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1.  The dynamics of recovery and growth: how defoliation affects stored resources 
Growth rate varies widely among species and the trade-off between growth rate and storage or maintenance traits is a principal axis of variation between species. Many plant species have substantial root stores, but very little is known about how growth rate modifies responses of these stores to defoliation and other stresses. Species with different growth rates are predicted to respond in distinct ways, because of variation in the pre-defoliation allocation to storage. Here, we quantified the dynamics of stored carbohydrates in seven species with varying growth rate, following defoliation in a pot experiment. For faster growing species, there was significant reduction in carbohydrate concentration following defoliation, followed by relatively fast recovery, whereas for slower growing species, carbohydrate concentration levels remained relatively invariant across treatments. Results for total carbohydrates mirrored those for concentration, but were not as significant. Our findings were consistent with the idea that faster growing species respond more rapidly than slower growers to defoliation, through changes in carbohydrate pool concentrations. Growth rate as an indicator of life-history and ecological strategy may therefore be key to understanding post-defoliation recovery and storage strategies.
PMCID: PMC3996606  PMID: 24671974
life history; defoliation; relative growth rate; root storage
2.  Incidence and risk factors for fatal pulmonary embolism after major trauma: a nested cohort study† 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;105(5):596-602.
Venous thromboembolism is common after major trauma. Strategies to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) are widely utilized, but the incidence and risk factors for fatal PE are poorly understood.
Using linked data from the intensive care unit, trauma registry, Western Australian Death Registry, and post-mortem reports, the incidence and risk factors for fatal PE in a consecutive cohort of major trauma patients, admitted between 1994 and 2002, were assessed. Non-linear relationships between continuous predictors and risk of fatal PE were modelled by logistic regression.
Of the 971 consecutive trauma patients considered in the study, 134 (13.8%) died after their injuries. Fatal PE accounted for 11.9% of all deaths despite unfractionated heparin prophylaxis being used in 44% of these patients. Fatal PE occurred in those who were older (mean age 51- vs 37-yr-old, P=0.01), with more co-morbidities (Charlson's co-morbidity index 1.1 vs 0.2, P=0.01), had a larger BMI (31.8 vs 24.5, P=0.01), and less severe head and systemic injuries when compared with those who died of other causes. Sites of injuries were not significantly related to the risk of fatal PE. Fatal PE occurred much later than deaths from other causes (median 18 vs 2 days, P=0.01), and the estimated attributable mortality of PE was 49% (95% confidence interval 36–62%).
Fatal PE appeared to be a potential preventable cause of late mortality after major trauma. Severity of injuries, co-morbidity, and BMI were important risk factors for fatal PE after major trauma.
PMCID: PMC2955535  PMID: 20861095
mortality; prevention; thromboembolism; traumatic injuries
3.  Calibre persistent artery of the lip: an underdiagnosed entity? 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(11):885.
PMCID: PMC1731106  PMID: 11127278

Results 1-3 (3)