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3.  Trehalose levels and survival ratio of freeze-tolerant versus freeze-sensitive yeasts. 
Five freeze-tolerant yeast strains suitable for frozen dough were compared with ordinary commercial bakers' yeast. Kluyveromyces thermotolerans FRI 501 cells showed high survival ability after freezing when their resting cells were fermented for 0 to 180 min in modified liquid medium, and they grew to log and stationary phases. Among the freeze-tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FRI 413 and FRI 869 showed higher surviving and trehalose-accumulating abilities than other S. cerevisiae strains, but were affected by a prolonged prefermentation period and by growth phases. The freeze tolerance of the yeasts was, to some extent, associated with the basal amount of intracellular trehalose after rapid degradation at the onset of the prefermentation period. In the freeze-sensitive yeasts, the degree of hydrolysis of trehalose may thus be affected by the kind of saccharide, unlike in freeze-tolerant yeasts.
PMCID: PMC184415  PMID: 2339891
4.  Pasteurization of salted whole egg inoculated with Arizona or Salmonella. 
Recently, Arizona bacteria, close relatives of Salmonella, were recovered from salted whole egg that had been pasteurized by the presently recommended process of 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min. Because of this and the fact that the heat resistance of Arizona in salted whole egg had not been determined, the present study was undertaken. Arizona or Salmonella, grown in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 2% yeast extract in Fernbach flasks covered with aluminum foil over cotton and guaze at 35 degrees C with shaking at 176 rpm for about 96 h, were found to have the greatest degree of heat resistance. As expected, these cells, when inoculated into salted whole egg at 10(7) cells per ml, survived heating at 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min in a two-phase slug flow heat exchanger. To consistently achieve a 7-log kill of typical Salmonella or Arizona, a treatment of 67 degrees C (152.6 degrees F) for 3.5 min was required. However, if a 7-log kill is mandatory, it remains to be determined whether this process affect the functional properties of this product.
PMCID: PMC243359  PMID: 39499
5.  Antimicrobial Properties of Natural Phenols and Related Compounds 
Applied Microbiology  1971;21(3):507-510.
Obtusastyrene (4-cinnamylphenol) displays effective antimicrobial activity in vitro against a variety of gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The activity of obtusastyrene is not appreciably affected by pH, and its minimal inhibitory concentrations, 12 to 25 μg/ml for bacteria and 12 to 100 μg/ml for fungi, compare favorably with those of a number of synthetic, phenolic antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC377212  PMID: 5553287

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