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1.  Analysis of RNA synthesis of type 1 poliovirus by using an in vitro molecular genetic approach. 
Journal of Virology  1987;61(9):2816-2822.
Membranous crude replication complexes (CRC) were isolated from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells as recently described (N. Takeda, R.J. Kuhn, C.-F. Yang, T. Takegami, and E. Wimmer, J. Virol. 60:43-53, 1986). Viruses used to produce the CRC were poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney), [PV-1(M)], poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) [PV-1(S)], and four in vitro recombinants that were constructed from infectious cDNA clones. RNA synthesis in CRC was studied. No end-linked, full-length double-stranded poliovirus RNA was detected in CRC regardless of whether nonionic detergent (Nonidet P-40) was added prior to incubation. Synthesis of VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU, two nucleotidyl proteins presumed to be involved in the initiation of RNA synthesis, was slower at 30 degrees C in CRC induced by PV-1(S) than by PV-1(M). This observation was used to design a pulse-chase experiment whose result suggested that synthesis of VPg-pUpU occurred by uridylylation of VPg-pU. Synthesis of VPg-pU(pU) was thermosensitive in CRC induced by PV-1(S). With CRC of recombinant viruses, the thermosensitive block covaried to nucleotide substitutions in PV-1(S) that mapped to the virus-induced RNA polymerase 3Dpol. We conclude that plus-stranded RNA synthesis in CRC does not proceed via hairpin structures. The results of VPg-pU----VPg-pUpU synthesis are consistent with a model in which VPg-pU is the primer of RNA synthesis mediated by 3Dpol. The data suggest that uridylylation of VPg or a precursor thereof may be catalyzed by 3Dpol itself, a mechanism resembling events occurring in adenovirus DNA replication.
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PMCID: PMC255791  PMID: 3039171
2.  How to predict the outcome in mature T and NK cell lymphoma by currently used prognostic models? 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(10):e93-.
To select an appropriate prognostic model in the treatment of mature T- and natural killer (NK) -cell lymphoma (peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and NK-/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL)) is crucial. This study investigated the usefulness of Ann Arbor staging classification International prognostic index (IPI), prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT) and International peripheral T-cell lymphoma Project score (IPTCLP). Between 2000 and 2009, 176 patients (122 males) with PTCL and NKTCL were diagnosed and treated from a single institute in Taiwan. The correlation between complete response (CR) rate, 3-year overall survival (OS), early mortality rate and four prognostic models was analyzed. Thirty-one patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were analyzed separately. Three-year OS rate was 34.7%, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma harbored better outcome than others. IPI score had the lowest Akaike information criterion value (1081.197) and was the best score in predicting OS and early mortality (P=0.009). Ann Arbor stage classification can predict CR rate more precisely (P=0.006). OS was significantly better in patients who received HSCT, even in patients with unfavorable features compared with chemotherapy alone. All prognostic models were useful to evaluate the outcome of patients with PTCL and NKTCL but IPI score did best in predicting OS in PTCL and PIT score in NKTCL. This study also supported the role of HSCT in patients with high-risk or refractory PTCL or NKTCL.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.23
PMCID: PMC3483618  PMID: 23064741
T-cell lymphoma; prognostic score; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Asian population
3.  Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(1):146-148.
In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation.
PMCID: PMC2631691  PMID: 11266307
4.  Genotype-specific RNA probes for direct identification of wild polioviruses by blot hybridization. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(11):2834-2840.
We have developed RNA probes for the direct identification of wild poliovirus isolates by blot hybridization. The probes are complementary to sequences of the first 30 to 32 codons of VP1, which evolve more extensively (approximately 1.5-fold) than the rest of VP1. To illustrate our general approach, we describe the design of probes specific to each of four major genotypes recently endemic (1981 to 1991) to the Americas: Andean type 1, Brazil type 1, Brazil type 3, and Central America-Mexico type 3. A wild isolate of each genotype was selected according to molecular and epidemiologic criteria to be representative of the principal lineages in circulation. Variable VP1 sequences of the representative isolates were amplified by the reverse transcriptase PCR and were inserted into a plasmid vector containing a T7 promoter. The in vitro transcripts, labeled with digoxigenin, served as probes. These formed stable hybrids only with RNAs of isolates of the corresponding genotypes. Hybrids were detected by a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, capable under normal diagnostic conditions of detecting specific wild poliovirus sequences in samples containing up to a 100-fold excess of Sabin vaccine strain-related sequences of the same serotype.
PMCID: PMC230071  PMID: 9350743
5.  Group-specific identification of polioviruses by PCR using primers containing mixed-base or deoxyinosine residue at positions of codon degeneracy. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(12):2990-2996.
We have developed a method for differentiating polioviruses from nonpolio enteroviruses using PCR. A pair of panpoliovirus PCR primers were designed to match intervals encoding amino acid sequences within VP1 that are strongly conserved among polioviruses. The initiating primer hybridizes with codons of a 7-amino-acid sequence that has been found only in polioviruses; the second primer matches codons of a domain thought to interact with the cell receptor. The panpoliovirus PCR primers contain mixed-base and deoxyinosine residues to compensate for the high degeneracy of the targeted codons. All RNAs from 48 vaccine-related and 110 wild poliovirus isolates of all three serotypes served as efficient templates for amplification of 79-bp product. None of the genomic sequences of 49 nonpolio enterovirus reference strains were amplified under equivalent reaction conditions. Sensitivities of poliovirus detection were as low as 100 fg (equivalent to approximately 25,000 genomic copies or 25 to 250 PFU) when the amplified products were visualized by ethidium bromide fluorescence. These degenerate PCR primers should aid in the detection of all polioviruses, including those wild poliovirus isolates for which genotype-specific reagents are unavailable.
PMCID: PMC229447  PMID: 8940436
6.  Genetic and topological analyses of the bop promoter of Halobacterium halobium: stimulation by DNA supercoiling and non-B-DNA structure. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1996;178(3):840-845.
The bop gene of wild-type Halobacterium halobium NRC-1 is transcriptionally induced more than 20-fold under microaerobic conditions. bop transcription is inhibited by novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, at concentrations subinhibitory for growth. The exposure of NRC-1 cultures to novobiocin concentrations inhibiting bop transcription was found to partially relax plasmid DNA supercoiling, indicating the requirement of high DNA supercoiling for bop transcription. Next, the bop promoter region was cloned on an H. halobium plasmid vector and introduced into NRC-1 and S9, a bop overproducer strain. The cloned promoter was active in both H. halobium strains, but at a higher level in the overproducer than in the wild type. Transcription from the bop promoter on the plasmid was found to be inhibited by novobiocin to a similar extent as was transcription from the chromosome. When the cloned promoter was introduced into S9 mutant strains with insertions in either of two putative regulatory genes, brp and bat, no transcription was detectable, indicating that these genes serve to activate transcription from the bop promoter in trans. Deletion analysis of the cloned bop promoter from a site approximately 480 bp upstream of bop showed that a 53-bp region 5' to the transcription start site is sufficient for transcription, but a 28-bp region is not. An 11-bp alternating purine-pyrimidine sequence within the functional promoter region, centered 23 bp 5' to the transcription start point, was found to display DNA supercoiling-dependent sensitivity to S1 nuclease and OsO4, which is consistent with a non-B-DNA conformation similar to that of left-handed Z-DNA and suggests the involvement of unusual DNA structure in supercoiling-stimulated bop gene transcription.
PMCID: PMC177733  PMID: 8550521
7.  Identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by hybridization with specific RNA probes. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(3):562-571.
We developed RNA probes for the identification of poliovirus isolates by blot hybridization. Two sets of vaccine strain-specific probes were prepared. They complemented variable genomic domains within (i) the 5'-untranslated region and (ii) the amino-terminal codons of VP1. An enterovirus group probe (EV/5UT) matching highly conserved 5'-untranslated region sequences was used to estimate the quantities of poliovirus (or enterovirus) RNA in the samples. Poliovirus sequences amplified from Sabin strain virion RNA templates by PCR were inserted into the pUC18 plasmid vector. The antisense PCR primer for each probe set contained sequences encoding a T7 promoter. Hybrids were detected by a sensitive nonisotopic method. RNA probes were labeled by incorporation of digoxigenin-uridylate into the transcripts. The binding of probe to immobilized poliovirus RNAs was visualized by hydrolysis of the chemiluminescent substrate 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphate-phenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamant ane) catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase conjugated to anti-digoxigenin (Fab) fragments. The specificities of the probes were evaluated with a panel of poliovirus isolates that had previously been characterized by sequence analysis. The RNAs of vaccine-related isolates hybridized with the appropriate probe sets. Wild polioviruses representing a broad spectrum of contemporary genotypes were recognized by the inabilities of their genomes to form stable hybrids with the Sabin strain-specific probes.
PMCID: PMC227991  PMID: 7751358
8.  Cadmium-induced oxidative cellular damage in human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells). 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1997;105(7):712-716.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that cadmium (Cd) exposure causes pulmonary damage such as emphysema and lung cancer. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in Cd pulmonary toxicity. In the present study, the effects of Cd exposure on human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells) were evaluated by determination of lipid peroxidation, intra-cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. A time- and dose-dependent increase of both lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malondialdehyde formation was observed in Cd-treated cells. A close correlation between these two events suggests that lipid peroxidation may be one of the main pathways causing its cytotoxicity. It was also noted that Cd-induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation were inhibited by catalase and superoxide dismutase, two antioxidant enzymes. By using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, a significant increase of ROS production in Cd-treated MRC-5 cells was detected. The inhibition of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence by catalase, not superoxide dismutase, suggests that hydrogen peroxide is the main ROS involved. Moreover, the significant dose-dependent changes of mitochondrial membrane potential in Cd-treated MRC-5 cells, demonstrated by increased fluorescence of rhodamine 123 examined using a laser-scanning confocal microscope, also indicate the involvement of mitochondrial damage in Cd cytotoxicity. These findings provide in vitro evidence that Cd causes oxidative cellular damage in human fetal lung fibroblasts, which may be closely associated with the pulmonary toxicity of Cd.
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PMCID: PMC1470098  PMID: 9294717
9.  Mouse neurovirulence determinants of poliovirus type 1 strain LS-a map to the coding regions of capsid protein VP1 and proteinase 2Apro. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(11):7507-7515.
Poliovirus type 1 strain LS-a [PV1(LS-a)] is a OV variant adapted to mice by multiple passages through mouse and monkey tissues. To investigate the molecular basis underlying mouse neurovirulence of PV1(LS-a), a cDNA of the viral genome containing nucleotides 112 to 7441 was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. Compared with that of the mouse avirulent progenitor PV1(Mahoney), 54 nucleotide changes were found in the genome of the PV1(LS-a) virus, resulting in 20 amino acid substitutions in the virus polyprotein. Whereas the nucleotide changes were scattered throughout the genome, the amino acid substitutions were largely clustered in the capsid proteins and, to a certain extent, in the virus proteinase 2Apro. By in vitro mutagenesis, PV1(LS-a)-specific capsid mutations were introduced into a cDNA clone of PV1(Mahoney). We show that neither the individual amino acid mutations nor combinations of mutations in the region encoding VP1 conferred to PV1(Mahoney) the mouse-adapted phenotype of PV1(LS-a). Chimeric cDNA studies demonstrated that a recombinant type 1 virus containing the PV1(LS-a) sequence from nucleotide 2470 to nucleotide 3625 displayed a neurovirulent phenotype in mice. Further dissection of this region revealed that mouse neurovirulence of PV1(LS-a) was determined by multiple mutations in regions encoding both viral proteinase 2Apro and capsid protein VP1. The mouse neurovirulent viruses, PV1(LS-a), W1-M/LS-Pf [nucleotides 496 to 3625 from PV1(LS-a)], and W1-M/LS-NP [nucleotides 2470 to 3625 from PV1(LS-a)], showed increased sensitivity to heat treatment at 45 degrees C for 1 h. Surprisingly, the thermolabile phenotype was also displayed by a recombinant of PV1(Mahoney) carrying a PV1(LS-a) DNA fragment encoding the N-terminal portion of 2Apro. This suggests that base substitutions in the region encoding 2Apro affected capsid stability, thereby contributing to the neurovirulence of the virus in mice.
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PMCID: PMC237193  PMID: 7933134
10.  Transcriptional induction of purple membrane and gas vesicle synthesis in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium is blocked by a DNA gyrase inhibitor. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1990;172(7):4118-4121.
We have investigated the expression of the bacteriorhodopsin gene (bop) and the gas vesicle protein gene (gvpA) in the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium, using primer-directed reverse transcription of RNA to quantify message levels. The level of gvpA gene transcript was found to increase about 5-fold from early to mid-logarithmic growth phase, while the level of bop gene transcript increased about 20-fold from mid-logarithmic to stationary phase. Transcriptional induction of both the gvpA and bop genes was significantly reduced by aeration and almost completely blocked by the DNA gyrase inhibitor novobiocin.
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PMCID: PMC213402  PMID: 2163398
11.  Initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in a membrane complex of infected HeLa cells. 
Journal of Virology  1986;60(1):43-53.
An in vitro poliovirus RNA-synthesizing system derived from a crude membrane fraction of infected HeLa cells was used to analyze the mechanism of initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis. This system contains an activity that synthesizes the nucleotidyl proteins VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU. These molecules represent the 5'-terminal structure of nascent RNA molecules and of virion RNA. The membranous replication complex is also capable of synthesizing nucleotidyl proteins containing nine or more of the poliovirus 5'-proximal nucleotides as assayed by the formation of the RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide VPg-pUUAAAACAGp or by fingerprint analysis of the in vitro-synthesized RNA. Incubation of preformed VPg-pUpU with unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates resulted in the formation of VPg-pUUAAAACAGp. This reaction, which appeared to be an elongation of VPg-pUpU, was stimulated by the addition of a soluble fraction (S-10) obtained from uninfected HeLa cells. Preformed VPg-pU could be chased into VPg-pUpU in the presence of UTP. Our data are consistent with a model that VPg-pU can function as a primer for poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in the membranous replication complex and that the elongation reaction may be stimulated by a host cellular factor.
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PMCID: PMC253900  PMID: 3018300
12.  Analysis of insertion mutants reveals two new genes in the pNRC100 gas vesicle gene cluster of Halobacterium halobium. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1989;17(19):7785-7793.
The archaebacterium, Halobacterium halobium, achieves buoyancy through synthesis of intracellular gas-filled vesicles. The plasmid-encoded gene (gvpA) specifying the major structural gas vesicle protein has previously been cloned and sequenced allowing the analysis of high-frequency mutations to the vesicle negative phenotype. Among eighteen gas vesicle mutants analyzed, four were observed to contain insertion elements 0.2 to 2 kb upstream of the structural gene. To explain the phenotype of these mutants, the upstream area was analyzed by DNA sequencing and transcriptional mapping. This analysis showed the presence of two open reading frames, gvpD and gvpE, which are of opposite transcriptional orientation to gvpA (gene order gvpA-D-E). gvpD begins 201 nucleotides from the gvpA structural gene and is 1608 nucleotides long while gvpE begins two nucleotides from the 3'-end of gvpD and is 573 nucleotides long. Primer extension analysis showed the occurrence of divergent promoters in the gvpA-gvpD intergenic region with the transcription start sites separated by 109 nucleotides. The sites of three insertion sequences in gas vesicle mutants mapped within gvpE while the fourth insertion site mapped near the N-terminal coding region of gvpD. Homology between the gvpDE gene region and a chromosomal site in a H. halobium NRC-1 derivative and in several other Halobacterium strains was identified by Southern hybridization.
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PMCID: PMC334886  PMID: 2552415

Results 1-12 (12)