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1.  Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma without Cryopreservation 
Bone Marrow Research  2012;2012:917361.
High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma patients who are eligible for transplantation. The process of autografting comprises the following steps: control of the primary disease by using a certain induction therapeutic protocol, mobilization of stem cells, collection of mobilized stem cells by apheresis, cryopreservation of the apheresis product, administration of high-dose pretransplant conditioning therapy, and finally infusion of the cryopreserved stem cells after thawing. However, in cancer centers that treat patients with multiple myeloma and have transplantation capabilities but lack or are in the process of acquiring cryopreservation facilities, alternatively noncryopreserved autologous stem cell therapy has been performed with remarkable success as the pretransplant conditioning therapy is usually brief.
doi:10.1155/2012/917361
PMCID: PMC3368160  PMID: 22693672
2.  Acinetobacter baumannii Septicemia in a Recipient of an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, nonfermentative coccobacillus that causes infections in immunocompromised and chronically ill patients and is associated with multidrug resistance. Two days before receiving her nonmyeloablative stem cell allograft, a patient with acute myeloid leukemia developed Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia that caused septic shock which was successfully treated with imipenem and removal of the central venous catheter. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Acinetobacter baumannii septicemia in a hematopietic stem cell transplantation recipient.
doi:10.1155/2012/646195
PMCID: PMC3504248  PMID: 23259136
3.  Brucella bacteremia in patients with acute leukemia: a case series 
Background
Brucellosis may cause serious infections in healthy individuals living in countries that are endemic for the infection. However, reports of brucella infections in immunocompromised hosts are relatively rare.
Case Presentations
Reported here are two patients with acute leukemia who developed Brucella melitensis bacteremia during their follow up at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh. The first patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia during the transformation of his myelodysplasia into acute myeloid leukemia. The second patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia while his acute lymphoblastic leukemia was under control. Interestingly, he presented with acute cholecystitis during the brucella sepsis. Both brucella infections were associated with a marked reduction in the hematological parameters in addition to other complications. The bacteremic episodes were successfully treated with netilmicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion
Brucellosis can cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremia and serious morbidity in patients with acute leukemia living in endemic areas. These infections may occur at the presentation of the leukemia or even when the leukemia is in remission. Nevertheless, the early diagnosis of brucellosis and the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for sufficient duration usually improves the outcome in these immunocompromised patients.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-144
PMCID: PMC2174500  PMID: 18036218
4.  Infections caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a twelve year retrospective study 
Background
Tuberculous infections in patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant vary in incidence, complications and response to treatment.
Methods and materials
A retrospective study of patients with various benign and malignant hematological disorders and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant who were treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 and who developed tuberculous infections was conducted.
Results
Tuberculous infections occurred in eighteen patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The main associated factors were: reduced immunity due to the primary hematological disorder, age more than 50 years and the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids or radiotherapy. These infections frequently involved the lungs and predominantly occurred in males and in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In patients treated with intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, tuberculous infections tended to occur earlier and also tended to be more disseminated compared to infections occurring in patients treated with oral chemotherapy. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given to 16 patients and it was successful in 15 of these patients.
Conclusion
Tuberculous infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The early administration of anti-tuberculous therapy and compliance with drug treatment are associated with successful outcomes while delayed management, drug resistance and the presence of miliary infections are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-16
PMCID: PMC2200647  PMID: 18021401

Results 1-4 (4)