living in more deprived areas died more often in hospitals and less often at home. Despite more palliative care services the proportion of people dying at home has not increased. Variation by age, deprivation and area of residence is unlikely to reflect patient preference. More active surveillance and planning must support policies for choice in end of life care.
palliative care; place of death; cancer registration; health services researches
Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well demonstrated role in early delayed (30 min to 3 h) inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the pituitary. We have examined corticotrophs in wild-type and ANXA1 knockout mice to determine the effects of lack of ANXA1 in male and female animals. Anterior pituitary tissue from ANXA1 wild-type, heterozygote and null mice was fixed and examined (i) by confocal immunocytochemistry to determine the number of corticotrophs and (ii) by electron microscopy to examine the size, secretory granule population and secretory machinery of corticotrophs. No differences in these parameters were detected in female mice. In male ANXA1 null mice, there were approximately four-fold more corticotrophs than in wild-type animals. However, the corticotrophs in ANXA1 null mice were smaller and had reduced numbers of secretory granules (the reduction in granules paralleled the reduction in cell size). No differences in the numerical density of folliculo-stellate, gonadotroph, lactotroph or somatotroph cells were detected in male ANXA1 null mice. Plasma corticosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were unchanged but pituitary ACTH content was increased in male ANXA1 null mice. Interleukin (IL)-6 pituitary content was significantly elevated in male and reduced in female ANXA1 null mice compared to wild-type. In conclusion, these data indicate that ANXA1 deficiency is associated with gender-specific changes in corticotroph number and structure, via direct actions of ANXA1 and/or indirect changes in factors such as IL-6.
corticotrophs; annexin 1 knockout mouse; glucocorticoids
The physiological impact of nonionizing radiation has long been considered negligible. However, here we use a carefully calibrated stimulation system that mimics the characteristics (isotropy and homogeneity) of electromagnetic fields present in the environment to measure changes in a molecular marker (mRNA encoding the stress-related bZIP transcription factor), and show that low amplitude, short duration, 900 MHz EMF evokes the accumulation of this mRNA. Accumulation is rapid (peaking 5–15 min after stimulation) and strong (3.5-fold), and is similar to that evoked by mechanical stimulations.
tomato; microwave; non-ionizing radiation; bZIP; MSRC; EMF
Patients with primary immunodeficiencies such as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) are prone to develop Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). EBV LPD is most frequently seen in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment after organ transplantation (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder), but can also arise in the primary immunodeficiencies. Typically, EBV LPD presents as a diffuse systemic disease with lymphadenopathy and organ involvement. A rare angiocentric and angiodestructive form of EBV associated B cell LPD, lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LyG), has also been reported in association with WAS. LyG most commonly involves the lung, but can also be seen in brain, kidney, liver, and skin. This report describes the case of a 16 year old boy with WAS who presented with an isolated non-healing ulcerating skin lesion. Biopsy revealed an EBV related LPD with the histological features of LyG. This cutaneous lesion responded dramatically to treatment with specific anti-CD20 immunotherapy and the patient remains clinically free of LPD at 18 months.
Wiskott-Aldrich; lymphomatoid granulomatosis; Epstein-Barr virus; lymphoproliferative disorder; immunotherapy; anti-CD20; Rituximab