Objectives: Multiple injuries may lead to traumatic thoracic aortic rupture (TTAR), which can be fatal. We evaluated the relationship between the clinical findings and outcomes of 26 patients with TTAR who were treated at our institution.
Methods: A total of 26 patients (men, 21; women, 5; average age, 45.8 ± 19.6 years) with a diagnosis of TTAR received from 1999 to 2009 were studied. We categorized patients into groups based on the outcome (survival or death) and investigated the relationship between the outcome and the following factors: injury mechanism, vital signs, other combined injuries, injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score, and probability of survival (Ps).
Results: Of the 26 TTAR patients, 7 underwent emergency operations, 5 underwent delayed operations, 1 received conservative treatment, and 13 suffered cardiopulmonary arrest immediately after consultation and died. Of the 13 patients who died, 11 died within 2 hours after injury because of bleeding. Two of the 7 patients who underwent emergency operations died within 1 day of consultation, whereas all those who underwent delayed operations survived. Patients who underwent TTAR repair had a relatively favorable outcome. Analysis of the relationship between the clinical data and outcome showed that a young age was significantly correlated with survival, and that the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), heart rate, respiratory rate, or occurrence of shock were not significantly related to the outcome. The abbreviated injury scale (AIS) was used to score the severity of multiple injuries, and ISS was calculated from the AIS score. ISS was significantly higher in the death group (P = 0.007). ISS did not significantly differ among body parts (P = 0.077), but ISS of the extremities was higher than those of other parts. Pelvic fractures were frequent in the death group. Our strategy, whereby the patient initially underwent pelvic external fixation followed by TTAR repair was found to be very effective. The P-values calculated by the trauma and injury severity score method were significantly higher in the survival group (both, P = 0.007).
Conclusion: To treat TTAR, it is important to accurately evaluate the damage due to multiple injuries and apply an appropriate treatment strategy. Immediate repair of TTAR after bleeding due to combined injury improves the outcome. (English Translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2012; 21:5-9)