Patients with advanced peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and shortened life expectancy. However, CV risk factors poorly predict midterm (<5 years) mortality in this population. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that baseline biochemical parameters would add clinically meaningful predictive information in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass.
This was a prospective cohort study of subjects with clinically advanced PAD undergoing lower extremity bypass surgery. The Cox proportional hazard was used to assess the main outcome of all-cause mortality. A clinical model was constructed with known cardiovascular risk factors and the incremental value of the addition of clinical chemistry, lipid, and a panel of 11 inflammatory parameters were investigated using c-statistic, the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index and Akaike information criterion (AIC).
225 subjects were followed for a median 893 days; IQR 539–1315 days). In this study 50 (22.22%) subjects died during the follow-up period. By life table analysis (expressed as percent surviving ± standard error), survival at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years respectively was 90.5 ± 1.9%, 83.4 ± 2.5%, 77.5 ± 3.1%, 71.0 ± 3.8%, and 65.3 ± 6.5%. Compared with survivors, decedents were older, diabetic, had extant CAD, and were more likely to present with CLI as their indication for bypass surgery, P<.05. After adjustment for the above, clinical chemistry and inflammatory parameters significant for all cause mortality were albumin, HR .43 (95% CI .26–.71); P=.001, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HR .98 (95% CI .97–.99), P=.023, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HR 3.21 (95% CI 1.21–8.55), P=.019, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), HR 1.74 (1.04–2.91), P=.034. Of all inflammatory molecules investigated, hsCRP proved most robust and representative of the integrated inflammatory response. Albumin, eGFR, and hsCRP improved the c-statistic and IDI beyond that of the clinical model and produced a final c-statistic of .82.
A risk prediction model including traditional risk factors and parameters of inflammation, renal function and nutrition had excellent discriminatory ability in predicting all cause mortality in patients with clinically advanced PAD undergoing bypass surgery.