Previous studies have indicated an association between the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and aging plus height. In this study we investigated whether the arm span–height difference was related to GERD symptoms with a focus on aged subjects in the general population, since the arm span reflects the height in young adulthood before decreasing due to vertebral deformities from aging. A total of 285 elderly individuals (105 females) who visited nursing homes for the elderly in Japan were enrolled in this study. The GERD symptoms were evaluated by the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG). The body weight, height and arm span were measured, and information regarding medications and complications were reviewed in each nursing record. 50.5% of women had more than 3 cm of arm span–height difference. In contrast, only 37.3% of men had more than 3 cm of arm span–height difference. The FSSG scores indicated more than 70% of subjects complained of any GERD symptoms. There was a significant correlation between the FSSG score and the arm span–height difference in the subjects with more than 3 cm of arm span-height difference (r = 0.236; p = 0.012). The correlation between the arm span–height difference and the FSSG score was significant only in women in females in the present study. In conclusion, our findings indicate that vertebral deformity evaluated by the arm span–height difference might have some positive relationship to the pathogenesis of GERD symptoms in elderly Japanese individuals.
aging; kyphosis; orthopedics; sex difference; vertebral deformities
Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a β-galactoside binding mammalian lectin, regulates immune responses by reducing pro-inflammatory IL-17-producing Th cells (Th17) and increasing anti-inflammatory Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in vitro and in vivo. These functions of Gal-9 are thought to be exerted by binding to receptor molecules on the cell surface. However, Gal-9 lacks a signal peptide for secretion and is predominantly located in the cytoplasm, which raises questions regarding how and which cells secrete Gal-9 in vivo. Since Gal-9 expression does not necessarily correlate with its secretion, Gal-9-secreting cells in vivo have been elusive. We report here that CD4 T cells expressing Gal-9 on the cell surface (Gal-9+ Th cells) secrete Gal-9 upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, but other CD4 T cells do not, although they express an equivalent amount of intracellular Gal-9. Gal-9+ Th cells expressed interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β but did not express Foxp3. In a co-culture experiment, Gal-9+ Th cells regulated Th17/Treg development in a manner similar to that by exogenous Gal-9, during which the regulation by Gal-9+ Th cells was shown to be sensitive to a Gal-9 antagonist but insensitive to IL-10 and TGF-β blockades. Further elucidation of Gal-9+ Th cells in humans indicates a conserved role of these cells through evolution and implies the possible utility of these cells for diagnosis or treatment of immunological diseases.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motoneuron loss. Redistribution of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the presence of cystatin C-positive Bunina bodies are considered pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but their significance has not been fully elucidated. Since all reported rodent transgenic models using wild-type transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 failed to recapitulate these features, we expected a species difference and aimed to make a non-human primate model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We overexpressed wild-type human transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 in spinal cords of cynomolgus monkeys and rats by injecting adeno-associated virus vector into the cervical cord, and examined the phenotype using behavioural, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical analyses. These monkeys developed progressive motor weakness and muscle atrophy with fasciculation in distal hand muscles first. They also showed regional cytoplasmic transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization with loss of nuclear transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 staining in the lateral nuclear group of spinal cord innervating distal hand muscles and cystatin C-positive cytoplasmic aggregates, reminiscent of the spinal cord pathology of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization was an early or presymptomatic event and was later associated with neuron loss. These findings suggest that the transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization leads to α-motoneuron degeneration. Furthermore, truncation of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 was not a prerequisite for motoneuronal degeneration, and phosphorylation of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 occurred after degeneration had begun. In contrast, similarly prepared rat models expressed transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 only in the nucleus of motoneurons. There is thus a species difference in transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 pathology, and our monkey model recapitulates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology to a greater extent than rodent models, providing a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
TDP-43; Bunina bodies; cystatin C; cynomolgus monkeys; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The soil of a residential area in Tokyo was found to contain dioxins, namely polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like biphenyls, the levels of which exceeded the environmental guideline [1,000 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g] by up to 6.8 times. To assess the exposure levels of people living in this area and to study the possible relationship of blood dioxin concentrations of children with breast milk and/or formula feeding, a health survey was carried out in 2006, involving a total of 138 people, including 66 children aged 3–15 years, and blood dioxin concentrations and the characteristics and lifestyles of these people were analyzed. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of blood dioxin concentrations (pg/g-lipid) of group 1 (3–6 years old), group 2 (7–15 years old), and group 3 (≥16 years old) were 13 ± 1.9, 6.6 ± 0.65, and 10 ± 0.54, respectively. The congener/isomer profile of dioxins in blood samples differed markedly from that of the contaminated soil samples. According to the feeding mode of children, blood dioxin concentrations (pg/g-lipid) were 17 ± 2.9 for breast milk only, 7.4 ± 0.82 for both breast milk and formula, and 4.7 ± 1.1 for formula only, with a significant difference from one another. We conclude that people living in the dioxin-contaminated area are less likely to be exposed to excessive amounts of dioxins, and that blood dioxin concentrations of children aged 3–15 years seem to be strongly affected by breast feeding duration.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-010-0156-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Blood; Breast feeding; Children; Dioxin; Soil
Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, BM-MNCs or vehicle saline were injected into the unilateral hind limb muscles. Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in SD rats were measured as the number of foot withdrawals to von Frey hair stimulation and acetone application, respectively. Two weeks after the BM-MNC transplantation, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), mRNA expressions and histology were assessed. The BM-MNC transplantation significantly ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in the BM-MNC-injected side. Furthermore, the slowed MNCV/SNCV and decreased SNBF in diabetic rats were improved in the BM-MNC-injected side. BM-MNC transplantation improved the decreased mRNA expression of NT-3 and number of microvessels in the hind limb muscles. There was no distinct effect of BM-MNC transplantation on the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. These results suggest that autologous transplantation of BM-MNCs could be a novel strategy for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
We established a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected model in polarized normal human nasal epithelial cells and found that the replication of RSV and the epithelial cell responses including induction of tight junctions were regulated via a protein kinase C δ/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/nuclear factor-κβ pathway. The control of this pathway may be useful in therapy for RSV-induced respiratory pathogenesis.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of bronchitis, asthma, and severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. The airway epithelium, which has a well-developed barrier regulated by tight junctions, is the first line of defense during respiratory virus infection. In upper airway human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), however, the primary site of RSV infection, the mechanisms of replication and budding of RSV, and the epithelial cell responses, including the tight junctional barrier, remain unknown. To investigate the detailed mechanisms of replication and budding of RSV in HNECs and the epithelial cell responses, we established an RSV-infected model using human telomerase reverse transcriptase–-transfected HNECs. We first found that the expression and barrier function of tight junction molecules claudin-4 and occludin were markedly induced together with production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor-α in HNECs after RSV infection, and the induction of tight junction molecules possibly contributed to budding of RSV. Furthermore, the replication and budding of RSV and the epithelial cell responses in HNECs were regulated via a protein kinase C δ/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/nuclear factor-κB pathway. The control of this pathway in HNECs may be useful not only for prevention of replication and budding of RSV, but also in therapy for RSV-induced respiratory pathogenesis.
In a previous study, the authors reported the clinical and radiological results of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) scoliosis surgery in 14 patients with a low FVC of <30%. The purpose of this study was to determine if surgery improved function and QOL in these patients. Furthermore, the authors assessed the patients’ and parents’ satisfaction. %FVC increased in all patients after preoperative inspiratory muscle training. Scoliosis surgery in this group of patients presented no increased risk of major complications. All-screw constructions and fusion offered the ability to correct spinal deformity in the coronal and pelvic obliquity initially, intermediate and long-term. All patients were encouraged to continue inspiratory muscle training after surgery. The mean rate of %FVC decline after surgery was 3.6% per year. Most patients and parents believed scoliosis surgery improved their function, sitting balance and quality of life even though patients were at high risk for major complications. Their satisfaction was also high.
Instrumentation and fusion to the sacrum/pelvis has been a mainstay in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and is recommended to correct pelvic obliquity. The caudal extent of instrumentation and fusion in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in DMD has remained a matter of considerable debate, and there have been few studies on the use of segmental pedicle screw instrumentation for this pathology. From 2004 to 2007, a total of 28 patients with DMD underwent segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion only to L5. Assessment was performed clinically and with radiologic measurements. All patients had a curve with the apex at L2 or higher preoperatively. Preoperative coronal curve averaged 74°, with a postoperative mean of 14°, and 17° at the last follow-up. The pelvic obliquity improved from 17° preoperatively to 6° postoperatively, and 6° at the last follow-up. Good sagittal plane alignment was recreated after surgery and maintained long term. In 23 patients with a preoperative L5 tilt of less than 15°, the pelvic obliquity was effectively corrected to less than 10° and maintained by adequately addressing spinal deformity, while five patients with a preoperative L5 tilt of more than 15° had a postoperative pelvic obliquity of more than 15°. Segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion to L5 was effective and safe in patients with DMD scoliosis with a minimal L5 tilt (<15°) and a curve with the apex at L2 or higher, both initially and long term, obviating the need for fixation to the sacrum/pelvis. Segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion to L5 was safe and effective in patients with DMD scoliosis with stable L5/S1 articulation as evidenced by a minimal L5 tilt of less than 15°, even though pelvic obliquity was significant. There was no major complication. With rigid segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, the caudal extent of fusion in the treatment of DMD scoliosis should be determined by the degree of L5 tilt. This method in appropriate patients can be a viable alternative to instrumentation and fusion to the sacrum/pelvis in the surgical treatment of DMD scoliosis.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Scoliosis; Pelvic obliquity; Lumbar 5 tilt; Pedicle screw instrumentation
The present study tested the hypothesis that inappropriate activation of the brain renin–angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cognitive impairment during development of salt-dependent hypertension. Effects of an angiotensin II (AngII) type-1 receptor blocker (ARB), at a dose that did not reduce blood pressure, were also examined.
Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats at 6 weeks of age were assigned to three groups: low-salt diet (DSS/L; 0.3% NaCl), high-salt diet (DSS/H; 8% NaCl), and high-salt diet treated with ARB, olmesartan at 1 mg/kg.
DSS/H rats exhibited hypertension, leakage from brain microvessels in the hippocampus, and impaired cognitive functions, which were associated with increased brain AngII levels, as well as decreased mRNA levels of tight junctions (TJs) and collagen-IV in the hippocampus. In DSS/H rats, olmesartan treatment, at a dose that did not alter blood pressure, restored the cognitive decline, and ameliorated leakage from brain microvessels. Olmesartan also decreased brain AngII levels and restored mRNA expression of TJs and collagen-IV in DSS/H rats.
These results suggest that during development of salt-dependent hypertension, activation of the brain RAS contributes to BBB disruption and cognitive impairment. Treatment with an ARB could elicit neuroprotective effects in cognitive disorders by preventing BBB permeability, which is independent of blood pressure changes.
blood–brain barrier; blood pressure; cognitive impairment; hypertension; receptors; vascular cognitive impairment
Several neurodegenerative diseases involve the selective damage of neuron cells resulting from the accumulation of amyloid fibril formation. Considering that the formation of amyloid fibrils as well as their precursor oligomers is cytotoxic, the agents that prevent the formation of oligomers and/or fibrils might allow the development of a novel therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) inhibits the amyloid fibril formation of the amyloid proteins, amyloid β (1–42) and mouse prion protein. The fibril formation of mouse prion protein in the presence of PQQ was dramatically prevented. Similarly, the fibril formation of amyloid β (1–42) also decreased. With further advanced pharmacological approaches, PQQ may become a leading anti-neurodegenerative compound in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
amyloid β; amyloid fibril; cytotoxicity; fibril formation; inhibitor; prion; pyrroloquinoline quinone
In April 2008, Japan launched a radical reform in regional health planning that emphasized the development of disease-oriented clinical care pathways. These ‘inter-provider critical paths’ have sought to ensure effective integration of various providers ranging among primary care practitioners, acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, long-term care facilities and home care.
Description of policy practice
All 47 prefectures in Japan developed their Regional Health Plans pursuant to the guideline requiring that these should include at least four diseases: diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and cancer. To illustrate the care pathways developed, this paper describes the guideline referring to strokes and provides examples of the new Regional Health Plans as well as examples of disease-oriented inter-provider clinical paths. In particular, the paper examines the development of information sharing through electronic health records (EHR) to enhance effective integration among providers is discussed.
Discussion and conclusion
Japan’s reform in 2008 is unique in that the concept of ‘disease-oriented regional inter-provider critical paths’ was adopted as a national policy and all 47 prefectures developed their Regional Health Plans simultaneously. How much the new regional health planning policy has improved the quality and outcome of care remains to be seen and will be evaluated in 2013 after the five-year planned period of implementation has concluded. Whilst electronic health records appear to be a useful tool in supporting care integration they do not guarantee success in the application of an inter-provider critical path.
regional health planning; disease management; critical path; electronic health record; care pathways; Japan
Background Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors, as well as of other receptor types. We have performed a feasibility study to investigate the safety of sunitinib in combination with pemetrexed for treatment of advanced refractory solid tumors. Methods Sunitinib was administered once daily on a continuous daily dosing (CDD) schedule (37.5 mg/day) or a 2-weeks-on, 1-week-off treatment schedule (50 mg/day, Schedule 2/1) in combination with pemetrexed at 500 mg/m2 on day 1 of repeated 21-day cycles. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in the study: six on the CDD schedule and six on Schedule 2/1. None of the treated patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity. Toxicities were manageable and similar in type to those observed in monotherapy studies of sunitinib and pemetrexed. Pharmacokinetic analysis did not reveal any substantial drug–drug interaction. One patient with squamous cell lung cancer showed a partial response and five patients had stable disease. Conclusions Combination therapy with sunitinib administered on Schedule 2/1 (50 mg/day) or a CDD schedule (37.5 mg/day) together with standard-dose pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) was well tolerated in previously treated patients with advanced solid tumors.
Sunitinib; Pemetrexed; Feasibility study; Solid tumors
Surrogate markers for the Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated 42-amino acid form of amyloid-β (Aβ42) have been sought because they may aid in the diagnosis of AD and for clarification of disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains three APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides (APL1β) that are generated by β- and γ-cleavages at a concentration of ∼4.5 nM. These novel peptides, APL1β25, APL1β27 and APL1β28, were not deposited in AD brains. Interestingly, most γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) and familial AD-associated presenilin1 mutants that up-regulate the relative production of Aβ42 cause a parallel increase in the production of APL1β28 in cultured cells. Moreover, in CSF from patients with pathological mutations in presenilin1 gene, the relative APL1β28 levels are higher than in non-AD controls, while the relative Aβ42 levels are unchanged or lower. Most strikingly, the relative APL1β28 levels are higher in CSF from sporadic AD patients (regardless of whether they are at mild cognitive impairment or AD stage), than those of non-AD controls. Based on these results, we propose the relative level of APL1β28 in the CSF as a candidate surrogate marker for the relative level of Aβ42 production in the brain.
Alzheimer disease; APLP1; Aβ-like peptides; cerebrospinal fluid; presenilin/γ-secretase
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the most important leguminous crop in the world due to its high contents of high-quality protein and oil for human and animal consumption as well as for industrial uses. An accurate and saturated genetic linkage map of soybean is an essential tool for studies on modern soybean genomics. In order to update the linkage map of a F2 population derived from a cross between Misuzudaizu and Moshidou Gong 503 and to make it more informative and useful to the soybean genome research community, a total of 318 AFLP, 121 SSR, 108 RFLP, and 126 STS markers were newly developed and integrated into the framework of the previously described linkage map. The updated genetic map is composed of 509 RFLP, 318 SSR, 318 AFLP, 97 AFLP-derived STS, 29 BAC-end or EST-derived STS, 1 RAPD, and five morphological markers, covering a map distance of 3080 cM (Kosambi function) in 20 linkage groups (LGs). To our knowledge, this is presently the densest linkage map developed from a single F2 population in soybean. The average intermarker distance was reduced to 2.41 from 5.78 cM in the earlier version of the linkage map. Most SSR and RFLP markers were relatively evenly distributed among different LGs in contrast to the moderately clustered AFLP markers. The number of gaps of more than 25 cM was reduced to 6 from 19 in the earlier version of the linkage map. The coverage of the linkage map was extended since 17 markers were mapped beyond the distal ends of the previous linkage map. In particular, 17 markers were tagged in a 5.7 cM interval between CE47M5a and Satt100 on LG C2, where several important QTLs were clustered. This newly updated soybean linkage map will enable to streamline positional cloning of agronomically important trait locus genes, and promote the development of physical maps, genome sequencing, and other genomic research activities.
soybean; linkage map; SSR; RFLP; AFLP; STS
Cytokinesis is the last essential step in the distribution of genetic information to daughter cells and partition of the cytoplasm. In plant cells, various proteins have been found in the phragmoplast, which corresponds to the cytokinetic apparatus, and in the cell plate, which corresponds to a new cross wall, but our understanding of the functions of these proteins in cytokinesis remains incomplete. Reverse genetic analysis of NPK1 MAPKKK (nucleus- and phragmoplast-localized protein kinase 1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase) and investigations of factors that might be functionally related to NPK1 have helped to clarify new aspects of the mechanisms of cytokinesis in plant cells. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the involvement of NPK1 in cytokinesis. We also describe the characteristics of a kinesin-like protein and the homologue of a mitogen-activated protein kinase that we identified recently, and we discuss possible relationships among these proteins in cytokinesis.
Mast cells have been documented to have several key functions with regards to malignant neoplasms. However, the functional significance of their accumulation is largely unknown. An analysis of the mast cell profile in mediastinal lymph nodes from lung cancer patients is reported here.
One hundred thirty-four, randomly selected lymph nodes (63 with positive pathological lymph node status) from 39 surgically treated lung cancer patients were examined. All cancer negative nodes were obtained from stage I patients. Mast cells were stained with Alcian blue and safranin O. Metastatic cancer cells were stained using anti-cytokeratin antibody.
Immunohistochemical studies with cytokeratin revealed micro metastasis in 9/71 (12.68%) nodes previously diagnosed as histological negative. In tumor-free mediastinal lymph nodes, the mast cell count was significantly higher than in metastatic nodes. In all cases, mast cells were observed primarily in the T-cell area.
An inverse relationship was observed between the number of mast cells and the amount of tumor tissue. The presence of mast cells primarily in the T-cell area implies a relationship between mast cells and the T-cell system. From the present study it is not possible to conclude whether mast cells in lymph nodes are for or against tumor spread.
mast cells; lung; cancer; lymph nodes; micro metastasis; cytokeratin; tumor; neoplasm; spread; T-cell
Thymic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis. To evaluate the biological characteristics of thymic carcinoma, we reviewed 8 patients.
There were 2 men and 6 women: ages ranged from 19 to 67 years old (mean 54.8 years). None of these patients had concomitant myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia. No patient had stage I disease, 1 stage II, 5 stage III, and 2 stage IV. The pathologic subtypes of thymic carcinoma included 5 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 adenosquamous cell carcinomas, 1 clear cell carcinoma, and 1 small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies against p53, bcl-2, Ki-67, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), nm23-H1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and factor VIII.
Curative resection could be done in 4 patients (50%). Our data indicates a trend toward an association between complete resection and patient survival. Expression of p53, bcl-2, CEA, EMA, nm23-H1, VEGF and FGF-2 was detected in 5/8, 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 5/8 and 3/8, respectively. Mean Ki-67 labeling index and microvessel density was 7.01 and 34.36 (per 200× field), respectively. When compared with our previous studies, immunohistochemical staining of these proteins in thymomas, the expression rates of these proteins in thymic carcinomas were higher than those in thymomas.
In this small series, it is suggested that a complete resection suggests a favorable result. Immunohistochemical results reveal that the expression of these proteins might indicate the aggressiveness of thymic carcinoma.
We assessed the nm23-H1 gene product expression and its relationship with lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 45 patients who were treated surgically were used in this study. Pathologists graded lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in each of the tissue samples. Expression of nm23-Hl gene product was determined using a specific monoclonal antibody.
Expression of nm23-H1 gene product was present in 17 (37.8%) cases. We found an inverse correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion, whereas no correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion. Overall survival rate was not different between nm23-H1 gene product positive and negative patients (p = 0.21). However, reduced expression of nm23-H1 gene product was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with involved lymph nodes (p < 0.05), but not in patients without involved lymph nodes (p = 0.87).
In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, there appears to be an inverse relationship between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion. Furthermore, nm23-H1 gene product expression might be a prognostic marker in patients with involved lymph nodes. Our data does not demonstrate any correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion.
We have previously proposed that IQGAP1, an effector of Rac1 and Cdc42, negatively regulates cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by interacting with β-catenin and by causing the dissociation of α-catenin from cadherin–β-catenin–α-catenin complexes and that activated Rac1 and Cdc42 positively regulate cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by inhibiting the interaction of IQGAP1 with β-catenin. However, it remains to be clarified in which physiological processes the Rac1-Cdc42-IQGAP1 system is involved. We here examined whether the Rac1-IQGAP1 system is involved in the cell-cell dissociation of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell scattering. By using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged α-catenin, we found that EGFP–α-catenin decreased prior to cell-cell dissociation during cell scattering. We also found that the Rac1-GTP level decreased after stimulation with TPA and that the Rac1-IQGAP1 complexes decreased, while the IQGAP1–β-catenin complexes increased during action of TPA. Constitutively active Rac1 and IQGAP1 carboxyl terminus, a putative dominant-negative mutant of IQGAP1, inhibited the disappearance of α-catenin from sites of cell-cell contact induced by TPA. Taken together, these results indicate that α-catenin is delocalized from cell-cell contact sites prior to cell-cell dissociation induced by TPA or HGF and suggest that the Rac1-IQGAP1 system is involved in cell-cell dissociation through α-catenin relocalization.
Enterocutaneous fistulae (ECF) are challenging problem commonly encountered by surgeons and cause significant complications. They not only prolong hospital stay, but also restrict a patient’s activities of daily living. The authors report a case of successful treatment of multiple intractable ECF in a patient with decreased coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) activity using intravenous FXIII treatment. A 74-year-old man with multiple ECF was referred. Although no factors involved in impaired wound were initially identified, he developed ECF after multiple surgical interventions with repeated wound dehiscence. FXIII activity was below the normal value. A definitive operation was performed and FXIII was administrated for 5 days postoperatively. There was no fistula recurrence and no other complications. Preoperative assessment of factors related to wound repair, such as FXIII activity, may be important for patients with wound dehiscence and subsequent fistula development and should be considered in patients who are resistant to standard treatments.
Organisms exhibit a fascinating array of gene-silencing pathways, which have evolved in part, to confront invasive nucleic acids such as transposons and viruses. A key question raised by the existence of these pathways is how do they distinguish “self” from “non-self” nucleic acids? Evidence exists for a number of mechanisms that might facilitate detection of foreign sequences including mechanisms that sense copy-number, unpaired DNA, or aberrant RNA (e.g. dsRNA). Here we describe an RNA-induced epigenetic silencing pathway, RNAe, that permanently silences single-copy transgenes. We show that the Piwi Argonaute PRG-1 and its genomically encoded piRNA cofactors initiate RNAe, while maintenance depends on chromatin factors and the WAGO Argonaute pathway. Our findings support a model in which PRG-1 scans for foreign sequences, while two other Argonaute pathways serve as epigenetic memories of “self” and “non-self” RNAs. These findings suggest how organisms may utilize RNAi-related mechanisms not only to recognize and silence foreign genes, but also to keep inventory of all genes expressed in the germ-line.
Multiple signaling pathways participate in the regulation of bone
remodeling, and pathological negative balance in the regulation results in
osteoporosis. However, interactions of signaling pathways that act
comprehensively in concert to maintain bone mass are not fully understood. We
investigated roles of parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH/PTHrP receptor)
signaling in osteoblasts in unloading-induced bone loss using transgenic mice.
Hind limb unloading by tail suspension reduced bone mass in wild-type mice. In
contrast, signaling by constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor (caPPR), whose
expression was regulated by the osteoblast-specific Col1a1
promoter (Col1a1-caPPR), suppressed unloading-induced reduction in bone mass in
these transgenic mice. In Col1a1-caPPR transgenic (Tg) mice, hind limb unloading
suppressed bone formation parameters in vivo and mineralized
nodule formation in vitro similarly to those observed in
wild-type mice. In addition, serum osteocalcin levels and mRNA expression levels
of type I collagen, Runx2 and Osterix in bone
were suppressed by unloading in both wild-type mice and Tg mice. However, in
contrast to unloading-induced enhancement of bone resorption parameters in
wild-type mice, Col1a1-caPPR signaling suppressed, rather than enhanced,
osteoclast number and osteoclast surface as well as urinary deoxypyridinoline
excretion upon unloading. Col1a1-caPPR signaling also suppressed mRNA expression
levels of RANK and c-fms in bone upon
unloading. Although the M-CSF and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)
mRNA levels were enhanced in control Tg mice, these levels were suppressed in
unloaded Tg mice. These results indicated that constitutive activation of
PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in osteoblastic cells suppresses unloading-induced
bone loss specifically through the regulation of osteoclastic activity.
Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000.
SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here.
A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%).
This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care.
Detachment of plant organs occurs in abscission zones (AZs). During plant growth, the AZ forms, but does not develop further until the cells perceive abscission-promoting signals and initiate detachment. Upon signal perception, abscission initiates immediately; if there is no signal, abscission is not induced and the organ remains attached to the plant. However, little attention has been paid to the genes that maintain competence to respond to the abscission signal in the pre-abscission AZ. Recently, we found that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transcription factors BLIND (Bl), GOBLET (GOB), Lateral suppressor (Ls) and a tomato WUSCHEL homologue (LeWUS) are expressed specifically in pre-abscission tissue, the anthesis pedicel AZs. To advance our understanding of abscission, here we profiled genome-wide gene expression in tomato flower pedicels at the pre-abscission stage.
We examined the transcriptomes of three tomato flower pedicel regions, the AZ and flanking proximal- (Prox) and distal- (Dis) regions, and identified 89 genes that were preferentially expressed in the AZ compared to both Prox and Dis. These genes included several transcription factors that regulate apical or axillary shoot meristem activity. Also, genes associated with auxin activity were regulated in a Prox-Dis region-specific manner, suggesting that a gradient of auxin exists in the pedicel. A MADS-box gene affecting floral transition was preferentially expressed in the Prox region and other MADS-box genes for floral organ identification were preferentially expressed in Dis, implying that the morphologically similar Prox and Dis regions have distinct identities. We also analyzed the expression of known regulators; in anthesis pedicels, Bl, GOB, Ls and LeWUS were expressed in the vascular cells of the AZ region. However, after an abscission signal, Bl was up-regulated, but GOB, Ls and LeWUS were down-regulated, suggesting that Bl may be a positive regulator of abscission, but the others may be negative regulators.
This study reveals region-specific gene expression in tomato flower pedicels at anthesis and identifies factors that may determine the physiological properties of the pre-abscission pedicel. The region-specific transcriptional regulators and genes for auxin activity identified here may prevent flower abscission in the absence of signal or establish competence to respond to the abscission signal.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum); Abscission zone; Flower pedicel; Auxin; Shoot meristem; Competence to respond to abscission signals; Transcription factor; MADS-box genes
Glioblastoma is one of the intractable cancers and is highly resistant to ionizing radiation. This radioresistance is partly due to the presence of a hypoxic region which is widely found in advanced malignant gliomas. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the hypoxic cell sensitizer doranidazole (PR-350) using the C6 rat glioblastoma model, focusing on the status of blood brain barrier (BBB).
Reproductive cell death in the rat C6 glioma cell line was determined by means of clonogenic assay. An intracranial C6 glioma model was established for the in vivo experiments. To investigate the status of the BBB in C6 glioma bearing brain, we performed the Evans blue extravasation test. Autoradiography with [14C]-doranidazole was performed to examine the distribution of doranidazole in the glioma tumor. T2-weighted MRI was employed to examine the effects of X-irradiation and/or doranidazole on tumor growth.
Doranidazole significantly enhanced radiation-induced reproductive cell death in vitro under hypoxia, but not under normoxia. The BBB in C6-bearing brain was completely disrupted and [14C]-doranidazole specifically penetrated the tumor regions. Combined treatment with X-irradiation and doranidazole significantly inhibited the growth of C6 gliomas.
Our results revealed that BBB disruption in glioma enables BBB-impermeable radiosensitizers to penetrate and distribute in the target region. This study is the first to propose that in malignant glioma the administration of hydrophilic hypoxic radiosensitizers could be a potent strategy for improving the clinical outcome of radiotherapy without side effects.
Doranidazole; Radiosensitizer; Glioblastoma; Hypoxia