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1.  BRAF mutation correlates with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma in Chinese patients 
Current Oncology  2014;21(6):e740-e747.
Purpose
We investigated correlations of somatic BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC1 rearrangement with recurrent disease in Chinese patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (ptc).
Methods
This prospective study included 214 patients with ptc histologically confirmed between November 2009 and May 2011 at a single institute.
Results
We found somatic BRAF V600E mutation in 68.7% and RET/PTC1 rearrangement in 25.7% of the patients. Although BRAF mutation was not significantly associated with clinicopathologic features such as patient sex or age, multicentric disease, thyroid capsule invasion, tumour stage, or nodal metastasis, it was significantly associated with recurrent disease. Multivariate analysis revealed that BRAF mutation and tumour size were independent risk factors associated with recurrent disease, with odds ratios of 9.072 and 2.387 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased 8.3% when BRAF mutation was added to the traditional prognostic factors, but that effect was statistically nonsignificant (0.663 vs. 0.746, p = 0.124). RET/PTC1 rearrangement and nodal metastasis were significantly associated in all patients (p = 0.042), marginally associated in ptc patients (p = 0.051), but not associated in microptc patients (p = 0.700). RET/PTC1 rearrangement was not significantly associated with recurrent disease.
Conclusions
BRAF positivity is an independent predictor of recurrent disease in ptc.
doi:10.3747/co.21.2029
PMCID: PMC4257118  PMID: 25489262
Papillary thyroid carcinoma; BRAF; RET/PTC1; recurrence
2.  Modulation of interhemispheric functional coordination in electroconvulsive therapy for depression 
Wei, Q | Tian, Y | Yu, Y | Zhang, F | Hu, X | Dong, Y | Chen, Y | Hu, P | Hu, X | Wang, K
Translational Psychiatry  2014;4(9):e453-.
Considerable evidence suggests that depression is related to interhemispheric functional coordination deficits. For depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective therapy, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ECT on the interhemispheric functional coordination in depression patients. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to observe the change of interhemispheric functional coordination with the method of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) in 11 depressed patients before and after ECT, compared with 15 healthy controls. The results showed that, compared with depression patients before ECT, VMHC was significantly increased in superior frontal gyri (BA 8), middle frontal gyri (two clusters: BA 8/9 and BA 10) and angular gyri (BA 39) in depression patients after ECT. Compared with healthy controls, VMHC in those areas was significantly lower in the middle frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and angular gyri (BA 39) in depression patients before ECT, but no significant difference was observed in the superior frontal gyri (BA 8) and middle frontal gyri (BA 10). There was no significant correlation between the changes of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and changed VMHC values in those four areas in depression patients. The results suggest that ECT selectively modulated interhemispheric functional coordination in depression patients. Such may play an important mechanistic role in the treatment of depression, and may afford a useful avenue for optimizing treatment.
doi:10.1038/tp.2014.101
PMCID: PMC4202999  PMID: 25268257
3.  Does genetic heterogeneity account for the divergent risk of type 2 diabetes in South Asian and white European populations? 
Diabetologia  2014;57(11):2270-2281.
Aims/hypothesis
South Asians are up to four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white Europeans. It is postulated that the higher prevalence results from greater genetic risk. To evaluate this hypothesis, we: (1) systematically reviewed the literature for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to type 2 diabetes in South Asians; (2) compared risk estimates, risk alleles and risk allele frequencies of predisposing SNPs between South Asians and white Europeans; and (3) tested the association of novel SNPs discovered from South Asians in white Europeans.
Methods
MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Cochrane registry were searched for studies of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asians. Meta-analysis estimates for common and novel bi-allelic SNPs in South Asians were compared with white Europeans from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium. The population burden from predisposing SNPs was assessed using a genotype score.
Results
Twenty-four SNPs from 21 loci were associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asians after meta-analysis. The majority of SNPs increase odds of the disorder by 15–35% per risk allele. No substantial differences appear to exist in risk estimates between South Asians and white Europeans from SNPs common to both groups, and the population burden also does not differ. Eight of the 24 are novel SNPs discovered from South Asian genome-wide association studies, some of which show nominal associations with type 2 diabetes in white Europeans.
Conclusions/interpretation
Based on current literature there is no strong evidence to indicate that South Asians possess a greater genetic risk of type 2 diabetes than white Europeans.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3354-1) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3354-1
PMCID: PMC4180911  PMID: 25145545
Epidemiology; Ethnicity; Genetic risk; Meta-analysis; South Asian; Type 2 diabetes; White Europeans
4.  A time series analysis of meteorological factors and hospital outpatient admissions for cardiovascular disease in the Northern district of Guizhou Province, China 
Findings on the effects of weather on health, especially the effects of ambient temperature on overall morbidity, remain inconsistent. We conducted a time series study to examine the acute effects of meteorological factors (mainly air temperature) on daily hospital outpatient admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Zunyi City, China, from January 1, 2007 to November 30, 2009. We used the generalized additive model with penalized splines to analyze hospital outpatient admissions, climatic parameters, and covariate data. Results show that, in Zunyi, air temperature was associated with hospital outpatient admission for CVD. When air temperature was less than 10°C, hospital outpatient admissions for CVD increased 1.07-fold with each increase of 1°C, and when air temperature was more than 10°C, an increase in air temperature by 1°C was associated with a 0.99-fold decrease in hospital outpatient admissions for CVD over the previous year. Our analyses provided statistically significant evidence that in China meteorological factors have adverse effects on the health of the general population. Further research with consistent methodology is needed to clarify the magnitude of these effects and to show which populations and individuals are vulnerable.
doi:10.1590/1414-431X2014424
PMCID: PMC4165296  PMID: 25003542
Temperature; Cardiovascular disease; Hospital outpatient admission
5.  Meta- and pooled analysis of GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and oropharyngeal cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review 
The association of GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and oral and pharyngeal cancers was assessed through a meta-analysis of published case-control studies and a pooled analysis of both published and unpublished case-control studies from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens database (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/research/ccps/ccontrol/index.html). Thirty publications used in the meta-analysis included a total of 7783 subjects (3177 cases and 4606 controls); 21 datasets, 9397 subjects (3130 cases and 6267 controls) were included in the pooled analysis. The GSTM1 deletion was 2-fold more likely to occur in African American and African cases than controls (odds ratio: 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.9–3.3), although this was not observed among whites (odds ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.9–1.1). The meta-analysis and pooled analysis showed a significant association between oral and pharyngeal cancer and the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant (meta-ORm2/m2: 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4–2.7; Pooled ORm2m2: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–3.1; ORm1m2 or [infi]m2m2: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–1.6). The association was present for the CYP1A1 (exon 7) polymorphism (ORVal/Val: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–4.5) in ever smokers. A joint effect was observed for GSTM1 homozygous deletion and the CYP1A1 m1m2 variant on cancer risk. Our findings suggest that tobacco use and genetic factors play a significant role in oral and pharyngeal cancer.
doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181770196
PMCID: PMC4036819  PMID: 18496222
GSTM1; CYP1A1; oral and pharyngeal cancer; Epidemiology; meta and pooled analysis
6.  Common variation contributes to the genetic architecture of social communication traits 
Molecular Autism  2013;4:34.
Background
Social communication difficulties represent an autistic trait that is highly heritable and persistent during the course of development. However, little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of this phenotype.
Methods
We performed a genome-wide association study on parent-reported social communication problems using items of the children’s communication checklist (age 10 to 11 years) studying single and/or joint marker effects. Analyses were conducted in a large UK population-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children, ALSPAC, N = 5,584) and followed-up within a sample of children with comparable measures from Western Australia (RAINE, N = 1364).
Results
Two of our seven independent top signals (P-discovery <1.0E-05) were replicated (0.009
Single-variant findings were complemented by estimations of the narrow-sense heritability in ALSPAC suggesting that approximately a fifth of the phenotypic variance in social communication traits is accounted for by joint additive effects of genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout the genome (h2(SE) = 0.18(0.066), P = 0.0027).
Conclusion
Overall, our study provides both joint and single-SNP-based evidence for the contribution of common polymorphisms to variation in social communication phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/2040-2392-4-34
PMCID: PMC3853437  PMID: 24047820
ALSPAC; RAINE; Autistic trait; GWAS; Social communication; Association
Oncology Letters  2012;5(1):208-214.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are potential targets for therapy using extra-cellular domain receptor binding agents, such as the antibodies trastuzumab and cetuximab, or antibodies labeled with therapeutically useful radionuclides or toxins. This is especially the case when the tumor cells are resistant to chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Studies concerning the expression of these receptors in prostate cancer vary in the literature, possibly due to differences in patient inclusion, sample preparations and scoring criteria. In our study, EGFR, HER2 and HER3 expression was analyzed in prostate cancer samples from primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases from 12 patients. The expression of HER2 and EGFR was scored from immunohistochemical preparations and the HercepTest criteria (0, 1+, 2+ or 3+), while HER3 expression was scored as no, weak or strong staining. There were 5 EGFR-positive (2+ or 3+) primary tumors and 6 EGFR-positive lymph node metastases, and there was EGFR upregulation in one metastasis. Only 4 of the 12 patients had marked HER2 expression (2+ or 3+) in their primary tumors and there was one downregulation and 5 cases of upregulation in the metastases. Thus, a total of 8 out of 12 analyzed metastases were HER2-positive. Of the 12 primary tumors, 9 expressed HER3 while only 2 of the lymph node metastases expressed recognizable HER3 staining, so 7 metastases appeared to have downregulated HER3 expression. In one of the primary tumors there was positive co-expression of EGFR and HER2, while this co-expression was observed in 4 of the metastases. Thus, there were tendencies for upregulation of HER2, increased co-expression of EGFR and HER2 and downregulation of HER3 in the prostate cancer lymph node metastases in comparison to the primary tumors. The results are encouraging for studies involving more patients. Possible strategies for EGFR- and HER2-targeted therapy are briefly discussed in the present study, especially with regard to the expression and co-expression of EGFR and HER2 in metastases.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.996
PMCID: PMC3525498  PMID: 23255921
cancer; EGFR; HER2; HER3; lymph nodes; metastasis; prostate; radionuclides; receptor expression; therapy
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(7):e78-.
Modern management of leukemia and selection of optimal treatment approaches entails the analysis of multiple recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities with independent diagnostic or prognostic value. We report the first multicenter validation of a multiplex molecular assay for 12 relevant fusion transcripts relative to cytogenetic methods. Performance was evaluated using a set of 280 adult and pediatric acute or chronic leukemias representative of the variety of presentations and pre-analytical parameters encountered in the clinical setting. The positive, negative and overall agreements were >98.5% with high concordance at each of the four sites. Positive detection of cases with low blast count or at relapse was consistent with a method sensitivity of 1%. There was 98.7% qualitative agreement with independent reference molecular tests. Apparent false negatives corresponded to rare alternative splicing isoforms not included in the panel. We further demonstrate that clinical sensitivity can be increased by adding those rare variants and other relevant transcripts or submicroscopic abnormalities. We conclude that multiplex RT-PCR followed by liquid bead array detection is a rapid and flexible method attuned to the clinical laboratory workflow, complementing standard cytogenetic methods and generating additional information valuable for the accurate diagnosis, prognosis and subsequent molecular monitoring of leukemia.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.24
PMCID: PMC3408638  PMID: 22852047
leukemia; diagnosis; prognosis; molecular classification; RT-PCR; multiplex
Artigas, María Soler | Loth, Daan W | Wain, Louise V | Gharib, Sina A | Obeidat, Ma’en | Tang, Wenbo | Zhai, Guangju | Zhao, Jing Hua | Smith, Albert Vernon | Huffman, Jennifer E | Albrecht, Eva | Jackson, Catherine M | Evans, David M | Cadby, Gemma | Fornage, Myriam | Manichaikul, Ani | Lopez, Lorna M | Johnson, Toby | Aldrich, Melinda C | Aspelund, Thor | Barroso, Inês | Campbell, Harry | Cassano, Patricia A | Couper, David J | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Franceschini, Nora | Garcia, Melissa | Gieger, Christian | Gislason, Gauti Kjartan | Grkovic, Ivica | Hammond, Christopher J | Hancock, Dana B | Harris, Tamara B | Ramasamy, Adaikalavan | Heckbert, Susan R | Heliövaara, Markku | Homuth, Georg | Hysi, Pirro G | James, Alan L | Jankovic, Stipan | Joubert, Bonnie R | Karrasch, Stefan | Klopp, Norman | Koch, Beate | Kritchevsky, Stephen B | Launer, Lenore J | Liu, Yongmei | Loehr, Laura R | Lohman, Kurt | Loos, Ruth JF | Lumley, Thomas | Al Balushi, Khalid A | Ang, Wei Q | Barr, R Graham | Beilby, John | Blakey, John D | Boban, Mladen | Boraska, Vesna | Brisman, Jonas | Britton, John R | Brusselle, Guy G | Cooper, Cyrus | Curjuric, Ivan | Dahgam, Santosh | Deary, Ian J | Ebrahim, Shah | Eijgelsheim, Mark | Francks, Clyde | Gaysina, Darya | Granell, Raquel | Gu, Xiangjun | Hankinson, John L | Hardy, Rebecca | Harris, Sarah E | Henderson, John | Henry, Amanda | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hofman, Albert | Holt, Patrick G | Hui, Jennie | Hunter, Michael L | Imboden, Medea | Jameson, Karen A | Kerr, Shona M | Kolcic, Ivana | Kronenberg, Florian | Liu, Jason Z | Marchini, Jonathan | McKeever, Tricia | Morris, Andrew D | Olin, Anna-Carin | Porteous, David J | Postma, Dirkje S | Rich, Stephen S | Ring, Susan M | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rochat, Thierry | Sayer, Avan Aihie | Sayers, Ian | Sly, Peter D | Smith, George Davey | Sood, Akshay | Starr, John M | Uitterlinden, André G | Vonk, Judith M | Wannamethee, S Goya | Whincup, Peter H | Wijmenga, Cisca | Williams, O Dale | Wong, Andrew | Mangino, Massimo | Marciante, Kristin D | McArdle, Wendy L | Meibohm, Bernd | Morrison, Alanna C | North, Kari E | Omenaas, Ernst | Palmer, Lyle J | Pietiläinen, Kirsi H | Pin, Isabelle | Polašek, Ozren | Pouta, Anneli | Psaty, Bruce M | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Rantanen, Taina | Ripatti, Samuli | Rotter, Jerome I | Rudan, Igor | Rudnicka, Alicja R | Schulz, Holger | Shin, So-Youn | Spector, Tim D | Surakka, Ida | Vitart, Veronique | Völzke, Henry | Wareham, Nicholas J | Warrington, Nicole M | Wichmann, H-Erich | Wild, Sarah H | Wilk, Jemma B | Wjst, Matthias | Wright, Alan F | Zgaga, Lina | Zemunik, Tatijana | Pennell, Craig E | Nyberg, Fredrik | Kuh, Diana | Holloway, John W | Boezen, H Marike | Lawlor, Debbie A | Morris, Richard W | Probst-Hensch, Nicole | Kaprio, Jaakko | Wilson, James F | Hayward, Caroline | Kähönen, Mika | Heinrich, Joachim | Musk, Arthur W | Jarvis, Deborah L | Gläser, Sven | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Stricker, Bruno H Ch | Elliott, Paul | O’Connor, George T | Strachan, David P | London, Stephanie J | Hall, Ian P | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Tobin, Martin D
Nature Genetics  2011;43(11):1082-1090.
Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and predict mortality, and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry, with follow-up of top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P<5×10−8) with pulmonary function, in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1, and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
doi:10.1038/ng.941
PMCID: PMC3267376  PMID: 21946350
Virology Journal  2011;8:321.
The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-321
PMCID: PMC3141683  PMID: 21703008
Piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-35PT) thick film with a thickness of approximately 12 µm has been deposited on the platinum buffered Si substrate via a sol-gel composite method. The separation of the film from the substrate was achieved using a wet chemical method. The lifted-off PMN-35PT thick film exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 3,326 and 0.037, respectively, while the remnant polarization was 30.0 µC/cm2. A high frequency single element acoustic transducer fabricated with this film showed a bandwidth at −6 dB of 63.6% at 110 MHz.
doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.03873.x
PMCID: PMC3002224  PMID: 21170158
lift-off; PMN-PT; thick film; high frequency transducer
The imipenem and meropenem-resistant strains Citrobacter freundii HS70 and Escherichia coli HS510 were isolated from patients in Shanghai, China. By isoelectric focusing, PCR amplification and sequencing, these strains were each found to produce four β-lactamases: TEM-1, KPC-3, SHV-7 and CTX-M-14. A conjugation experiment and plasmid restriction digestion revealed that the blaKPC-3 gene was located on the same plasmid in both isolates. Bidirectional primer walking sequencing showed that the nucleotide sequence surrounding the 3.8 kb blaKPC-3 contained a 671-bp insertion similar to that previously characterized in China. The insertion was located between the promoter and the coding region of the blaKPC-3 gene. Susceptibility testing performed on recombinant strains carrying the blaKPC-3 gene with or without the insertion revealed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, and cefotaxime for E. coli EMU-KPC3 (without insertion) were four times higher than that of E. coli EKPC3 (with insertion). The 671 bp insertion reduced blaKPC-3 expression significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that KPC-3-producing C. freundii and E. coli have begun to emerge in our hospital.
doi:10.1007/s10096-010-1124-7
PMCID: PMC3052496  PMID: 21153909
Background
Identifying biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk will be critical to effective AD prevention. Levels of circulating amyloid β (Aβ) 40 and 42 may be candidate biomarkers. However, properties of plasma Aβ assays must be established.
Methods
Using five different protocols, blinded samples were used to assess: intra-assay reproducibility; impact of EDTA vs. heparin anticoagulant tubes; and effect of time-to-blood processing. In addition, percent recovery of known Aβ concentrations in spiked samples was assessed.
Results
Median intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) for the assay protocols ranged from 6–24% for Aβ-40, and 8–14% for Aβ-42. There were no systematic differences in reproducibility by collection method. Plasma concentrations of Aβ (particularly Aβ-42) appeared stable in whole blood kept in ice packs and processed as long as 24 hours after collection. Recovery of expected concentrations was modest, ranging from -24% to 44% recovery of Aβ-40, and 17% to 61% of Aβ-42.
Conclusions
Across five protocols, plasma Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels were measured with generally low error, and measurements appeared similar in blood collected in EDTA vs. heparin. While these preliminary findings suggest that measuring plasma Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 may be feasible in varied research settings, additional work in this area is necessary.
doi:10.3233/JAD-2009-0948
PMCID: PMC2737811  PMID: 19221417
Alzheimer disease; amyloid; assay reliability; biomarker; quality control
Gu, J | Huang, J | Li, C | Zhao, L | Huang, F | Liao, Z | Li, T | Wei, Q | Lin, Z | Pan, Y | Huang, J | Wang, X | Lin, Q | Lu, C | Wu, Y | Cao, S | Wu, J | Xu, H | Yu, B | Shen, Y
Journal of Medical Genetics  2009;46(10):657-662.
Background:
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, potentially crippling, spondyloarthropathy with strong genetic components affecting approximately 0.3% of the population. Its exact genetic mechanism and mode of transmission, however, remains obscure.
Methods and results:
The authors conducted a genome wide scan on 75 individuals across multiple generations of three Han Chinese families affected with AS. Segregation analysis and pedigree investigation suggested an autosomal dominant inheritance. Pairwise logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated using LINKAGE package for the obtained genotypes. High resolution mapping was then performed based on markers with significant LOD scores. To minimise the number of crossovers in each family, haplotype were constructed and assigned. Two of the pedigrees shared one candidate region for AS on 2q36.1–2q36.3 spanning 6-cM (maximum heterogeneity LOD score of 12.41 at marker D2S2228), while the other showed strong linkage to the HLA-B region.
Conclusions:
This is the first report which proposes one of the new genetic models of autosomal dominant transmission in AS. The breakthrough in the identification of linkage to chromosome 2q36.1–2q36.3 and the HLA-B region highlights the future potential of more comprehensive genetic studies of determinants of disease risk.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2009.066456
PMCID: PMC2748191  PMID: 19416804
Journal of Virology  1997;71(10):7990-7995.
Genetic characterization of a large number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates indicates that at least 10% of all strains have mosaic genomes generated by recombination between viruses of the same or different subtypes or clades. What is not known, however, is the time between infection with the first and second HIV-1 strains as well as the time between infection with the second strain and the recombinational event. After 32 months of infection with HIV-1(LAI(IIIB)), a chimpanzee was inoculated intravenously and became infected with a subtype E strain, HIV-1(90CR402). With PCR amplification, DNA heteroduplex analysis, and DNA sequencing, both parental strains and two distinct recombinant proviruses were found in genomic DNA from lymph node tissue obtained 24 weeks after exposure to HIV-1(90CR402). These results show (i) that antiviral immune responses established by long-term infection with an HIV-1 subtype B strain did not prevent infection by a subtype E strain and (ii) that both strains actively replicated and produced sufficient quantities of virus to coinfect the same cell(s), resulting in recombinant viruses.
PMCID: PMC192160  PMID: 9311893
Journal of Virology  1995;69(10):6239-6248.
The extraordinary genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a major problem to overcome in the development of an effective vaccine. In the most reliable animal model of HIV-1 infection, chimpanzees were immunized with various combinations of HIV-1 antigens, which were derived primarily from the surface glycoprotein, gp160, of HIV-1 strains LAI and MN. The immunogens also included a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing a gp160-MN protein. In one experiment, two chimpanzees were immunized multiple times; one animal received antigens derived only from HIV-1LAI, and the second animal received antigens from both HIV-1LAI and HIV-1MN. In another experiment, four chimpanzees were immunized in parallel a total of five times over 18 months; two animals received purified gp160 and V3-MN peptides, whereas the other two animals received the recombinant canarypox virus and gp160. At 3 months after the final booster, all immunized and naive control chimpanzees were challenged by intravenous inoculation of HIV-1SF2; therefore, the study represented an intrasubtype B heterologous virus challenge. Virologic and serologic follow-up showed that the controls and the two chimpanzees immunized with the live recombinant canarypox virus became infected, whereas the other animals that were immunized with gp160 and V3-MN peptides were protected from infection. Evaluation of both cellular and humoral HIV-specific immune responses at the time of infectious HIV-1 challenge identified the following as possible correlates of protection: antibody titers to the V3 loop of MN and neutralizing antibody titers to HIV-1MN or HIV-1LAI, but not to HIV-1SF2. The results of this study indicate that vaccine-mediated protection against intravenous infection with heterologous HIV-1 strains of the same subtype is possible with some immunogens.
PMCID: PMC189521  PMID: 7666524
Journal of Bacteriology  1994;176(18):5704-5710.
Reversion analysis has been employed to isolate suppressors that restore export of a unique LamB signal sequence mutant. The mutation results in a substitution of Arg for Met at position 19, which prevents LamB export to the outer membrane and leads to a Dex- phenotype. Unlike other LamB signal sequence mutants utilized for reversion analysis, LamB19R becomes stably associated with the inner membrane in an export-specific manner. In this study, Dex+ revertants were selected and various suppressors were isolated. One of the extragenic suppressors, designated prlZ1, was chosen for further study. prlZ1 maps to 69 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The suppressor is dominant and SecB dependent. In addition to its effect on lamB19R, prlZ1 suppresses the export defect of signal sequence point mutations at positions 12, 15, and 16, as well as several point mutations in the maltose-binding protein signal sequence. prlZ1 does not suppress deletion mutations in either signal sequence. This pattern of suppression can be explained by interaction of a helical LamB signal sequence with the suppressor.
Images
PMCID: PMC196774  PMID: 8083163
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(8):5474-5486.
Members of the MyoD family of gene-regulatory proteins (MyoD, myogenin, myf5, and MRF4) have all been shown not only to regulate the transcription of numerous muscle-specific genes but also to positively autoregulate and cross activate each other's transcription. In the case of muscle-specific genes, this transcriptional regulation can often be correlated with the presence of a DNA consensus in the regulatory region CANNTG, known as an E box. Little is known about the regulatory interactions of the myogenic factors themselves; however, these interactions are thought to be important for the activation and maintenance of the muscle phenotype. We have identified the minimal region in the chicken MyoD (CMD1) promoter necessary for muscle-specific transcription in primary cultures of embryonic chicken skeletal muscle. The CMD1 promoter is silent in primary chick fibroblast cultures and in muscle cell cultures treated with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine. However, CMD1 and chicken myogenin, as well as, to a lesser degree, chicken Myf5 and MRF4, expressed in trans can activate transcription from the minimal CMD1 promoter in these primary fibroblast cultures. Here we show that the CMD1 promoter contains numerous E-box binding sites for CMD1 and the other myogenic factors, as well as a MEF-2 binding site. Surprisingly, neither muscle-specific and the other myogenic factors, as well as a MEF-2 binding site. Surprisingly, neither muscle-specific expression, autoregulation, or cross activation depends upon the presence of of these E-box or MEF-2 binding sites in the CMD1 promoter. These results demonstrate that the autoregulation and cross activation of the chicken MyoD promoter through the putative direct binding of the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix regulatory factors is mediated through an indirect pathway that involves unidentified regulatory elements and/or ancillary factors.
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PMCID: PMC359067  PMID: 8035824

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