In 2010, the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) published a Consensus Summary for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children six years of age and older, and adults, including an updated Asthma Management Continuum. The CTS Asthma Clinical Assembly subsequently began a formal clinical practice guideline update process, focusing, in this first iteration, on topics of controversy and/or gaps in the previous guidelines.
Four clinical questions were identified as a focus for the updated guideline: the role of noninvasive measurements of airway inflammation for the adjustment of anti-inflammatory therapy; the initiation of adjunct therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for uncontrolled asthma; the role of a single inhaler of an ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist combination as a reliever, and as a reliever and a controller; and the escalation of controller medication for acute loss of asthma control as part of a self-management action plan. The expert panel followed an adaptation process to identify and appraise existing guidelines on the specified topics. In addition, literature searches were performed to identify relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. The panel formally assessed and graded the evidence, and made 34 recommendations.
The updated guideline recommendations outline a role for inclusion of assessment of sputum eosinophils, in addition to standard measures of asthma control, to guide adjustment of controller therapy in adults with moderate to severe asthma. Appraisal of the evidence regarding which adjunct controller therapy to add to ICS and at what ICS dose to begin adjunct therapy in children and adults with poor asthma control supported the 2010 CTS Consensus Summary recommendations. New recommendations for the adjustment of controller medication within written action plans are provided. Finally, priority areas for future research were identified.
The present clinical practice guideline is the first update of the CTS Asthma Guidelines following the Canadian Respiratory Guidelines Committee’s new guideline development process. Tools and strategies to support guideline implementation will be developed and the CTS will continue to regularly provide updates reflecting new evidence.
Asthma; Clinical practice guideline; Management
The loss of glomerular podocytes is a key event in the progression of chronic kidney disease resulting in proteinuria and declining function. Podocytes are slow cycling cells that are considered terminally differentiated. Here we provide the first report of the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate kidney cells with podocyte features. The iPS-derived podocytes share a morphological phenotype analogous with cultured human podocytes. Following 10 days of directed differentiation, iPS podocytes had an up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein localization for podocyte markers including synaptopodin, nephrin and Wilm’s tumour protein (WT1), combined with a down-regulation of the stem cell marker OCT3/4. In contrast to human podocytes that become quiescent in culture, iPS-derived cells maintain a proliferative capacity suggestive of a more immature phenotype. The transduction of iPS podocytes with fluorescent labeled-talin that were immunostained with podocin showed a cytoplasmic contractile response to angiotensin II (AII). A permeability assay provided functional evidence of albumin uptake in the cytoplasm of iPS podocytes comparable to human podocytes. Moreover, labeled iPS-derived podocytes were found to integrate into reaggregated metanephric kidney explants where they incorporated into developing glomeruli and co-expressed WT1. This study establishes the differentiation of iPS cells to kidney podocytes that will be useful for screening new treatments, understanding podocyte pathogenesis, and offering possibilities for regenerative medicine.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormal ciliary structure and function leading to impaired mucociliary clearance and chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease. Upper and lower respiratory tract manifestations are cardinal features of PCD. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of respiratory tract disease in individuals with PCD and highlights the challenges in identifying and quantifying lung disease in very young children with PCD. No specific therapies are available to correct ciliary dysfunction in PCD. Treatment is not evidence based, and recommendations are largely extrapolated from cystic fibrosis and other conditions with impaired mucociliary clearance. There is a pressing need to develop and validate outcome measures, including patient-reported outcomes, that could be used to evaluate potential therapies in PCD. This review concludes with recommendations for clinical endpoints and outcome measures and a prioritized list of treatments to study in PCD clinical trials.
primary ciliary dyskinesia; lung disease; outcome measure; patient-reported outcome; clinical trial
The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts.
Materials and methods
The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay.
Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic.
Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy.
Medicinal Plants; Ethnobotany; Brine Shrimp; Artemia salina; Toxicity; Northern Peru
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a genetic condition in which dedifferentiated and highly proliferative epithelial cells form renal cysts and is frequently treated by renal transplantation. Studies have reported that bone marrow-derived cells give rise to renal epithelial cells, particularly following renal injury as often occurs during transplantation. This raises the possibility that bone marrow-derived cells from a PKD-afflicted recipient could populate a transplanted kidney and express a disease phenotype. However, for reasons that are not clear the reoccurrence of PKD has not been reported in a genetically normal renal graft. We used a mouse model to examine whether PKD mutant bone marrow-derived cells are capable of expressing a disease phenotype in the kidney.
Wild type female mice were transplanted with bone marrow from male mice homozygous for a PKD-causing mutation and subjected to renal injury. Y chromosome positive, bone marrow-derived cells in the kidney were assessed for epithelial markers.
Mutant bone marrow-derived cells were present in the kidney. Some mutant cells were within the bounds of the tubule or duct, but none demonstrated convincing evidence of an epithelial phenotype.
Bone marrow-derived cells appear incapable of giving rise to genuine epithelial cells and this is the most likely reason cysts do not reoccur in kidneys transplanted into PKD patients.
Bone marrow-derived epithelial cells; Cyst; Hematopoietic stem cells; Polycystic kidney disease; Proliferation; Renal injury
Sox2 (sex-determining region Y-Box) is one of the master transcriptional factors that are important in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In line with this function, Sox2 expression is largely restricted to ESCs and somatic stem cells. We report that Sox2 is expressed in cell lines and tumor samples derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL), for which the normal cellular counterpart is believed to be mature T-cells. The expression of Sox2 in ALK+ALCL can be attributed to nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the oncogenic fusion protein carrying a central pathogenetic role in these tumors. By confocal microscopy, Sox2 protein was detectable in virtually all cells in ALK+ALCL cell lines. However, the transcriptional activity of Sox2, as assessed using a Sox2-responsive reporter construct, was detectable only in a small proportion of cells. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 using short interfering RNA in isolated Sox2active cells, but not Sox2inactive cells, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity. To conclude, ALK+ALCL represents the first example of a hematologic malignancy that aberrantly expresses Sox2, which represents a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK mediates tumorigenesis. We also found that the transcriptional activity and oncogenic effects of Sox2 can be heterogeneous in cancer cells.
Sox2; transcriptional activity; NPM-ALK; STAT3; tumorigenicity
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early stage oral cavity tumors have been thoroughly reported. However, statistical comparison of PDT to the surgical treatment is not available in published literature. We have identified and matched cohorts of patients with early stage oral cavity cancers undergoing surgery (n = 43) and PDT (n = 55) from a single institute experience. The groups are matched demographically and had the same pre-treatment screening and follow-up schedule. Both groups consisted only of tumors thinner than 5 mm to ensure comparability. The endpoints were local disease free survival, disease free survival, overall survival and response to initial treatment. Local disease free survival at 5 years were 67 and 74 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 1.9 (p = 0.26), multivariable HR = 2.7 (p = 0.13)]. Disease free survival at 5 years are 47 and 53 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 0.8 (p = 0.52), multivariable HR = 0.75 (p = 0.45)]. Overall survival was 83 and 75 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [(univariate HR = 0.5 (p = 0.19), multivariable HR = 0.5 (p = 0.17)]. In the PDT group, six patients (11 %) and in the surgery group 11 patients (26 %) had to receive additional treatments after the initial. All of the tested parameters did not have statistical significant difference. Although there is probably a selection bias due to the non-randomized design, this study shows that PDT of early stage oral cavity cancer is comparable in terms of disease control and survival to trans-oral resection and can be offered as an alternative to surgical treatment.
Photodynamic therapy; Oral cavity cancer; Transoral surgery
An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed.
Epinephrine autoinjectors provide life-saving therapy for individuals with peanut allergies.
To evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and epinephrine prescription among urban Canadian children with peanut allergy.
Population-based survey data from school children in grades 1 and 2 participating in the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire were used. Children with peanut allergy, their epinephrine autoinjector prescription status and their SES were identified by parental report.
Between January and April 2006, 5619 completed questionnaires from 231 Toronto, Ontario, schools were returned. A total of 153 (2.83%) children were identified as having a peanut allergy, 68.6% of whom reported being prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector. Children from upper-middle and high-income homes (OR 8.35 [95% CI 2.72 to 25.61]) and with asthma (OR 4.74 [95% CI 1.56 to 14.47]) were more likely to report having an epinephrine prescription.
A significant health disparity exists in the prescribing pattern of epinephrine autoinjectors for peanut-allergic children from families of differing SES.
Epidemiology; Health disparities; Peanut allergy; Socioeconomic status
This retrospective study evaluated the incidence of meniscal injury in cats with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) ruptures. Medical records for cats diagnosed with CCL ruptures treated by a lateral fabellotibial suture (LFS) were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination and surgical findings. Ninety-five cats (98 stifles) met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of meniscal injuries in feline CCL deficient stifles was 67%. Isolated medial meniscal injuries were found in 55 stifles (56%), isolated lateral meniscal injuries were found in 5 stifles (5%), and lateral and medial meniscal injuries were found in 6 stifles (6%). There was no correlation between the presence of a meniscal injury and age, breed, sex, weight, duration of lameness, presence of concurrent medial patellar luxation, degree of degenerative joint disease, or presenting side of lameness. Given the high rate of meniscal pathology in cats with CCL ruptures, exploratory surgery for meniscal assessment and concurrent stifle stabilization should be considered in feline patients.
Background and Purpose
Enrollment in the ALIAS Trial was suspended in late 2007 due to a safety concern. Here we present the safety data of that Trial (“Part 1”) and the rationale for the design of Part 2.
ALIAS Part 1 was designed to assess whether 25% albumin (ALB) begun within 5h of stroke onset would confer neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and baseline NIH Stroke Scale of 6 or above. Exclusion criteria included recent or current congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery. The study comprised 2 cohorts -- subjects who received thrombolysis and those who did not -- each with 1:1 randomization to ALB or placebo. The primary outcome was the NIHSS and modified Rankin scales at 90 days. The intended sample size was 1,800.
434 subjects were enrolled, and 424 were used in the safety analysis (ALB 207, saline 217). There were 36 deaths within the first 30 days in the ALB group, and 21 in the saline group. In contrast, death rates after 30 days were similar by treatment. Large strokes were the predominant cause of early death in both groups. In subjects older than 83 years, 90-day death rates were 2.3-fold higher with ALB than with saline (95% CI, 1.04-5.12). Similarly, 90-day deaths in subjects receiving excessive fluids were 2.10-fold greater with ALB than with saline (CI, 1.10-3.98).
The ALIAS Part 2 Trial, which commenced in early 2009, was modified as follows to enhance safety: upper age limit of 83 years; requirement for normal baseline serum troponin level; restriction of total IV fluids in the first 48 hours to 4200 ml or less; mandatory diuretic at 12-24h; and detailed site re-training. Because of insufficient non-thrombolysed subjects (22%) in Part 1, the two-cohort design was eliminated. The DSMB has reviewed the safety data of Part 2 three times and has approved continuation of the trial.
albumin; neuroprotectant; ischemic stroke; randomized controlled trial
For mixtures of many chemicals, a ray design based on a relevant, fixed mixing ratio is useful for detecting departure from additivity. Methods for detecting departure involve modeling the response as a function of total dose along the ray. For mixtures with many components, the interaction may be dose dependent. Therefore, we have developed the use of a three-segment model containing both a dose threshold and an interaction threshold. Prior to the dose threshold, the response is that of background; between the dose threshold and the interaction threshold, an additive relationship exists; the model allows for departure from additivity beyond the interaction threshold. With such a model, we can conduct a hypothesis test of additivity, as well as a test for a region of additivity. The methods are illustrated with cytotoxicity data that arise when Chinese hamster ovary cells are exposed to a mixture of nine haloacetic acids.
Dose threshold; Dose-dependent interaction; Synergy
Childhood asthma prevalence is widely measured by parental proxy report of physician-diagnosed asthma in questionnaires. Our objective was to validate this measure in a North American population.
The 2884 study participants were a subsample of 5619 school children aged 5 to 9 years from 231 schools participating in the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire study in 2006. We compared agreement between "questionnaire diagnosis" and a previously validated "health claims data diagnosis". Sensitivity, specificity and kappa were calculated for the questionnaire diagnosis using the health claims diagnosis as the reference standard.
Prevalence of asthma was 15.7% by questionnaire and 21.4% by health claims data. Questionnaire diagnosis was insensitive (59.0%) but specific (95.9%) for asthma. When children with asthma-related symptoms were excluded, the sensitivity increased (83.6%), and specificity remained high (93.6%).
Our results show that parental report of asthma by questionnaire has low sensitivity but high specificity as an asthma prevalence measure. In addition, children with "asthma-related symptoms" may represent a large fraction of under-diagnosed asthma and they should be excluded from the inception cohort for risk factor studies.
The pivotal NINDS rt-PA trials excluded ischemic stroke patients with specific minor presentations or rapidly improving symptoms. The rt-PA product label notes that its use for minor neurological deficit or rapidly improving stroke symptoms has not been evaluated. As a result, patients with low NIHSS scores are not commonly treated in clinical practice. We sought to further characterize the minor stroke patients that were included in the NINDS trials.
Minor strokes were defined as NIHSS ≤ 5 at baseline for this retrospective analysis, as this subgroup is most commonly excluded from treatment in clinical practice and trials. Clinical stroke syndromes were defined based on prespecified NIHSS item score clusters. Clinical outcomes were reviewed generally and within these cluster subgroups.
Only 58 cases had NIHSS scores of ≤0–5 in the NINDS trials (42 rt-PA and 16 placebo), and 2971 patients were excluded from the trials due to “rapidly improving” or “minor symptoms” as the primary reason. No patients were enrolled with isolated motor symptoms, isolated facial droop, isolated ataxia, dysarthria, isolated sensory symptoms, or with only symptoms/signs not captured by the NIHSS score (i.e., NIHSS=0). There were three or fewer patients with each of the other isolated deficits enrolled in the trial.
The NINDS trials excluded a substantial number of strokes with minor presentations, those that were included were small in number, and conclusions about outcomes based on specific syndromes cannot be drawn. Further prospective, systematic study of this subgroup is needed.
Acute stroke; thrombolysis; clinical trials
The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Materials and methods
The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains.
The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research.
The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents.
South America; Medicinal Plants; ethnobotany; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC); antibacterial; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus
Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all three classes of cytoskeletal filaments and their regulatory proteins were altered as were oxidative stress response proteins. Given that FAP fibroblasts showed heightened sensitivity to transformation by KiMSV and SV40 including elevated levels of the p53 protein, events controlled, in large measure, by the Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1) and oncogenic DJ-1, here we show decreased RSU1 and augmented DJ-1 expression in both fibroblasts and crypt-derived epithelial cells from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of FAP gene-carriers. The results shown here indicate that heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteomes of both colon-derived normal fibroblasts in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a “one-hit” effect.
Adenomatous polyposis; APC; tumor suppressor; colon fibroblasts; heterozygosity; proteomics
A strong association between a history of child abuse and subsequent psychiatric disorders including substance use has been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the relationship between child abuse and cigarette smoking in individuals without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In this study, the relationship between severe childhood abuse and smoking were examined in a group of adults without significant psychopathology.
Participants (N = 57) represent the control group of a larger study of substance dependence. Participants were without major DSM-1V psychopathology, including substance use disorders, major depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder. The Early Trauma Inventory  assessed history of exposure to traumatic events prior to age 18.
The majority of individuals with, as compared to without, a history of severe child abuse (79% vs. 47%, p = .02) were current cigarette smokers. The odds of smoking was four times as high in participants with versus without a severe childhood abuse history (OR = 4.0, p = 0.04).
Although preliminary, the findings demonstrate a strong link between early childhood trauma and later adult cigarette smoking among individuals without significant substance use or other psychopathology.
nicotine; child abuse; early adversity; cigarette smoking; sexual abuse; physical abuse
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and are believed to be able to generate all cell types in the body. As such, they have potential applications in regenerative therapy for kidney disease. However, before this can be achieved, a protocol to differentiate human ES cells to mesodermal renal progenitor lineages is required. Reduction of serum concentration and feeder layer density reduction cultures were used to differentiate human ES cells for 14 days. Differentiated ES cells were then fractionated by flow cytometry based on expression of the markers CD24, podocalyxin, and GCTM2 to isolate putative renal cells. These cells up-regulated the expression of the renal transcription factors PAX2, LHX1, and WT1 when compared with unfractionated human ES cells. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed that a subset of cells within this fraction co-expressed nuclear WT1 and PAX2 proteins. Transcriptome profiling also showed that the most differentially up-regulated genes in this fraction preferentially associated with kidney development in comparison with any other lineage. When compared with a transcriptome profile database of urogenital development (GUDMAP), the top 200 differentially up-regulated genes in this fraction strongly clustered into a group of genes associated with the metanephric mesenchyme at E11.5 and the corticonephrogenic interstitium at E15.5 of murine kidney development. Hence, this approach confirms an ability to direct human ES cells toward a renal progenitor state.
A multicenter, controlled trial showed that early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria did not retard the progression of nephropathy, suggesting that other mechanism(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy). We have previously demonstrated that endothelial-mesenchymal-transition (EndoMT) contributes to the early development of renal interstitial fibrosis independently of microalbuminuria in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In the present study, we hypothesized that blocking EndoMT reduces the early development of diabetic nephropathy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
EndoMT was induced in a mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cell line (MMEC) in the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and in the endothelial lineage–traceble mouse line Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP by administration of AGEs, with nonglycated mouse albumin serving as a control. Phosphorylated Smad3 was detected by immunoprecipitation/Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Blocking studies using receptor for AGE siRNA and a specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) were performed in MMECs and in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP mice.
Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR demonstrated that AGEs induced EndoMT in MMECs and in Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP mice. Immunoprecipitation/Western blotting showed that Smad3 was activated by AGEs but was inhibited by SIS3 in MMECs and in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR further demonstrated that SIS3 abrogated EndoMT, reduced renal fibrosis, and retarded progression of nephropathy.
EndoMT is a novel pathway leading to early development of diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of EndoMT by SIS3 may provide a new strategy to retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetes complications.
The effect of chronological age on skin characteristics is readily visible, and its underlying histological changes have been a field of study for several years. However, the effect of biological age (i.e. a person’s rate of ageing compared to their chronological age) on the skin has so far only been studied in facial photographs. Skin biopsies obtained from middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings that are genetically enriched for longevity were compared to their partners who represent the general Dutch population. Though of the same chronological age, the offspring were previously observed to be of a younger biological age than their partners. The biopsies were analysed on several aspects epidermal and elastic fibre morphology. We investigated whether these skin characteristics were dependent on chronological age, familial longevity (the difference between the offspring and partners) and Framingham heart risk scores, adjusted for external stressors. A decreased thickness and flattening of the epidermis as well as an increased amount of elastic fibres in the reticular dermis were observed with chronological age (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), but no effect of familial longevity was found. The Framingham heart risk score was associated with some skin characteristics. A slower rate of skin ageing does not mark offspring from nonagenarian siblings. Epidermal and elastic fibre morphometric characteristics are not a potential marker for familial longevity in middle-aged subjects enriched for familial longevity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-011-9314-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Skin ageing; Chronological age; Biological age; Familial longevity; Epidermis; Elastic fibres
Acrylamide (AA) is an industrial chemical, a by-product of fried starchy foods, and a mutagen and rodent carcinogen. It can also cause damage during spermatogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether AA and its metabolite glycidamide (GA) induce mutagenic effects in the germ cells of male mice. Male Big Blue transgenic mice were administered 1.4 or 7.0mM of AA or GA in the drinking water for up to 4 weeks. Testicular cII mutant frequency (MF) was determined 3 weeks after the last treatment, and the types of the mutations in the cII gene were analyzed by DNA sequencing. The testes cII MFs in mice treated with either the low or high exposure concentrations of AA and GA were increased significantly. There was no significant difference in the cII MFs between AA and GA at the low exposure concentration. The mutation spectra in mice treated with AA (1.4mM) or GA (both 1.4 and 7.0mM) differed significantly from those of controls, but there were no significant differences in mutation patterns between AA and GA treatments. Comparison of the mutation spectra between testes and livers showed that the spectra differed significantly between the two tissues following treatment with AA or GA, whereas the mutation spectra in the two tissues from control mice were similar. These results suggest that AA possesses mutagenic effects on testes by virtue of its metabolism to GA, possibly targeting spermatogonial stem cells, but possibly via different pathways when compared mutations in liver.
acrylamide; glycidamide; Big Blue mice; testes; mutation frequency; mutation spectrum
The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in the blood in association with lipoproteins, predominantly high density lipoproteins (HDL). Emerging evidence suggests that many of the effects of HDL on cardiovascular function may be attributable to its S1P cargo.
Here we have evaluated how levels of S1P and related sphingolipids in an HDL-containing fraction of human serum correlate with occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). To accomplish this we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure S1P levels in the HDL-containing fraction of serum (depleted of LDL and VLDL) from 204 subjects in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The study group consisted of individuals having high serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (females:≥73.5 mg/dL; males:≥61.9 mg/dL) and verified IHD; subjects with high HDL-C and no IHD; individuals with low HDL-C (females:≤38.7 mg/dL; males:≤34.1 mg/dL) and IHD, and subjects with low HDL-C and no IHD.
The results show a highly significant inverse relationship between the level of S1P in the HDL-containing fraction of serum and the occurrence of IHD. Furthermore, an inverse relationship with IHD was also observed for two other sphingolipids, dihydro-S1P and C24:1-ceramide, in the HDL-containing fraction of serum. Additionally, we demonstrated that the amount of S1P on HDL correlates with the magnitude of HDL-induced endothelial cell barrier signaling.
These findings indicate that compositional differences of sphingolipids in the HDL-containing fraction of human serum are related to the occurrence of IHD, and may contribute to the putative protective role of HDL in IHD.