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1.  Cancer-testis antigen expression and immunogenicity in AL amyloidosis 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(9):e90-.
Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia closely related to multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) CT7 (MAGE-C1), CT10 (MAGE-C2) and MAGE-A CTAs are expressed in up to 80% of cases. In this study, we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of several CTAs in patients with AL amyloidosis in a total of 38 bone marrow specimens by employing standard immunohistochemistry techniques on paraffin-embedded archival tissues. Plasma samples from 35 patients (27 with matched bone marrow samples) were also analyzed by ELISA for sero reactivity to a group of full-length CTA proteins. CT7 was present in 25/38 (66%) while CT10 was demonstrated in 3/38 and GAGE in 1/38 AL amyloid cases. The expression pattern was mostly focal. There were no significant differences with regard to organ involvement, response to treatment, or prognosis in CTA positive compared to negative cases. None of the specimens showed spontaneous humoral immunity to CT7, but sero reactivity was observed in individual patients to other CTAs. This study identifies CT7 as the prevalent CTA in plasma cells of patients with AL amyloidosis. Further analyses determining the biology of CTAs in AL amyloidosis and their value as potential targets for immunotherapy are warranted.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.32
PMCID: PMC3461704  PMID: 22983433
AL amyloidosis; cancer-testis antigens; stem cell transplantation
2.  Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF identification systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(12):3269-3273.
We evaluated the Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Crystal E/NF identification systems for their ability to accurately identify 619 and 626 strains, respectively, of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative rods. All strains tested were taken from a stock collection and passed three times on 5% sheep blood agar prior to testing. These strains represented a more rigorous challenge to both systems than one resulting from the testing of consecutive clinical isolates. Testing with both systems was done according to the manufacturers' instructions, and tests were repeated in duplicate when errors occurred. Vitek version 5.01 and Crystal version 3.0 softwares were used for identifications. The identification results from each system were compared with identifications previously determined with reference biochemicals. At the completion of the appropriate incubation period, the GNI+ and Crystal systems correctly identified 80.1 and 71.1% of the total isolates, respectively. After additional tests suggested by the software programs were completed, the GNI+ had an accuracy of 87.6% and the Crystal system's accuracy had improved to 87.9%. The error rates for the GNI+ and Crystal systems were 6.5 and 5.3%, respectively. A report of "no identification" was given for 6.0 and 6.9% of the isolates, respectively, and was associated with no particular organism group. One isolate each of Acinetobacter lwoffii and Vibrio alginolyticus would not grow in the Vitek card. The average times to detection for correct enteric identifications in the GNI+ system were 4.1 and 6.8 h for nonenteric identifications, while the Crystal results were routinely read at 18 h. We conclude that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the results of the GNI+ card and those of the Crystal E/NF system after additional testing was performed with the group of organisms tested, but the overall accuracy for both systems in this study was below 90%.
PMCID: PMC230160  PMID: 9399532
3.  Genetic and biochemical characterization of Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(8):2064-2068.
An unusual bacterial pathogen of laboratory mice has been previously classified as an atypical biotype of Citrobacter freundii. Designated C. freundii biotype 4280, this bacterium is the etiologic agent of transmissible murine clonic hyperplasia. An eaeA gene has been shown to be present in this organism and to be necessary for virulence in laboratory mice. However, other biotypes of C. freundii lack DNA homology with the eaeA gene. Because of the recent reclassification in which five named species and three unnamed species, all previously considered C. freundii, were described, we determined the taxonomic status of C. freundii biotype 4280. With a battery of biochemical tests and DNA relatedness studies, three isolates of C. freundii biotype 4280 were shown to be members of an unnamed Citrobacter species, designated species 9. In total, six isolates of Citrobacter species 9, but none of the type strains of the other eight named species or of the two remaining unnamed species of Citrobacter, were shown to possess DNA homology with both the eaeA and the eaeB genes. Species 9 was named Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov.
PMCID: PMC228336  PMID: 7559949
4.  Ability of commercial and reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect vancomycin resistance in enterococci. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(6):1524-1527.
We evaluated the abilities of 10 commercially available antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and four reference methods (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and the agar screen plate) to classify enterococci correctly as vancomycin susceptible or resistant using 50 well-characterized strains of enterococci. There was a high level of agreement of category classification data obtained with broth-based systems (Sceptor, MicroMedia, Pasco, and Sensititre), agar dilution, and an antibiotic gradient method (E test) with data obtained by reference broth microdilution; no very major or major errors were seen, and minor errors were < or = 6%. Increased minor error rates were observed with disk diffusion (12%), Alamar (16%), Uniscept (16%), and conventional (overnight) MicroScan panels (16%). The errors were primarily with Enterococcus casseliflavus strains and organisms containing the vanB vancomycin resistance gene. Very major error rates of 10.3 and 20.7% were observed with Vitek and MicroScan Rapid (MS/Rapid) systems, respectively; however, only the MS/Rapid system produced major errors (13.3%). On repeat testing of discrepant isolates, the very major error rate with the Vitek system dropped to 3.4%, while the very major error rate with the MS/Rapid system increased to 27.6%; major errors with the MS/Rapid system were not resolved. Many of the commercial systems had only 4 dilutions of vancomycin, which resulted in up to 84% of values being off scale (e.g., Uniscept). Of the methods tested, most conventional broth- and agar-based methods proved to be highly accurate when incubation was done for a full 24 h, although several of the tests had high minor error rates. Automated systems continued to demonstrate problems in detecting low-level resistance.
PMCID: PMC228208  PMID: 7650179
5.  Ability of commercial identification systems to identify newly recognized species of Citrobacter. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(1):242-245.
The genus Citrobacter was recently determined to contain 11 genetically distinct species. In addition, the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology no longer recognizes C. diversus and has, instead, validated the name C. koseri in its place. The 11 species are C. freundii, C. koseri, C. amalonaticus, C. farmeri, C. youngae, C. braakii, C. werkmanii, C. sedlakii, and three unnamed groups, genomospecies 9, 10, and 11. To determine the ease with which some identification systems could respond to these changes, we evaluated five systems for their potential ability to recognize current species in the genus Citrobacter. A simple dichotomous key using conventional biochemicals is presented that may be helpful to presumptively identify Citrobacter strains.
PMCID: PMC227920  PMID: 7699052
6.  Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(12):3165-3169.
We compared the API 20E (21 h) (API; bioMérieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the Vitek GNI card (4 to 18 h) (Vitek; bioMérieux Vitek), the identification portion of the MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid Neg Combo 3 panel (2 h) (W/A; Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF rotor (21 h) (Cobas; Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.), versus conventional biochemicals for their abilities to identify accurately 252 strains of biochemically typical and atypical members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. All strains used were included in the data base of each product. At the end of the initial incubation, 194 (77.0%), 213 (84.5%), 198 (78.6%), and 192 (76.2%) strains were correct to the genus and species levels with the API, Vitek, W/A, and Cobas systems, respectively. After additional biochemical tests were performed, as directed by each manufacturer's protocol, the numbers of strains correctly identified to the genus and species levels were 241 (95.6%), 234 (92.8%), 243 (96.4%), and 230 (91.3%) with the four systems, respectively. The errors were random in all systems, with the exception of two atypical Salmonella enteritidis strains, each of which was misidentified by three systems. After the initial recommended incubation period, both API and Cobas were significantly less accurate than Vitek (Yates' corrected P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the results of Vitek and W/A or between the results of API and W/A. After additional tests were completed, Cobas was significantly less accurate than W/A (P < 0.05) but was equal in accuracy to Vitek and API. API, Vitek, and W/A were equal in accuracy after these same additional tests. All four systems were significantly more accurate after additional biochemical testing than after the initial reporting period (194 of 252 versus 241 of 252 for API, 213 of 252 versus 234 of 252 for Vitek, 198 of 252 versus 243 or 252 for W/A, and 192 of 252 versus 230 of 252 for Cobas [P<0.05]).
PMCID: PMC266369  PMID: 8308108
7.  Collaborative evaluation of the Radiometer Sensititre AP80 for identification of gram-negative bacilli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(5):1179-1184.
A multicenter trial of the Sensititre AP80 panel read on the Sensititre AutoReader (Radiometer America, Westlake, Ohio) for the automated identification of gram-negative bacilli was conducted with 1,023 clinical isolates (879 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae plus 144 nonenteric organisms). Assignment of taxa was based on the computer-assisted interpretation of the results of a series of reactions with fluorogenic enzyme substrates after 5 h of incubation, with an incubation interval of approximately 18 h used when indicated. Accuracy was determined initially by comparison with the results obtained with the API 20E or Rapid NFT system (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.). Isolates showing discrepancies were identified by using conventional biochemical profiles. Identifications were available after 5 h of incubation for 918 isolates (90%). Agreements with reference results for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were 95.3 and 92.5% at the genus and species levels, respectively, and for the nonmembers of the family Enterobacteriaceae, the agreements with reference results were 95.1 and 84.7%, respectively. The Sensititre AP80 panel was found to be simple and convenient to use, allowed for the testing of three isolates per panel, required minimal supplementary testing for completion of identification, performed in a reproducible fashion, and demonstrated an accuracy of same-day identification comparable to that reported for other automated systems. The AP80 panel appears well suited for routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory as an automated means of identifying both members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli.
PMCID: PMC262899  PMID: 8501217
8.  Carcinoembryonic antigen: enhancement of liver colonisation through retention of human colorectal carcinoma cells. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(3):464-470.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an oncofetal antigen whose function in the progression of colorectal carcinoma remains unclear although recent studies suggest it participates in homotypic cellular adhesion. We have previously shown that 40 micrograms of CEA injected intravenously into athymic nude mice enhances experimental metastasis in liver and lung by two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines that are injected intrasplenically 30 min later. The metastatic potential of another three moderately to highly metastatic colorectal carcinoma cell lines and of one weakly metastatic line has now been analysed in this model. CEA pretreatment only enhanced colony formation by cell lines that were weakly metastatic in untreated nude mice; it did not affect experimental metastasis by highly metastatic lines. CEA pretreatment enhanced the retention of 125I Idudr-labelled weakly metastatic tumour cells within the liver and lungs 4 h after intrasplenic injection but not the retention of highly metastatic tumour cells or inert latex beads. A significant correlation existed between the formation of experimental metastases and the early retention of tumour cells within the liver after intrasplenic injection. Aggregation did not appear to be important for retention in liver because CEA did not aggregate colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. Also CEA did not alter natural host effector cell function in a cytolysis assay in vitro. We suggest that CEA facilitates liver colonisation by three of eight human colorectal carcinomas in athymic nude mice by increasing the hepatic retention of tumour cells. The potential mechanisms by which CEA may increase the retention of tumour cells in the liver are discussed.
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PMCID: PMC1968265  PMID: 8439497
9.  In vitro activities of streptomycin and 11 oral antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. 
We tested in vitro the activities of streptomycin and tetracycline--antibiotics that have long been used to treat rhinoscleroma--as well as several newer oral agents by using 23 isolates of the causative organism Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. All isolates were inhibited by clinically achievable concentrations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, cefuroxime, and cefpodoxime.
PMCID: PMC192049  PMID: 1416867
10.  Evaluation of the autoSCAN-W/A system for rapid (2-hour) identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(6):1541-1543.
We evaluated the ability of the Baxter autoSCAN-W/A System (MicroScan Division, Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.) to use the rapid (2-h) gram-negative identification panel for accurate identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. At 2 h, 353 of 467 (75.6%) strains in a challenge set of biochemically typical and atypical stock cultures were correctly identified to genus and species. Another 76 (16.3%) strains were correctly identified to genus and species after the performance of recommended additional biochemical testing. Thus, at 24 h, 91.9% of the 467 strains were correctly identified. Twenty-two strains (4.7%) were identified to the correct genus but the incorrect species, and 16 strains (3.4%) were misidentified. Of these 16 strains, 9 were incorrect at 2 h, and 7 were incorrect after the additional testing. Because the system is based on fluorogenic substrates, no conventional tests were readily available with which to compare aberrant reactions. These results suggest that the autoSCAN-W/A with its rapid gram-negative panels is acceptable for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae in a clinical microbiology laboratory.
PMCID: PMC265325  PMID: 1624573
11.  Reevaluation of the API 20E identification system versus conventional biochemicals for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: a new look at an old product. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(1):123-125.
The API 20E bacterial identification system has been used for 19 years, often as the standard with which other identification systems are compared. Because the accuracy of this system compared with conventional biochemical tests has not been determined in many years, we evaluated the API 20E linear strip by using 291 typical and atypical strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae taken from a culture collection. At 24 h, the API 20E correctly identified by genus and species 229 of 291 (78.7%) of the strains, using Salmonella and Shigella serotyping where indicated. At 48 h, 95.2% were correctly identified by using additional biochemical tests as recommended by the manufacturer. The API 20E misidentified eight (2.7%) strains; these strains were not limited to any particular genus. When 81 of these Enterobacteriaceae strains were arranged into a weighted assortment correlating to the frequency with which they might be found in a clinical laboratory, the API 20E correctly identified 71 (87.7%) at 24 h and 78 (96.3%) at 48 h. This evaluation concluded that the accuracy of the identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains at 24 h (78.7%) may be significantly lower than that of earlier evaluations. However, there is no significant difference in the ability of the API 20E to correctly identify "challenge" type organisms (229 of 291) versus routine hospital isolates (71 of 81) (P greater than 0.05), but the system is not as accurate as the conventional biochemical method of identification.
PMCID: PMC265006  PMID: 1734043
12.  Comparison of the autoSCAN-W/A rapid bacterial identification system and the Vitek AutoMicrobic system for identification of gram-negative bacilli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(7):1422-1428.
The autoSCAN-W/A (W/A; Baxter MicroScan, West Sacramento, Calif.) with the new fluorometric Rapid Neg Combo 1 (RNC) panel is a fully automated fluorometric system for identification of both enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli within 2 h. We compared the W/A with the Vitek AutoMicrobic System (Vitek AMS; Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) for identification of 383 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The API 20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and conventional biochemical testing were used as the reference systems. The W/A correctly identified 336 isolates (87.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 29 isolates (7.6%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 95.3%); the Vitek AMS correctly identified 355 isolates (92.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 8 isolates (2.1%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 94.8%). A common set of 134 isolates of gram-negative bacilli was tested in both participating laboratories as a means of assessing interlaboratory agreement with both the W/A and the Vitek AMS. The overall agreements between the two laboratories were 86% with the W/A and 92% with the Vitek AMS. The W/A performed comparably to the Vitek AMS for identification of most gram-negative bacilli, actually exceeding the Vitek AMS for identification of nonenteric bacilli. Rapid time to identification and a high level of automation make the W/A an attractive system for clinical microbiology laboratories.
PMCID: PMC270128  PMID: 1885737
13.  Agreement between visual and automated UniScept API readings. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1990;28(3):452-454.
The UniScept API system was evaluated for agreement of visual versus automated readings of both its identification panels and its antimicrobial susceptibility panels. The biochemical responses of 340 oxidase-negative and oxidase-positive fermentative bacterial cultures were read both visually and automatically in the UniScept API 20E system. Automated and visual readings agreed with 99.3% of the biochemicals. Of the 45 tests that disagreed, the tests for indole and citrate were most often in disagreement. A total of 470 fermentative and nonfermentative cultures were used in the UniScept MIC system to compare visual and automated readings of susceptibility results with 17 antimicrobial agents. Agreement within +/- 1 dilution occurred with 94.1% of the enteric fermenters and with 91.7% of the other cultures. Comparison of visual and automated readings resulted in very major discrepancies in 0.95% of the readings, with the largest percentage of discrepancies associated with glucose nonfermenters (1.8%). It was felt that an automated reading is an acceptable alternative to a visual reading of the biochemicals but that 0.95% was just within the acceptable range of the 1% allowable very major discrepancies in the automated reading of susceptibilities.
PMCID: PMC269642  PMID: 2324273
14.  Characterization of biologically active, platelet-derived growth factor-like molecules produced by murine erythroid cells in vitro and in vivo. 
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is an important serum regulator of erythropoiesis in vitro. We have now obtained evidence suggesting that PDGF-like molecules may also modulate erythropoiesis in vivo. Western blot analysis of cytoplasmic extracts from Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells and phenylhydrazine-treated mouse splenic erythroid cells revealed the presence of several PDGF-like proteins. The presence of PDGF-like proteins in the cytoplasm of these two erythroid cell types was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Using a serum-free biologic assay, PDGF-like biological activity was found in cell lysates and conditioned medium of both Rauscher cells and phenylhydrazine-treated mouse erythroid cells. Subcellular localization experiments revealed the biological activity to be concentrated in the cytosolic fraction. Using a series of antibodies to hematopoietic growth factors we demonstrated that PDGF-like biological activity was specifically immunoprecipitated by both monoclonal and polyclonal anti-human PDGF antibodies but not by antibodies to burst-promoting activity, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-3, or erythropoietin. Taken together, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that PDGF-like molecules play a role in the regulation of mammalian erythropoiesis in vivo.
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PMCID: PMC296384  PMID: 2295703
15.  Evaluation of the updated QUANTUM II system for the identification of gram-negative bacilli. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(11):2420-2422.
The QUANTUM II system (Abbott Diagnostics, Irving, Tex.) was evaluated with 65 species of gram-negative bacilli from various culture collections at the Centers for Disease Control. The QUANTUM II system accurately identified 92.5% of 335 isolates tested, as follows: 92.6% of 258 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 92.7% of 55 nonfermenters, and 91% of 22 oxidase-positive fermenters. These results were obtained by using the additional biochemical and serologic tests recommended by the manufacturers of the QUANTUM II system. The 25 misidentified cultures generally belonged to newly recognized genera, atypical strains, or slower-growing strains of more widely known genera. The system identified the most commonly encountered organisms at an accuracy of greater than or equal to 95%. The system is efficient, accurate, and rapid.
PMCID: PMC267048  PMID: 2808665
16.  Epidemic of Serratia marcescens bacteremia in a cardiac intensive care unit. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(11):2433-2436.
From 16 July through 27 September 1988, seven cases of nosocomial Serratia marcescens bacteremia occurred in a cardiac care unit. In all seven case patients, S. marcescens was isolated from blood cultures. Two of the seven had other microorganisms identified in the blood culture in which S. marcescens was recovered; one had Enterobacter cloacae, and one had Klebsiella pneumoniae. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for bloodstream infection. Case patients were more likely than controls to have been exposed to an intra-aortic balloon pump pressure transducer (7 of 7 versus 6 of 21; P = 0.001) and to a pulmonary arterial pressure transducer (7 of 7 versus 8 of 21; P = 0.005). Cultures of in-use and in-storage transducers revealed bacterial contamination of the pressure-sensitive membranes of the transducers. S. marcescens blood culture isolates obtained from five of the seven case patients, as well as six S. marcescens isolates from cultured transducers, belonged to serotypes Oundetermined:H1 and Oundetermined:H18. E. cloacae isolates from one case patient and from two stored and two in-use transducers had identical antimicrobial suceptibility patterns. Review of cardiac care unit disinfection practices revealed that the transducers were not processed with high-level disinfection or sterilization between patient uses. We concluded that the transducers had served as reservoirs for this outbreak of bloodstream infection. Because intra-aortic balloon pumps with pressure transducers are being used more frequently in the management of critically ill cardiac patients, their role as infectious reservoirs should be considered in the investigation of nosocomial bacteremia.
PMCID: PMC267052  PMID: 2681247
17.  Enterobacter hormaechei, a new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as enteric group 75. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(9):2046-2049.
The name Enterobacter hormaechei is proposed for a new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, formerly called Enteric Group 75, which consists of 23 strains, 22 of which were isolated from humans. DNAs from 12 E. hormaechei strains tested were highly related to the type strain (ATCC 49162) by DNA hybridization, using the hydroxyapatite method (80 to 97% in 60 degrees C reactions; 80 to 90% in 75 degrees C reactions). The strains were most closely related (50 to 63%) to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter dissolvens, Enterobacter taylorae, and Enterobacter nimipressuralis. E. hormaechei strains were positive within 48 h for the following: Voges-Proskauer test; citrate utilization (Simmons and Christensen); urea hydrolysis (87%); ornithine decarboxylase; growth in potassium cyanide (KCN); malonate utilization; production of acid from D-glucose, L-arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol (87%), D-galactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose; acid production from mucate; nitrate reduction; and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Delayed positive reactions were seen in tests for arginine dihydrolase, gas from D-glucose, acid from alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, and acetate utilization. E. hormaechei was negative in tests for indole production; H2S production; phenylalanine deaminase; lysine decarboxylase; gelatin hydrolysis; acid production from D-adonitol, D-arabitol, erythritol, glycerol, i(myo)-inositol, melibiose, raffinose, and D-sorbitol; esculin hydrolysis; DNase; lipase; and tyrosine clearing. Variable reactions occurred in tests for methyl red, motility, and tartrate. All strains tested were susceptible or moderately susceptible to amikacin, azlocillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, mezlocillin, moxalactam, piperacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, thienamycin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim. All strains tested were resistant to nitrofurantoin; the majority were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, and cephalothin. Four isolates were from blood; most other isolates were from wounds or sputum.
PMCID: PMC267735  PMID: 2778068
18.  Rahnella aquatilis, an unusual gram-negative rod isolated from the bronchial washing of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(7):1671-1672.
Rahnella aquatilis, a rare enteric gram-negative rod which is usually found in fresh water, was isolated from the bronchial washing of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Although few clinical isolates have been reported, this is the second isolation of R. aquatilis from a human in North Carolina. A case report and discussion of R. aquatilis is presented.
PMCID: PMC267639  PMID: 2768455
19.  Evaluation of the Mini-ID Enterobacteriaceae screen system. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(12):2604-2607.
A total of 932 typical and atypical enteric fermenters were used to evaluate the Mini-ID Enterobacteriaceae Screen/Identification System. At 4 h, final identifications were available for only 13.3%, but an additional 71% were screened into the correct group, according to the product's database. At 24 h, 58.8% were correctly identified to the species level, often with the use of an additional tube. When 118 of the cultures were arranged into a weighted assortment, as might be found in a clinical laboratory, 35 were definitively identified at 4 h, and another 72 were screened into the correct group. Of these 72, 31 were correctly identified to the species level at 24 h, for a total of 56.0%. False-negative ornithine and incorrect L-pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide and glucuronide xylopyranoside reactions accounted for 54% of the identification errors, while database problems accounted for 10.2% of the errors. Of the eight Salmonella paratyphi A cultures, seven were missed because of a false-positive lysine reaction. At best, the system serves only as a rough screen.
PMCID: PMC266955  PMID: 3068253
20.  Plasmids of Ewingella americana: supplementary epidemiologic markers in an outbreak of pseudobacteremia. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(3):501-503.
During an outbreak of pseudobacteremia in a children's hospital, Ewingella americana was found in blood cultures from 20 patients. E. americana was inoculated into blood culture bottles at the time of specimen collection due to cross contamination from nonsterile, citrated blood collection tubes used for coagulation studies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and plasmid profiling were used to assess the association between patient isolates and isolates from unused blood collection tubes. All E. americana isolates had similar antibiograms (i.e., resistance only to cephalothin) when tested at 37 degrees C. However, when the same isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility at 25 degrees C, a different antibiogram (i.e., resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cephalothin) was found. The majority of these isolates also demonstrated a unique four-plasmid profile (130, 56, 4.6, and 3.1 megadaltons), and two of these plasmids (130 and 56 megadaltons) were characterized as temperature-sensitive plasmids. An epidemiologic link between outbreak-associated isolates obtained from different time periods in the outbreak was supported by evidence of a significant trend in the ability of the outbreak-associated isolates to reduce nitrate, together with the presence of the resistance antibiogram at 25 degrees C and the demonstration of the unique four-plasmid profile.
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PMCID: PMC265967  PMID: 3571455
21.  Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter taylorae, two new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. 
Escherichia fergusonii (formerly known as Enteric Group 10) and Enterobacter taylorae (formerly known as Enteric Group 19) are proposed as new species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. By DNA hybridization (32P, 60 degrees C, hydroxyapatite), strains of E. fergusonii were 90 to 97% related to the type strain (holotype) ATCC 35469. They were most closely related to Escherichia coli and more distantly related to species in other genera. E. fergusonii strains are positive for indole production, methyl red, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, and motility. They ferment D-glucose with gas production and also ferment adonitol, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, maltose, D-xylose, trehalose, cellobiose, and D-arabitol. They are negative for Voges-Proskauer, citrate utilization (17% positive), urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deamination, arginine dihydrolase, growth in KCN, and fermentation of lactose, sucrose, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, raffinose, and alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. By DNA hybridization (32P, 60 degrees C, hydroxyapatite), strains of E. taylorae were 84 to 95% related to the type strain (holotype) ATCC 35317. Their nearest relative was E. cloacae, to which they were 61% related. Other named species were more distantly related. Strains of E. taylorae are positive for Voges-Proskauer, citrate utilization, arginine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase, motility, growth in KCN medium, and malonate utilization. They ferment D-glucose with gas production and also ferment D-mannitol, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, maltose, D-xylose, trehalose, and cellobiose. They are negative for indole production, methyl red, H2S production on triple sugar-iron agar, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deamination, lysine decarboxylase, gelatin hydrolysis, and fermentation of adonitol, i-inositol, D-sorbitol, and raffinose. Both new species occur in human clinical specimens. Two strains of E. fergusonii were isolated from blood. Five stains of E. taylorae were isolated from blood, and one was from spinal fluid. These blood and spinal fluid isolates suggest possible clinical significance, but this point requires further study.
PMCID: PMC271579  PMID: 3968204

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