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1.  Pharmacokinetic interactions among imatinib, bosentan and sildenafil, and their clinical implications in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension 
This study characterized the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of imatinib in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), investigated drug–drug interactions (DDI) among imatinib, sildenafil and bosentan, and evaluated their clinical implications.
Plasma concentrations of imatinib, bosentan and sildenafil were collected in a phase III study and were used to characterize the PK of imatinib in this population. DDIs among the three drugs were quantified using a linear mixed model and log-transformed drug concentrations.
The population mean estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume (V/F) were 10.8 l h–1 (95% CI 9.2, 12.4 l h–1) and 267 l (95% CI 208, 326 l), respectively. It was estimated that sildenafil concentrations increased, on average, by 64% (95% CI 32%, 103%) and bosentan concentrations by 51% (95% CI 12%, 104%), in the presence of imatinib. Despite increased concentrations of co-medications, treatment differences between imatinib and placebo for change in 6 min walk distance and pulmonary vascular resistance were relatively constant across the entire concentration range for sildenafil and bosentan. Overall, higher concentrations of imatinib and bosentan were not associated with increasing liver enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases [SGOT]/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]).
Population PKs of imatinib in patients with severe PAH were found comparable with those of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Imatinib was found effective regardless of the co-medications and showed intrinsic efficacy beyond merely elevating the concentrations of the co-medications due to DDIs. There was no evidence of increased risk of liver toxicity upon co-administration with bosentan.
PMCID: PMC4500327  PMID: 25581063
bosentan; drug–drug interactions; imatinib; pharmacokinetics; pulmonary arterial hypertension; sildenafil
2.  Ondansetron Does Not Reduce the Shivering Threshold in Healthy Volunteers 
British journal of anaesthesia  2006;96(6):732-737.
Ondansetron, a serotonin-3 receptor antagonist, reduces postoperative shivering. Drugs that reduce shivering usually impair central thermoregulatory control and may thus be useful for preventing shivering during induction of therapeutic hypothermia. We determined, therefore, whether ondansetron reduces the major autonomic thermoregulatory response thresholds (trigging core temperatures) in humans.
Ten healthy volunteers were studied on two days: Control and Ondansetron (intravenous infusion to plasma concentrations of 278 (57) ng mL−1, 234 (55) ng mL−1, and 243 (58) ng mL−1at the sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering thresholds, respectively); this corresponded to ≈50 mg of ondansetron which is roughly ten times the dose used for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Each day, skin and core temperatures were increased to provoke sweating, then reduced to elicit peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering. We determined the core-temperature sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering thresholds after compensating for changes in mean-skin temperature. Data were analyzed with paired t tests and presented as means (SD)s; P<0.05 was statistically significant.
Ondansetron did not change the sweating (Control: 37.4 (0.4)°C, Ondansetron: 37.6 (0.3)°C, P=0.16), vasoconstriction (37.0 (0.5) vs. 37.1 (0.3)°C; P=0.70), or shivering threshold (36.3 (0.5) vs. 36.3 (0.6)°C; P=0.76). No sedation was observed on either study day.
Ondansetron, therefore, appears to have little potential for facilitating induction of therapeutic hypothermia.
PMCID: PMC1502385  PMID: 16675509
Thermoregulation; ondansetron; therapeutic hypothermia

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