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author:("okuda, M")
1.  Identification of Toyocamycin, an agent cytotoxic for multiple myeloma cells, as a potent inhibitor of ER stress-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(7):e79-.
The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is considered to be a critical regulator for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Therefore, the availability of small-molecule inhibitors targeting this pathway would offer a new chemotherapeutic strategy for MM. Here, we screened small-molecule inhibitors of ER stress-induced XBP1 activation, and identified toyocamycin from a culture broth of an Actinomycete strain. Toyocamycin was shown to suppress thapsigargin-, tunicamycin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in HeLa cells without affecting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) activation. Furthermore, although toyocamycin was unable to inhibit IRE1α phosphorylation, it prevented IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage in vitro. Thus, toyocamycin is an inhibitor of IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage. Toyocamycin inhibited not only ER stress-induced but also constitutive activation of XBP1 expression in MM lines as well as primary samples from patients. It showed synergistic effects with bortezomib, and induced apoptosis of MM cells including bortezomib-resistant cells at nanomolar levels in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited growth of xenografts in an in vivo model of human MM. Taken together, our results suggest toyocamycin as a lead compound for developing anti-MM therapy and XBP1 as an appropriate molecular target for anti-MM therapy.
PMCID: PMC3408640  PMID: 22852048
multiple myeloma; ER stress; IRE1α; XBP1; toyocamycin; adenosine analog
2.  Clinical features of several connective tissue diseases with anti-Golgi antibody 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2001;60(10):986-987.
PMCID: PMC1753383  PMID: 11589180
3.  Non-specific interstitial pneumonia as pulmonary involvement of systemic sclerosis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2001;60(3):281-283.
The pathological features of lung disease in nine patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were evaluated. The patients comprised one man and eight women, with a median age of 58 years. SSc was diagnosed according to the criteria of the American Rheumatism Association. In all patients, high resolution computed radiographic scanning of the lungs (HRCT) was performed, and apparent honeycomb formation was seen in four patients. Pathologically, four patients were diagnosed with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), three with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) group II, one NSIP group II-III, and one NSIP group II with diffuse alveolar damage. HRCT showed no apparent honeycomb formations in patients diagnosed with NSIP. This is the first report describing NSIP as a pulmonary complication of SSc.

PMCID: PMC1753571  PMID: 11171693
4.  Sequential changes of KL-6 in sera of patients with interstitial pneumonia associated with polymyositis/dermatomyositis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(4):257-262.
OBJECTIVE—KL-6 is a mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein, which is strongly expressed on type II alveolar pneumocytes and bronchiolar epithelial cells. It has been demonstrated that the KL-6 antigen is a useful marker for estimating the activity of interstitial pneumonia. In this study, it is hypothesised that serum KL-6 is a useful marker to evaluate the activity of interstitial pneumonia associated with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM).
METHODS—KL-6 was measured in sera in 16 patients diagnosed with PM/DM. Five had non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), three had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and eight had no pulmonary involvement, and 10 were normal non-smokers as a control group. The correlation was also evaluated between the KL-6 level and each clinical course in patients with pulmonary involvement associated with PM/DM. Immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal anti-KL-6 antibody was also performed.
RESULTS—KL-6 concentrations in sera of patients with interstitial pneumonia associated with PM/DM were significantly high compared with those of PM/DM without interstitial pneumonia, and normal non-smokers. KL-6 concentrations in sera in patients with DAD significantly increased compared with those of other groups. KL-6 values in sera changed according to the progression or improvement of interstitial pneumonia. Immunohistochemical study using pulmonary tissues obtained from patients with DAD demonstrated that the hyaline membrane, proliferating type II pneumocytes, bronchial epithelial cells and some endothelial cells in pulmonary veins were stained by antihuman KL-6 antibody.
CONCLUSION—These data demonstrate that measurement of serum KL-6 was a useful marker to evaluate the activity of acute interstitial pneumonia associated with PM/DM.

PMCID: PMC1753113  PMID: 10733471
5.  Detection of anti-ADAM 10 antibody in serum of a patient with pulmonary fibrosis associated with dermatomyositis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1999;58(12):770-772.
OBJECTIVES—It has been suggested that the humoral immune system plays a part in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Although circulating autoantibodies to lung protein(s) have been suggested, few lung proteins have been characterised. The purpose of this study is to determine the antigen recognised by serum of a patient with pulmonary fibrosis associated with dermatomyositis.
METHODS—To accomplish this, anti-small airway epithelial cell (SAEC) antibody in a patient's serum was evaluated using a western immunoblot.
RESULTS—An autoantibody against SAEC was found, and the antigen had a molecular weight of 62 kDa. Using the patient's serum, clones from the normal lung cDNA library were screened and demonstrated that anti-SAEC antibody in the patient's serum was against ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10.
CONCLUSION—This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of anti-ADAM 10 antibody in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis associated with dermatomyositis.

PMCID: PMC1752819  PMID: 10577965
6.  Detection of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody in the serum of patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorders 
Thorax  1998;53(11):969-974.
BACKGROUND—It has been suggested that the humoral immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Although circulating autoantibodies to lung protein(s) have been suggested, none of the lung proteins have been characterised. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigen to which the serum from patients with pulmonary fibrosis reacted.
METHODS—The anti-A549 cell antibody was characterised in a patient with CFA using Western immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining of A549 cells. As we identified that one of the antibodies against A549 cells was anti-cytokeratin 8, the expression of mRNA of cytokeratin 8 in A549 cells was evaluated. In addition, we attempted to establish an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure the levels of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody in the serum of patients with CFA and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorders (PF-CVD).
RESULTS—Initially two anti-A549 cell antibodies were detected in the serum of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, one of which was characterised as anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody by Western immunoblotting. We were able to establish an ELISA to measure anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody and found significantly higher levels in patients with CFA and PF-CVD than in normal volunteers, patients with sarcoidosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema.
CONCLUSIONS—One of the anti-A549 cell antibodies in the serum of patients with CFA was against cytokeratin 8. The serum levels of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody were increased in patients with CFA and PF-CVD. These results suggest that anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody may be involved in the process of lung injury in pulmonary fibrosis.

PMCID: PMC1745118  PMID: 10193397
7.  Role of Porphyromonas gingivalis protease activity in colonization of oral surfaces. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(10):4067-4073.
Cysteine proteases, including Arg-gingipain of Porphyromonas gingivalis, have been implicated as important virulence factors in periodontal diseases. These enzymes are also involved in the hemagglutinating activity of the organisms. In order to determine the role of proteases in the colonization of the gingival margin, we have compared the attachment properties of P. gingivalis 381 with those of its Arg-gingipain-defective mutant, G-102. Interactions with gram-positive bacteria, human oral epithelial cells, extracellular matrix proteins, and type I collagen were evaluated. In all cases, mutant G-102 was deficient in attachment relative to the parental strain. The mutant's defects could be explained, in part, by the weak autoaggregation displayed by the mutant, which appeared to result from altered fimbrial expression. Both Western blot (immunoblot) and Northern (RNA) blot analyses indicated reduced expression of the major 43-kDa fimbrillin subunit in the mutant. These results suggest that Arg-gingipain may play both direct and indirect roles in the colonization of the gingival margin. In addition, fimbriae may play a direct role in interacting with some host surfaces.
PMCID: PMC174338  PMID: 8926070
8.  Lipopolysaccharides of Bacteroides intermedius (Prevotella intermedia) and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis induce interleukin-8 gene expression in human gingival fibroblast cultures. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(11):4932-4937.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prepared from Bacteroides intermedius (Prevotella intermedia) and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis by hot phenol-water extraction induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA in normal human gingival fibroblast cultures, as demonstrated by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. IL-8 mRNA levels began to increase after a 2-h exposure, reached a maximum after 12 h, and then dropped to the unstimulated level at 48 h. IL-8 mRNA levels were also enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, LPS specimens from various Salmonella species with S and R chemotypes and bacterial [corrected] and synthetic lipid A preparations did not increase IL-8 mRNA levels in fibroblasts. Although recombinant human IL-1 alpha induced IL-8 mRNA expression in fibroblast cultures, an antiserum to recombinant human IL-1 alpha did not decrease the IL-8 mRNA accumulation induced by B. intermedius LPS. Fibroblasts primed with natural human gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expressed higher IL-8 mRNA levels upon stimulation with B. intermedius LPS, but not with Salmonella LPS, compared with nontreated cells. Natural human IFN-beta exhibited a similar priming effect on the fibroblasts, and antiserum to IFN-beta added to the cultures together with B. intermedius LPS decreased the IL-8 mRNA levels. Therefore, endogenous IFN-beta enhanced IL-8 mRNA production in response to B. intermedius LPS in fibroblasts.
PMCID: PMC258250  PMID: 1328062
9.  Complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for a surface protein antigen of Streptococcus sobrinus. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(9):3309-3312.
The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for a cell surface protein antigen (SpaA) of Streptococcus sobrinus MT3791 (serotype g) was determined. The spaA gene consisted of 4,698 bp and coded for a protein of 170,202 Da. A putative signal peptide was found in the amino-terminal end of the protein. A potential promoter sequence and a putative Shine-Dalgarno sequence preceded the open reading frame. Two internal repeating amino acid sequences were present in SpaA. One repeating region, located in the amino-terminal region, was rich in alanine, and the other, located in the central region, was rich in proline. The molecular structure of SpaA was very similar to that of the surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans.
PMCID: PMC258171  PMID: 1840575

Results 1-9 (9)