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author:("takehara, Y")
3.  Structure of the two promoters of the human lck gene: differential accumulation of two classes of lck transcripts in T cells. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1989;9(5):2173-2180.
The human T-cell- or lymphocyte-specific gene, lck, encodes a tyrosine kinase and is a member of the src family. In this report we demonstrate that there are two classes of human lck transcripts (types I and II), containing different 5'-untranslated regions, which are expressed from two distinct promoters. No apparent sequence similarity was observed between the 5'-flanking regions of the two promoters. The expression of lck in human T-cell leukemia and carcinoma cell lines and in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was examined by S1 nuclease and primer extension mapping and by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of total cellular RNA. The following results were obtained. (i) Two RNA start sites in the downstream promoter were used to generate type I transcripts. (ii) The major human type I start site has not been described for the mouse. (iii) At least five RNA start sites in the upstream promoter were used to generate type II transcripts. (iv) In T cells and in two colon carcinoma cell lines, type II transcripts were present in higher amounts than type I transcripts. (v) In T cells treated with phytohemagglutinin, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, and cyclosporin A, the modulation of lck expression was associated primarily with changes in levels of type II transcripts. The above results suggest that the two human lck promoters are utilized differentially and may be regulated independently during certain physiological states.
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PMCID: PMC363011  PMID: 2787474
4.  T cell receptor delta gene rearrangements in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1988;82(6):1974-1982.
Using a newly isolated cDNA clone encoding the TCR-delta gene and genomic probes, we have analyzed T cell receptor (TCR) delta gene rearrangement in 19 patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and 29 patients with B-precursor ALL. Five out of seven CD3- T-ALL and 4 of 12 CD3+ T-ALL showed bi-allelic rearrangements of the TCR-delta gene. In three CD3+ patients, a single allelic TCR-delta gene rearrangement was observed with rearrangement of the TCR-alpha gene on the other allele. In five CD3+ patients with bi-allelic rearrangements of the TCR-alpha gene, the TCR-delta gene locus was deleted. Transcription of the TCR-delta gene was also analyzed in six T-ALL. Five patients expressed TCR-delta transcripts. Only one T-ALL, presumably derived from the most immature T lineage cells, did not have TCR-delta transcripts, but expressed TCR-gamma and 1.0-kb truncated TCR-beta transcripts. In B-precursor ALL, 20 patients (69%) showed rearrangements of the TCR-delta gene. The frequency of TCR-delta gene rearrangement was higher than TCR-alpha (59%), gamma (52%), or beta (31%) genes. These findings suggest that TCR-alpha gene rearrangements may take place after rearrangements of the TCR-delta gene with concomitant deletion of rearranged TCR-delta genes in T cell differentiation. Among leukemic cells of B lineage, the TCR-delta gene is the earliest rearranging TCR gene, followed by TCR-gamma and beta gene rearrangements.
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PMCID: PMC442779  PMID: 2848865

Results 1-4 (4)