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1.  Enhancement of myeloma development mediated though myeloma cell-Th2 cell interactions after microbial antigen presentation by myeloma cells and DCs 
Tian, F | li, J | Li, Y | Luo, S
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(6):e74-.
Microbial agents are regarded as a potential cause of tumors, but their direct effects on tumors, such as myeloma, are not well studied. Our studies demonstrated that expression of HLA-DR and CD40 on the myeloma cell membrane surface is upregulated by interferon-γ and/or microbial antigens (Ags). Unlike prior studies, our study showed that Th2 cells cannot promote myeloma growth directly. However, Bacillus Calmette–Guerin Vaccine (BCGV)-specific Th2 cells stimulated by BCGV-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) promoted myeloma clonogenicity directly when the myeloma cells expressed major histocompatibility complex Class-II molecules (MHC-II) and took up BCGV Ag. B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6) protein expression and the proportion of HLA-DR+ or CD40+ cells were higher in colonies of Th2 cell-stimulated myeloma cells. Furthermore, anti-HLA-DR or neutralizing CD40 antibody could prevent this increase in Bcl-6 expression and colony number. These results indicate that microbes and microbial Ag-specific Th2 cells may directly impact the biology of myeloma and contribute to tumor progression. Activation may be limited to MHC-II+ myeloma cells that retain B cell and stem cell characteristics. Taken together, our data suggest that factors involved in microbial Ag presentation, such as DCs, Th2 cells and so on, are potential targets for myeloma therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.19
PMCID: PMC3389161  PMID: 22829976
myeloma; microbial antigen; dendritic cell; Th2 cell; antigen presentation; clonogenicity
2.  Breakdown of the dipole approximation in core losses 
Ultramicroscopy  2011;111(8):1163-1167.
The validity of the dipole approximations commonly used in the inelastic scattering theory for transmission electron microscopy is reviewed. Both experimental and numerical arguments are presented, emphasizing that the dipole approximations cause significant errors of the order of up to 25% even at small momentum transfer. This behavior is attributed mainly to non-linear contributions to the dynamic form factor due to the overlap of wave functions.
Highlights
► Breakdown of the dipole approximation at small scattering angles. ► Wavefunction information available in double differential scattering cross section. ► Angle-resolved Wien2k simulations agree well with experimental data.
doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.03.006
PMCID: PMC3268650  PMID: 21741917
EELS; Ionization edges; Dipole approximation; Scattering cross section
3.  Occupational exposure to benzene in China. 
Yin, S N | Li, Q | Liu, Y | Tian, F | Du, C | Jin, C
Of a total of 528,729 workers exposed to benzene or benzene mixtures in China, 508,818 (96.23%) were examined. Altogether 2,676 cases of benzene poisoning were found, a prevalence of 0.15%. A higher prevalence of benzene poisoning was found in the cities of Hangjou, Hefei, Nanjing, Shenyang, and Xian. The geometric mean concentration of benzene in 50,255 workplaces was 18.1 mg/m3 but 64.6% of the workplaces had less than 40 mg/m3. There was a positive correlation between the prevalence of benzene poisoning and the concentration in shoemaking factories. The prevalence of benzene induced aplastic anaemia in shoemakers was about 5.8 times that occurring in the general population. The results of this investigation show the need for a practicable hygiene standard to prevent benzene poisoning.
PMCID: PMC1007803  PMID: 3828244
4.  Nucleoprotein and membrane protein genes are associated with restriction of replication of influenza A/Mallard/NY/78 virus and its reassortants in squirrel monkey respiratory tract. 
Journal of Virology  1985;53(3):771-775.
An avian influenza A virus, A/Mallard/NY/6750/78(H2N2), was restricted in in replication in the respiratory tract of squirrel monkeys. Avian-human influenza A reassortant viruses possessing the six RNA segments coding for nonsurface proteins (i.e., internal genes) of this avian virus were as restricted in replication in squirrel monkeys as their avian influenza parent. These findings indicated that restriction of replication of the avian influenza virus is a function of one or more of its internal genes. For an investigation of which of the avian influenza genes was responsible for restricted replication in the respiratory tract of primates, reassortant viruses were produced that contained human influenza virus surface antigens from the A/Udorn/72(H3N2) virus and one or more of the internal genes derived from the avian influenza virus parent. Avian-human reassortant influenza A viruses containing only the nucleoprotein or matrix protein RNA segment from the avian influenza virus parent were as restricted in their growth as an avian-human influenza reassortant virus containing each of the six avian influenza internal genes. In addition, an avian-human influenza reassortant virus possessing only the avian RNA 1 and nonstructural genes (which by themselves do not specify restricted replication) manifested a significant reduction of virus replication in squirrel monkey tracheas. Thus, the avian nucleoprotein and matrix genes appear to play a major role in the host range restriction exhibited by the A/Mallard/78 virus and its reassortants, but the combination of RNA 1 and nonstructural genes also contributes to restriction of replication.
Images
PMCID: PMC254705  PMID: 3973966
5.  Occurrence of temperature-sensitive influenza A viruses in nature. 
Journal of Virology  1982;41(2):353-359.
The origin and characteristics of the first naturally occurring temperature-sensitive (ts) strain of influenza A virus identified in 1973, Xia-ts, are described. Natural ts strains were found to occur in the early egg passage material of all influenza A subtypes examined, but the proportion of ts virus varied from 8.3% for old H1N1 virus (1949 to 1957) to 82.4% for recent H3N2 virus (1979 to 1980). A number of strains were found to be composed of a mixture of ts and wild-type (ts+) particles. Six natural ts strains with different shutoff temperatures and one ts+ strain of the H1N1 subtype were tested in antibody-free volunteers. Strains with a shutoff temperature of 38 degrees C or lower caused very mild symptoms, whereas those with a shutoff temperature of 39 degrees C and the ts+ strain were much more reactogenic. By complementation tests against a set of prototype WSN ts mutants with a defined genetic lesion, the ts lesion of two H3N2 viruses (HK/8/68 and Xia-ts) was located on the NP gene and that of two H1N1 viruses (Tianjin/78/77 and Beijing/1/79) was located on the M protein gene. The present study demonstrates the widespread occurrence in nature of influenza viruses of different degrees of temperature sensitivity and presumably of different degrees of virulence.
PMCID: PMC256765  PMID: 7077746

Results 1-5 (5)