While the question of why organisms reproduce sexually is still a matter of controversy, it is clear that the foundation of sexual reproduction is the formation of gametes with half the genomic DNA content of a somatic cell. This reduction in genomic content is accomplished through meiosis that, in contrast to mitosis, comprises two subsequent chromosome segregation steps without an intervening S phase. In addition, meiosis generates new allele combinations through the compilation of new sets of homologous chromosomes and the reciprocal exchange of chromatid segments between homologues. Progression through meiosis relies on many of the same, or at least homologous, cell cycle regulators that act in mitosis, e.g., cyclin-dependent kinases and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. However, these mitotic control factors are often differentially regulated in meiosis. In addition, several meiosis-specific cell cycle genes have been identified. We here review the increasing knowledge on meiotic cell cycle control in plants. Interestingly, plants appear to have relaxed cell cycle checkpoints in meiosis in comparison with animals and yeast and many cell cycle mutants are viable. This makes plants powerful models to study meiotic progression and allows unique modifications to their meiotic program to develop new plant-breeding strategies.
Arabidopsis; Meiosis; Cell cycle; Cyclin-dependent kinase; Cyclin; Recombination
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a well defined clinico-pathological entity whose underlying genetic lesion is still obscure.
We searched for HCL-associated mutations by massively parallel sequencing of the whole exome of leukemic and matched normal mononuclear cells purified from the peripheral blood of one patient with HCL.
Whole exome sequencing identified 5 missense somatic clonal mutations that were confirmed at Sanger sequencing, including a heterozygous V600E mutation involving the BRAF gene. Since the BRAF V600E mutation is oncogenic in other tumors, further analyses were focused on this genetic lesion. Sanger sequencing detected mutated BRAF in 46/46 additional HCL patients (47/47 including the index case; 100%). None of the 193 peripheral B-cell lymphomas/leukemias other than HCL that were investigated carried the BRAF V600E mutation, including 36 cases of splenic marginal zone lymphomas and unclassifiable splenic lymphomas/leukemias. Immunohistological and Western blot studies showed that HCL cells express phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK (the downstream targets of the BRAF kinase), indicating a constitutive activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in HCL. In vitro incubation of BRAF-mutated primary leukemic cells from 5 HCL patients with PLX-4720, a specific inhibitor of active BRAF, led to marked decrease of phosphorylated ERK and MEK.
The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all HCL patients investigated. This finding may have relevant implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis and targeted therapy of HCL (Funded by the Associazione Italiana Ricerca Cancro and others).
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) shares clinical and laboratory features with CML, but it lacks the BCR-ABL1 fusion. We performed exome sequencing of eight aCMLs and identified somatic alterations of SETBP1 (encoding a p.Gly870Ser alteration) in two cases. Targeted resequencing of 70 aCMLs, 574 diverse hematological malignancies and 344 cancer cell lines identified SETBP1 mutations in 24 cases, including 17 of 70 aCMLs (24.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 16–35%). Most mutations (92%) were located between codons 858 and 871 and were identical to changes seen in individuals with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Individuals with mutations had higher white blood cell counts (P = 0.008) and worse prognosis (P = 0.01). The p.Gly870Ser alteration abrogated a site for ubiquitination, and cells exogenously expressing this mutant exhibited higher amounts of SETBP1 and SET protein, lower PP2A activity and higher proliferation rates relative to those expressing the wild-type protein. In summary, mutated SETBP1 represents a newly discovered oncogene present in aCML and closely related diseases.
The clinical impact of aberrant CEBPA promoter methylation (PM) in AML is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of aberrant CEBPA PM with regard to clinical features in a cohort of 623 cytogenetically normal (CN) de novo AML. 555 cases had wild-type CEBPA, 68 cases harbored CEBPA mutations. The distal promoter was methylated in 238/623 cases (38.2%), the core promoter in 8 of 326 cases (2.5%), whereas proximal PM was never detected. CEBPA PM and CEBPA mutations were mutually exclusive. CEBPA distal PM positive cases were characterized by reduced CEBPA mRNA expression levels and elevated white blood cell counts. CEBPA distal PM was less frequent in patients with mutations in FLT3, NPM1 and TET2 and more frequent in cases with RUNX1 and IDH2R140 mutations. Overall, no association of methylation to prognosis was seen. However CEBPA distal PM was associated with inferior outcome in cases with low FLT3-ITD ratio or TET2 mutations. A distinct gene expression profile of CEBPA distal PM positive cases compared to CEBPA mutated and CEBPA distal PM negative cases was observed. In conclusion, the presence of aberrant CEBPA PM is associated with distinct biological features but impact on outcome is weak.
Tumor cell survival critically depends on heterotypic communication with benign cells in the microenvironment. Here, we describe a survival signaling pathway activated in stromal cells by contact to B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-βII and the subsequent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells are prerequisites to support the survival of malignant B cells. PKC-β knockout mice are insusceptible to CLL transplantations, underscoring the in vivo significance of the PKC-βII-NF-κB signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment. Upregulated stromal PKC-βII in biopsies from patients with CLL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and mantle cell lymphoma suggests that this pathway may commonly be activated in a variety of hematological malignancies.
► Malignant B cells induce the expression of PKC-βII in bone marrow stromal cells ► The activation of NF-κB in tumor stromal cells strictly depends on PKC-βII ► The PKC-βII-NF-κB pathway is indispensable for survival of malignant B cells in vivo ► The PKC-βII-NF-κB pathway is activated by ALL and mantle cell lymphoma cells
Plants have a remarkable ability to react to seasonal changes by synchronizing life-cycle transitions with environmental conditions. We addressed the question of how transcriptional re-programming occurs in response to an environmental cue that triggers the major life cycle transition from seed dormancy to germination and seedling growth. We elucidated an important mechanistic aspect of this process by following the chromatin dynamics of key regulatory genes with a focus on the two antagonistic marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Histone methylation patterns of major dormancy regulators changed during the transition to germination and seedling growth. We observed a switch from H3K4me3 and high transcription levels to silencing by the repressive H3K27me3 mark when dormancy was broken through exposure to moist chilling, underscoring that a functional PRC2 complex is necessary for this transition. Moreover, this reciprocal regulation by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 is evolutionarily conserved from gymnosperms to angiosperms.
Infections by Babesia bovis limit cattle production and cause important economic losses in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Monitoring of calf sera can be used to detect unprotected cattle herds and to decide on strategic control measures, as well as for epidemiological studies. Merozoite surface antigen 2c (MSA-2c) is an immunodominant surface protein expressed in B. bovis merozoites and sporozoites and contains B-cell epitopes that are conserved among geographic isolates. A monoclonal antibody against recombinant MSA-2c (rMSA-2c) was previously shown to inhibit the binding of anti-B. bovis antibodies to a parasite B-cell epitope in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) format. In the work at hand, the parameters of this cELISA were reevaluated and adjusted when necessary, and a cutoff value was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of a total of 357 bovine sera of known reactivity, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). The established rMSA-2c cELISA demonstrated a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 96.2%. An additional set of 303 field bovine sera from regions where ticks are endemic and tick-free regions of Argentina was tested by both rMSA-2c cELISA and IFAT, and the results were shown to be in very good agreement (kappa index, 0.8325). The performance shown by rMSA-2c cELISA in the detection of B. bovis-specific antibodies and its suitability for standardization and large-scale production, as well as the possibility of its application in most veterinary diagnostic laboratories, make the assay a powerful tool for the surveillance of herd immunity as a strategic measure for the control of bovine babesiosis.
Despite improvement of prognosis, older age remains a negative prognostic factor in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Reports on disease characteristics and outcome of older patients are conflicting. We therefore analyzed 91 newly diagnosed APL patients aged 60 years or older (30 % of 305 adults with APL) registered by the German AML Cooperative Group (AMLCG) since 1994; 68 patients (75 %) were treated in studies, 23 (25 %) were non-eligible, and 31 % had high-risk APL. Fifty-six patients received induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid and TAD (6-thioguanine, cytarabine, daunorubicin), and consolidation and maintenance therapy. Treatment intensification with a second induction cycle (high dose cytarabine, mitoxantrone; HAM) was optional (n = 14). Twelve patients were randomized to another therapy not considered in this report. The early death rate was 48 % in non-eligible and 19 % in study patients. With the AMLCG regimen, 7-year overall, event-free and relapse-free survival (RFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse were 45 %, 40 %, 48 %, and 24 %, respectively. In patients treated with TAD–HAM induction, 7-year RFS was superior (83 %; p = 0.006) compared to TAD only, and no relapse was observed. In our registered elderly patients, we see a high rate of non-eligibility for treatment in studies and of high-risk APL. In patients who can undergo a curative approach, intensified chemotherapy is highly effective, but is restricted to a selection of patients. Therefore, new less toxic treatment approaches with broader applicability are needed. Elderly patients might be a particular target group for concepts with arsenic trioxide.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Elderly patients; Early death; Treatment
The decision to replicate its DNA is of crucial importance for every cell and, in many organisms, is decisive for the progression through the entire cell cycle. A comparison of animals versus yeast has shown that, although most of the involved cell-cycle regulators are divergent in both clades, they fulfill a similar role and the overall network topology of G1/S regulation is highly conserved. Using germline development as a model system, we identified a regulatory cascade controlling entry into S phase in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which, as a member of the Plantae supergroup, is phylogenetically only distantly related to Opisthokonts such as yeast and animals. This module comprises the Arabidopsis homologs of the animal transcription factor E2F, the plant homolog of the animal transcriptional repressor Retinoblastoma (Rb)-related 1 (RBR1), the plant-specific F-box protein F-BOX-LIKE 17 (FBL17), the plant specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors KRPs, as well as CDKA;1, the plant homolog of the yeast and animal Cdc2+/Cdk1 kinases. Our data show that the principle of a double negative wiring of Rb proteins is highly conserved, likely representing a universal mechanism in eukaryotic cell-cycle control. However, this negative feedback of Rb proteins is differently implemented in plants as it is brought about through a quadruple negative regulation centered around the F-box protein FBL17 that mediates the degradation of CDK inhibitors but is itself directly repressed by Rb. Biomathematical simulations and subsequent experimental confirmation of computational predictions revealed that this regulatory circuit can give rise to hysteresis highlighting the here identified dosage sensitivity of CDK inhibitors in this network.
In order to grow, multicellular organisms need to multiply their cells. Cell proliferation is achieved through a complex order of events called the cell cycle, during which the nuclear DNA is duplicated and subsequently distributed to the newly forming daughter cells. The decision to replicate the nuclear DNA is in many organisms crucial to progress through the entire cell cycle. Alterations of the cell cycle, especially at the entry point, can cause severe developmental defects and are often causal for maladies, such as cancer. Substantial work in yeast and animals has revealed the regulatory steps controlling S-phase entry. In contrast, relatively little is known about the plant cell cycle despite plants being one of the largest classes of living organisms and despite the importance of plants for human life, for instance as the basis of human nutrition. Our work presents a molecular framework of core cell-cycle regulation for entry into the DNA replication phase in the model plant Arabidopsis. We report here the identification of a regulatory cascade that likely functions in many plant cells and organisms. With this, we also provide an important basis for comparative analyses of cell-cycle control between different eukaryotes, such as yeast and mammals.
Cell proliferation is an important determinant of plant growth and development. In addition, modulation of cell-division rate is an important mechanism of plant plasticity and is key in adapting of plants to environmental conditions. One of the greatest challenges in understanding the cell cycle of flowering plants is the large families of CDKs and cyclins that have the potential to form many different complexes. However, it is largely unclear which complexes are active. In addition, there are many CDK- and cyclin-related proteins whose biological role is still unclear, i.e. whether they have indeed enzymatic activity. Thus, a biochemical characterization of these proteins is of key importance for the understanding of their function.
Here we present a straightforward system to systematically express and purify active CDK-cyclin complexes from E. coli extracts. Our method relies on the concomitant production of a CDK activating kinase, which catalyzes the T-loop phosphorylation necessary for kinase activity. Taking the examples of the G1-phase cyclin CYCLIN D3;1 (CYCD3;1), the mitotic cyclin CYCLIN B1;2 (CYCB1;2) and the atypical meiotic cyclin SOLO DANCERS (SDS) in conjunction with A-, B1- and B2-type CDKs, we show that different CDKs can interact with various cyclins in vitro but only a few specific complexes have high levels of kinase activity.
Our work shows that both the cyclin as well as the CDK partner contribute to substrate specificity in plants. These findings refine the interaction networks in cell-cycle control and pinpoint to particular complexes for modulating cell proliferation activity in breeding.
In recent years, the panel of known molecular mutations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been continuously increased. In Philadelphia-positive ALL, deletions of the IKZF1 gene were identified as prognostically adverse factors. These improved insights in the molecular background and the clinical heterogeneity of distinct cytogenetic subgroups may allow most differentiated therapeutic decisions, for example, with respect to the indication to allogeneic HSCT within genetically defined ALL subtypes. Quantitative real-time PCR allows highly sensitive monitoring of the minimal residual disease (MRD) load, either based on reciprocal gene fusions or immune gene rearrangements. Molecular diagnostics provided the basis for targeted therapy concepts, for example, combining the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib with chemotherapy in patients with Philadelphia-positive ALL. Screening for BCR-ABL1 mutations in Philadelphia-positive ALL allows to identify patients who may benefit from second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors or from novel compounds targeting the T315I mutation. Considering the central role of the molecular techniques for the management of patients with ALL, efforts should be made to facilitate and harmonize immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, and molecular mutation screening. Furthermore, the potential of high-throughput sequencing should be evaluated for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with B-lineage ALL.
Bovipain-2 (in red), a Babesia bovis cysteine protease, is released into the host erythrocyte. Bovipain-2 is expressed in both virulent and attenuated B. bovis. DAPI stains the nuclei of two B. bovis.
► Genome sequence of the virulent T2Bo strain reveals 66 peptidases which constitute 2% of the annotated coding sequences. ► Each of the peptidases identified in the virulent parent was represented in the attenuated daughter strain. ► Microarrays analyses of transcript levels for all 66 peptidase-encoding genes were investigated. ► Our study discusses our findings in regards to peptidase involvement in in vivo attenuation of B. bovis.
Identifying virulence determinants in Apicomplexan parasites remains a major gap in knowledge for members within this phylum. We hypothesized that peptidases would segregate with virulence between a virulent parent Babesia bovis strain and an attenuated daughter strain derived by rapid in vivo passage. Using the complete genome sequence of the virulent T2Bo strain, 66 peptidases were identified and active sites confirmed. The presence, sequence identity and expression levels were tested for each of the 66 peptidases in the virulent parent and attenuated daughter T2Bo strains using whole genome, targeted sequencing approaches and microarrays analyses. Quantitative PCR revealed that there was no significant difference in peptidase expression between the virulent and attenuated strains. We conclude that while peptidases may well play a required role in B. bovis pathogenesis, neither loss of peptidase gene content nor reduced gene expression underlies the loss of virulence associated with in vivo passage and attenuation.
Babesia bovis; Apicomplexans; Peptidases; Transcriptome; Virulence
The 46/1 JAK2 haplotype predisposes to V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. We analyzed essential thrombocythemia patients entered into the PT-1 studies and, as expected, found that 46/1 was overrepresented in V617F-positive cases (n = 404) versus controls (n = 1492, P = 3.9 × 10−11). The 46/1 haplotype was also overrepresented in cases without V617F (n = 347, P = .009), with an excess seen for both MPL exon 10 mutated and V617F, MPL exon 10 nonmutated cases. Analysis of further MPL-positive, V617F-negative cases confirmed an excess of 46/1 (n = 176, P = .002), but no association between MPL mutations and MPL haplotype was seen. An excess of 46/1 was also seen in JAK2 exon 12 mutated cases (n = 69, P = .002), and these mutations preferentially arose on the 46/1 chromosome (P = .029). No association between 46/1 and clinical or laboratory features was seen in the PT-1 cohort either with or without V617F. The excess of 46/1 in JAK2 exon 12 cases is compatible with both the “hypermutability” and “fertile ground” hypotheses, but the excess in MPL-mutated cases argues against the former. No difference in sequence, splicing, or expression of JAK2 was found on 46/1 compared with other haplotypes, suggesting that any functional difference of JAK2 on 46/1, if it exists, must be relatively subtle.
Plant growth and proliferation control is coming into a global focus due to recent ecological and economical developments. Plants represent not only the largest food supply for mankind but also may serve as a global source of renewable energies. However, plant breeding has to accomplish a tremendous boost in yield to match the growing demand of a still rapidly increasing human population. Moreover, breeding has to adjust to changing environmental conditions, in particular increased drought. Regulation of cell cycle control is a major determinant of plant growth and therefore an obvious target for plant breeding. Furthermore, cell cycle control is also crucial for the DNA damage response, for instance upon irradiation. Thus, an in-depth understanding of plant cell cycle regulation is of importance beyond a scientific point of view. The mere presence of many conserved core cell cycle regulators, e.g., CDKs, cyclins or CDK inhibitors, has formed the idea that the cell cycle in plants is exactly or at least very similarly controlled as in yeast or human cells. Here together with a recent publication we demonstrate that this dogma is not true and show that the control of entry into mitosis is fundamentally different in plants versus yeast or metazoans. Our findings build an important base for the understanding and ultimate modulation of plant growth not only during unperturbed but also under harsh environmental conditions.
cell cycle; phosphorylation; checkpoint; DNA damage; cyclin-dependent kinase; CDK; WEE1; CDC25; Arabidopsis
Integrative epigenomic mapping defines four main chromatin states in Arabidopsis
This first comprehensive view of the Arabidopsis epigenome reveals that it is organized into four main chromatin types based on the integrative mapping of a broad set of 11 histone marks and DNA methylation in seedlings.
Post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation are important components of chromatin-level control of genome activity in eukaryotes. However, principles governing the combinatorial association of chromatin marks along the genome remain poorly understood. Here, we have generated epigenomic maps for eight histone modifications (H3K4me2 and 3, H3K27me1 and 2, H3K36me3, H3K56ac, H4K20me1 and H2Bub) in the model plant Arabidopsis and we have combined these maps with others, produced under identical conditions, for H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and DNA methylation. Integrative analysis indicates that these 12 chromatin marks, which collectively cover ∼90% of the genome, are present at any given position in a very limited number of combinations. Moreover, we show that the distribution of the 12 marks along the genomic sequence defines four main chromatin states, which preferentially index active genes, repressed genes, silent repeat elements and intergenic regions. Given the compact nature of the Arabidopsis genome, these four indexing states typically translate into short chromatin domains interspersed with each other. This first combinatorial view of the Arabidopsis epigenome points to simple principles of organization as in metazoans and provides a framework for further studies of chromatin-based regulatory mechanisms in plants.
Arabidopsis; chromatin; DNA methylation; epigenome; histone modifications
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a key regulator of epigenetic states catalyzing histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), a repressive chromatin mark. PRC2 composition is conserved from humans to plants, but the function of PRC2 during the early stage of plant life is unclear beyond the fact that it is required for the development of endosperm, a nutritive tissue that supports embryo growth. Circumventing the requirement of PRC2 in endosperm allowed us to generate viable homozygous null mutants for FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), which is the single Arabidopsis homolog of Extra Sex Combs, an indispensable component of Drosophila and mammalian PRC2. Here we show that H3K27me3 deposition is abolished genome-wide in fie mutants demonstrating the essential function of PRC2 in placing this mark in plants as in animals. In contrast to animals, we find that PRC2 function is not required for initial body plan formation in Arabidopsis. Rather, our results show that fie mutant seeds exhibit enhanced dormancy and germination defects, indicating a deficiency in terminating the embryonic phase. After germination, fie mutant seedlings switch to generative development that is not sustained, giving rise to neoplastic, callus-like structures. Further genome-wide studies showed that only a fraction of PRC2 targets are transcriptionally activated in fie seedlings and that this activation is accompanied in only a few cases with deposition of H3K4me3, a mark associated with gene activity and considered to act antagonistically to H3K27me3. Up-regulated PRC2 target genes were found to act at different hierarchical levels from transcriptional master regulators to a wide range of downstream targets. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that PRC2-mediated regulation represents a robust system controlling developmental phase transitions, not only from vegetative phase to flowering but also especially from embryonic phase to the seedling stage.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression through modifications of histone tails is fundamental for growth and development of multicellular organisms. The trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3) is the landmark of Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) function and is associated with gene repression. Here we present the development of a genetic system to generate homozygous null mutants of Arabidopsis PRC2. A first major finding is that H3K27me3 is globally lost in these mutants. Surprisingly, we found that initial body plant organization and embryo development is largely independent of PRC2 action, which is in sharp contrast to embryonic lethality of PRC2 mutants in animals. However, we show here that PRC2 is required to switch from embryonic to seedling phase, and mutant seeds showed enhanced dormancy and germination defects. Indeed, many genes controlling seed maturation and dormancy are marked by H3K27me3 and are upregulated upon loss of PRC2. The invention of seed dormancy of land plants is regarded as one of the major reasons for the evolutionary success of flowering plants, and the here-discovered key role of PRC2 during the developmental phase transition from embryo to seedling growth reveals the adaptation of conserved molecular mechanisms to carry out new functions.
The adrenergic and histaminergic systems have been reported to have analogous effects on the heart. A case of transient ventricular dysfunction with echocardiographic findings characteristic of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy) in a patient who had an urticarial transfusion reaction is described. The effect of histamine on ventricular function and its interaction with the adrenergic system are discussed.
Catecholamine; Histamine; Stress-induced cardiomyopathy; Takotsubo cardiomyopathy; Urticarial transfusion reaction
Seed development in angiosperms is dependent on the interplay among different transcriptional programs operating in the embryo, the endosperm, and the maternally-derived seed coat. In angiosperms, the embryo and the endosperm are products of double fertilization during which the two pollen sperm cells fuse with the egg cell and the central cell of the female gametophyte. In Arabidopsis, analyses of mutants in the cell-cycle regulator CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A;1 (CKDA;1) have revealed the importance of a paternal genome for the effective development of the endosperm and ultimately the seed. Here we have exploited cdka;1 fertilization as a novel tool for the identification of seed regulators and factors involved in parent-of-origin–specific regulation during seed development. We have generated genome-wide transcription profiles of cdka;1 fertilized seeds and identified approximately 600 genes that are downregulated in the absence of a paternal genome. Among those, AGAMOUS-LIKE (AGL) genes encoding Type-I MADS-box transcription factors were significantly overrepresented. Here, AGL36 was chosen for an in-depth study and shown to be imprinted. We demonstrate that AGL36 parent-of-origin–dependent expression is controlled by the activity of METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1) maintenance DNA methyltransferase and DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase. Interestingly, our data also show that the active maternal allele of AGL36 is regulated throughout endosperm development by components of the FIS Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), revealing a new type of dual epigenetic regulation in seeds.
Seeds of flowering plants consist of three different organisms that develop in parallel. In contrast to animals, a double fertilization event takes place in plants, producing two fertilization products, the embryo and the endosperm. Imprinting, the parent-of-origin–specific expression of genes, typically takes place in the mammalian placenta and in the plant endosperm. A prevailing hypothesis predicts that a parental tug-of-war on the allocation of available recourses to the developing progeny has led to the evolution of imprinting systems where genes expressed from the mother dampen growth whereas genes expressed from the father are growth enhancers. The number of imprinted genes identified in plants is low compared to mammals, and this precludes the elucidation of the epigenetic mechanisms responsible for this specialized expression system. Here, we have used genome-wide transcript profiling of endosperm without paternal contribution to identify seed regulators and, among these, imprinted genes. We identified a cluster of downregulated MADS-box transcription factors, including AGL36, that was subsequently shown to be imprinted by an epigenetic mechanism involving the DNA methylase MET1 and the glycosylase DME. In addition, the expression of the active AGL36 allele was dampened by the FIS Polycomb Repressive Complex, identifying a novel mode of regulation of imprinted genes.
Cysteine proteases have been shown to be highly relevant for Apicomplexan parasites. In the case of Babesia bovis, a tick-transmitted hemoparasite of cattle, inhibitors of these enzymes were shown to hamper intraerythrocytic replication of the parasite, underscoring their importance for survival.
Four papain-like cysteine proteases were found to be encoded by the B. bovis genome using the MEROPS database. One of them, the ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum falcipain-2, here named bovipain-2, was further characterized. Bovipain-2 is encoded in B. bovis chromosome 4 by an ORF of 1.3 kb, has a predicted molecular weight of 42 kDa, and is hydrophilic with the exception of a transmembrane region. It has orthologs in several other apicomplexans, and its predicted amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation among several B. bovis isolates from North and South America. Synteny studies demonstrated that the bovipain-2 gene has expanded in the genomes of two related piroplasmids, Theileria parva and T. annulata, into families of 6 and 7 clustered genes respectively. The bovipain-2 gene is transcribed in in vitro cultured intra-erythrocyte forms of a virulent and an attenuated B. bovis strain from Argentina, and has no introns, as shown by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Antibodies against a recombinant form of bovipain-2 recognized two parasite protein bands of 34 and 26 kDa, which coincide with the predicted sizes of the pro-peptidase and mature peptidase, respectively. Immunofluorescence studies showed an intracellular localization of bovipain-2 in the middle-rear region of in vitro cultured merozoites, as well as diffused in the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Anti-bovipain-2 antibodies also reacted with B. bigemina-infected erythrocytes giving a similar pattern, which suggests cross-reactivity among these species. Antibodies in sera of two out of six B. bovis-experimentally infected bovines tested, reacted specifically with recombinant bovipain-2 in immunoblots, thus demonstrating expression and immunogenicity during bovine-infecting stages.
Overall, we present the characterization of bovipain-2 and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo expression in virulent and attenuated strains. Given the involvement of apicomplexan cysteine proteases in essential parasite functions, bovipain-2 constitutes a new vaccine candidate and potential drug target for bovine babesiosis.
Cell-fate specification is typically thought to precede and determine cell-cycle regulation during differentiation. Here we show that endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, a specialized cell-cycle variant often associated with cell differentiation but also frequently occurring in malignant cells, plays a role in maintaining cell fate. For our study we have used Arabidopsis trichomes as a model system and have manipulated endoreplication levels via mutants of cell-cycle regulators and overexpression of cell-cycle inhibitors under a trichome-specific promoter. Strikingly, a reduction of endoreplication resulted in reduced trichome numbers and caused trichomes to lose their identity. Live observations of young Arabidopsis leaves revealed that dedifferentiating trichomes re-entered mitosis and were re-integrated into the epidermal pavement-cell layer, acquiring the typical characteristics of the surrounding epidermal cells. Conversely, when we promoted endoreplication in glabrous patterning mutants, trichome fate could be restored, demonstrating that endoreplication is an important determinant of cell identity. Our data lead to a new model of cell-fate control and tissue integrity during development by revealing a cell-fate quality control system at the tissue level.
Differentiating cells often amplify their nuclear DNA content through a special cell-cycle variant, called endoreplication, in which cell division is skipped. Although this process is widespread from humans to plants, not much is currently known about the biological importance of endoreplication. Moreover, the control of cell-cycle activities has been thought to follow developmental decisions and the adoption of a specific cell fate. Here we have uncovered a previously unrecognized function of endoreplication in maintaining cell identity, presenting a striking example of how cell fate and cell-cycle progression are linked. Using leaf hairs on the reference plant Arabidopsis as a model, we show that compromising endoreplication leads to dedifferentiation of the newly forming leaf hair cell. Live observations of young Arabidopsis leaves revealed that dedifferentiating leaf hairs underwent repeated rounds of cell division and were re-integrated into the epidermal cell layer acquiring the typical characteristics of the surrounding epidermal cells. Conversely, promoting endoreplication in mutants that fail to develop hairs could at least partially restore their differentiation program. With this, our findings also pinpoint an important role of the social context of a cell, revealing a differentiation control system at the tissue level.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a bypass reentrant tachycardia that results from an abnormal connection between the atria and ventricles. Mutations in PRKAG2 have been described in patients with familial WPW syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Based on the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the development of annulus fibrosus in mice, it has been proposed that BMP signaling through the type 1a receptor and other downstream components may play a role in preexcitation.
Methods and Results
Using the array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we identified five individuals with non-recurrent deletions of 20p12.3. Four of these individuals had WPW syndrome with variable dysmorphisms and neurocognitive delay. With the exception of one maternally inherited deletion, all occurred de novo, and the smallest of these, harbored a single gene, BMP2. In two individuals with additional features of Alagille syndrome, deletion of both JAG1 and BMP2 were identified. Deletion of this region has not been described as a copy-number variant in the Database of Genomic Variants and has not been identified in 13,321 individuals from other cohort examined by array CGH in our laboratory.
Our findings demonstrate a novel genomic disorder characterized by deletion of BMP2 with variable cognitive deficits and dysmorphic features and show that individuals bearing microdeletions in 20p12.3 often present with WPW syndrome.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; BMP2; 20p12.3; TGF-beta signaling; JAG1
In fungi and metazoans, the SCF-type Ubiquitin protein ligases (E3s) play a critical role in cell cycle regulation by degrading negative regulators, such as cell cycle-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) at the G1-to-S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that FBL17, an Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein, is involved in cell cycle regulation during male gametogenesis. FBL17 expression is strongly enhanced in plants co-expressing E2Fa and DPa, transcription factors that promote S-phase entry. FBL17 loss-of-function mutants fail to undergo pollen mitosis II, which generates the two sperm cells in mature A. thaliana pollen. Nonetheless, the single sperm cell-like cell in fbl17 mutants is functional but will exclusively fertilize the egg cell of the female gametophyte, giving rise to an embryo that will later abort, most likely due to the lack of functional endosperm. Seed abortion can, however, be overcome by mutations in FIE, a component of the Polycomb group complex, overall resembling loss-of-function mutations in the A. thaliana cyclin-dependent kinase CDKA;1. Finally we identified ASK11, as an SKP1-like partner protein of FBL17 and discuss a possible mechanism how SCFFBL17 may regulate cell division during male gametogenesis.