Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which reside in many tissues and can give rise to multiple lineages including bone, cartilage and adipose. Although MSCs have attracted significant attention for basic and translational research, primary MSCs have limited life span in culture which hampers MSCs' broader applications. Here, we investigate if mouse mesenchymal progenitors can be conditionally immortalized with SV40 large T antigen and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising their multipotency. Using the system which expresses SV40 large T antigen flanked with Cre/loxP sites, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 large T antigen. The conditionally immortalized MEFs (iMEFs) exhibit an enhanced proliferative activity and maintain long-term cell proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iMEFs express most MSC markers and retain multipotency as they can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages under appropriate differentiation conditions in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 large T reduces the differentiation potential of iMEFs possibly due to the decreased progenitor expansion. Furthermore, the iMEFs are apparently not tumorigenic when they are subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. Thus, the conditionally immortalized iMEFs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Our results suggest that the reversible immortalization strategy using SV40 large T antigen may be an efficient and safe approach to establishing long-term cell culture of primary mesenchymal progenitors for basic and translational research, as well as for potential clinical applications.
Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs. Expression of IGF-2 can potentiate BMP-9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of later markers. IGF-2 has been shown to augment BMP-9-induced ectopic bone formation in the stem cell implantation assay. In perinatal limb explant culture assay, IGF-2 enhances BMP-9-induced endochondral ossification, whereas IGF-2 itself can promote the expansion of the hypertropic chondrocyte zone of the cultured limb explants. Expression of the IGF antagonists IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 leads to inhibition of the IGF-2 effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Mechanistically, IGF-2 is further shown to enhance the BMP-9-induced BMPR-Smad reporter activity and Smad1/5/8 nuclear translocation. PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolishes the IGF-2 potentiation effect on BMP-9-mediated osteogenic signaling and can directly inhibit BMP-9 activity. These results demonstrate that BMP-9 crosstalks with IGF-2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination of BMP-9 and IGF-2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
BMP-9; bone formation; fracture healing; IGF-2; osteoblastic differentiation
The CCN proteins contain six members, namely CCN1 to CCN6, which are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. The CCN proteins are modular proteins, containing up to four functional domains. Many of the CCN members are induced by growth factors, cytokines, or cellular stress. The CCNs show a wide and highly variable expression pattern in adult and in embryonic tissues. The CCN proteins can integrate and modulate the signals of integrins, BMPs, VEGF, Wnts, and Notch. The involvement of integrins in mediating CCN signaling may provide diverse context-dependent responses in distinct cell types. CCN1 and CCN2 play an important role in development, angiogenesis and cell adhesion, whereas CCN3 is critical to skeletal and cardiac development. CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6 usually inhibit cell growth. Mutations of Ccn6 are associated with the progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. In stem cell differentiation, CCN1, CCN2, and CCN3 play a principal role in osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and angiogenesis. Elevated expression of CCN1 is associated with more aggressive phenotypes of human cancer, while the roles of CCN2 and CCN3 in tumorigenesis are tumor type-dependent. CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6 function as tumor suppressors. Although CCN proteins may play important roles in fine-tuning other major signaling pathways, the precise function and mechanism of action of these proteins remain undefined. Understanding of the biological functions of the CCN proteins would not only provide insight into their roles in numerous cellular processes but also offer opportunities for developing therapeutics by targeting CCN functions.
CCN family; Chondrogenesis; Osteogenesis; Stem Cell Differentiation; Tumorigenesis
Osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with poor prognosis due to its high incidence of metastasis and chemoresistance. It often arises in areas of rapid bone growth in long bones during the adolescent growth spurt. Although certain genetic conditions and alterations increase the risk of developing OS, the molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recently, defects in differentiation have been linked to cancers, as they are associated with high cell proliferation. Treatments overcoming these defects enable terminal differentiation and subsequent tumor inhibition. OS development may be associated with defects in osteogenic differentiation. While early regulators of osteogenesis are unable to bypass these defects, late osteogenic regulators, including Runx2 and Osterix, are able to overcome some of the defects and inhibit tumor propagation through promoting osteogenic differentiation. Further understanding of the relationship between defects in osteogenic differentiation and tumor development holds tremendous potential in treating OS.
Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are nonhematopoietic multipotent cells capable of differentiating into mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. While they can be isolated from various tissues, MPCs isolated from the bone marrow are best characterized. These cells represent a subset of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) which, in addition to their differentiation potential, are critical in supporting proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. They are of clinical interest because they can be easily isolated from bone marrow aspirates and expanded in vitro with minimal donor site morbidity. The BMSCs are also capable of altering disease pathophysiology by secreting modulating factors in a paracrine manner. Thus, engineering such cells to maximize therapeutic potential has been the focus of cell/gene therapy to date. Here, we discuss the path towards the development of clinical trials utilizing BMSCs for orthopaedic applications. Specifically, we will review the use of BMSCs in repairing critical-sized defects, fracture nonunions, cartilage and tendon injuries, as well as in metabolic bone diseases and osteonecrosis. A review of www.ClinicalTrials.gov of the United States National Institute of Health was performed, and ongoing clinical trials will be discussed in addition to the sentinel preclinical studies that paved the way for human investigations.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated.
Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma.
Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into tissues of both mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal origin. MSCs can differentiate into osteoblastic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages, although recent studies have demonstrated that MSCs are also able to differentiate into other lineages, including neuronal and cardiomyogenic lineages. Since their original isolation from the bone marrow, MSCs have been successfully harvested from many other tissues. Their ease of isolation and ex vivo expansion combined with their immunoprivileged nature has made these cells popular candidates for stem cell therapies. These cells have the potential to alter disease pathophysiology through many modalities including cytokine secretion, capacity to differentiate along various lineages, immune modulation and direct cell-cell interaction with diseased tissue. Here we first review basic features of MSC biology including MSC characteristics in culture, homing mechanisms, differentiation capabilities and immune modulation. We then highlight some in vivo and clinical evidence supporting the therapeutic roles of MSCs and their uses in orthopedic, autoimmune, and ischemic disorders.
Mesenchymal stem cells; Bone marrow stem cell; Mesenchymal stromal cell; Autoimmune disease; Cell-based therapy; Autologous transplant; Therapeutic application
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs).
Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARα and RXRα into MPCs. The in vitro osteogenic differentiation is monitored by determining the early and late osteogenic markers and matrix mineralization. Mouse perinatal limb explants and in vivo MPC implantation experiments are carried out to assess bone formation. We find that both 9CRA and ATRA effectively induce early osteogenic marker, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and late osteogenic markers, such as osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC). BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization is synergistically enhanced by 9CRA and ATRA in vitro. 9CRA and ATRA are shown to induce BMP9 expression and activate BMPR Smad-mediated transcription activity. Using mouse perinatal limb explants, we find that BMP9 and RAs act together to promote the expansion of hypertrophic chondrocyte zone at growth plate. Progenitor cell implantation studies reveal that co-expression of BMP9 and RXRα or RARα significantly increases trabecular bone and osteoid matrix formation.
Our results strongly suggest that retinoid signaling may synergize with BMP9 activity in promoting osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. This knowledge should expand our understanding about how BMP9 cross-talks with other signaling pathways. Furthermore, a combination of BMP9 and retinoic acid (or its agonists) may be explored as effective bone regeneration therapeutics to treat large segmental bony defects, non-union fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.
Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stromal progenitor cells that can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. Several signaling pathways have been shown to regulate the lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of MSCs. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the 14 types of bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) for their abilities to regulate multilineage specific differentiation of MSCs. We found that most BMPs exhibited distinct abilities to regulate the expression of Runx2, Sox9, MyoD, and PPARγ2. Further analysis indicated that BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7, and BMP-9 effectively induced both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. BMP-induced commitment to osteogenic or adipogenic lineage was shown to be mutually exclusive. Overexpression of Runx2 enhanced BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas knockdown of Runx2 expression diminished BMP-induced bone formation with a decrease in adipocyte accumulation in vivo. Interestingly, overexpression of PPARγ2 not only promoted adipogenic differentiation, but also enhanced osteogenic differentiation upon BMP-2, BMP-6, and BMP-9 stimulation. Conversely, MSCs with PPARγ2 knockdown or mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from PPARγ2−/− mice exhibited a marked decrease in adipogenic differentiation, coupled with reduced osteogenic differentiation and diminished mineralization upon BMP-9 stimulation, suggesting that PPARγ2 may play a role in BMP-induced osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Thus, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism behind BMP-regulated lineage divergence during MSC differentiation, as this knowledge could help us to understand the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases and may lead to the development of strategies for regenerative medicine.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common nonhematologic malignancy of bone in children and adults. Although dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, such as Rb, p53, and the genes critical to cell cycle control, genetic stability, and apoptosis have been identified in OS, consensus genetic changes that lead to OS development are poorly understood. Disruption of the osteogenic differentiation pathway may be at least in part responsible for OS tumorigenesis. Current OS management involves chemotherapy and surgery. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists and/or retinoids can inhibit OS proliferation and induce apoptosis and may inhibit OS growth by promoting osteoblastic terminal differentiation. Thus, safe and effective PPAR agonists and/or retinoid derivatives can be then used as adjuvant therapeutic drugs for OS therapy. Furthermore, these agents have the potential to be used as chemopreventive agents for the OS patients who undergo the resection of the primary bone tumors in order to prevent local recurrence and/or distal pulmonary metastasis.
Electrophysiological correlates of the processing facial expressions were investigated in subjects performing the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The peak latencies of the event-related potential (ERP) components P1, vertex positive potential (VPP), and N170 were 165, 240 and 240 ms, respectively. The early anterior N100 and posterior P1 amplitudes elicited by fearful faces were larger than those elicited by happy or neutral faces, a finding which is consistent with the presence of a ‘negativity bias’. The amplitude of the anterior VPP was larger when subjects were processing fearful and happy faces than when they were processing neutral faces; it was similar in response to fearful and happy faces. The late N300 and P300 not only distinguished emotional faces from neutral faces but also differentiated between fearful and happy expressions in lag2. The amplitudes of the N100, VPP, N170, N300, and P300 components and the latency of the P1 component were modulated by attentional resources. Deficient attentional resources resulted in decreased amplitude and increased latency of ERP components. In light of these results, we present a hypothetical model involving three stages of facial expression processing.
faces; attentional blink; three stages of facial expressions processing
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most severe complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Amplified inflammatory response after transplantation contributes to the process of ALI, but the mechanism underlying inflammation activation is not completely understood. We have demonstrated that mast cell stabilization attenuated inflammation and ALI in a rodent intestine ischemia/reperfusion model. We hypothesized that upregulation of inflammation triggered by mast cell activation may be involve in ALI after liver transplantation.
Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats received orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) and were executed 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after OALT. The rats were pretreated with the mast cell stabilizers cromolyn sodium or ketotifen 15 min before OALT and executed 8 h after OALT. Lung tissues and arterial blood were collected to evaluate lung injury. β-hexosaminidase and mast cell tryptase levels were assessed to determine the activation of mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation was assessed by Western blot.
The rats that underwent OALT exhibited severe pulmonary damage with a high wet-to-dry ratio, low partial pressure of oxygen, and low precursor surfactant protein C levels, which corresponded to the significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-hexosaminidase, and tryptase levels in serum and lung tissues. The severity of ALI progressed and maximized 8 h after OALT. Mast cell stabilization significantly inhibited the activation of mast cells, downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and translocation of NF-κB, and attenuated OALT-induced ALI.
Mast cell activation amplified inflammation and played an important role in the process of post-OALT related ALI.
To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones.
A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed.
Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60.
The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.
The biological control of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) is important to promote human health, environmental protection, and economic growth. Active algicidal compounds and algicidal mechanisms should be identified and investigated to control cyanoHABs. In this study, the algicidal actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. L74 was isolated from the soil of a nearby pond which located in the center lake of Guanghzou Higher Education Mega Center. Results showed that the algicidal activities of cyanoHABs are mainly achieved via an indirect attack by producing algicidal compounds. All active algicidal compounds are hydrophilic substances that are heat and pH stable. In the present study, an active compound (B3) was isolated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as a type of triterpenoid saponin (2-hydroxy-12-oleanene-3, 28-O-D-glucopyranosyl) with a molecular formula of C42H70O13 as determined by infrared spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active algicidal compounds from Streptomyces sp. L74 were shown to disrupt the antioxidant systems of Microcystis aeruginosa cells.
The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants’ decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed “partners,” while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered “fair” only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way.
Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount importance.
Recent clinical studies have assessed the association of various polymorphisms on the ephreceptor tyrosinekinase-type A2 (EPHA2) with the risk for age-related cataract in populations of different ethnic/racial backgrounds, but inconsistent results have been obtained.
This meta-analysis aimed to identify if any polymorphism(s) might be commonly present in different ethnic/racial populations in association with the age-related cataract risk.
The PubMed and Web of Science databases (up to December 1, 2012) were searched for clinical studies on the association of EPHA2 polymorphisms with the risk for age-related cataract. The polymorphisms that were assessed in all eligible studies were analyzed for their association with the risk for age-related cataract using different models.
Three studies were identified, which were conducted, respectively, on white Americans in the Unites States and on Asians in Indian and China. The polymorphism, rs3754334, was the only one studied in all these three studies and was therefore the focus of this meta-analysis. No publication bias or heterogeneity was found. Our analysis results demonstrated that rs3754334 was associated with the risk of any cataracts in the recessive (OR = 1.202, 95% CI: 1.051–1.375, P = 0.007) and Codominant (OR = 1.194, 95% CI: 1.035–1.378, P = 0.015) models, but its association with cortical or nuclear phenotype of age-related cataract was not evident.
Polymorphism, rs3754334, might be a variant on the EPHA2 gene that is commonly associated with the risk for age-related cataract in different ethnical and geographical populations.
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18X per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were identified. The strongest signal of natural selection came from EPAS1, a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia. One SNP at EPAS1 shows a 78% frequency difference between Tibetan and Han samples, representing the fastest allele frequency change observed at any human gene to date. This SNP’s association with erythrocyte abundance supports the role of EPAS1 in adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, a population genomic survey has revealed a functionally important locus in genetic adaptation to high altitude.
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders in human adults. It can be characterized as a progressive neurological disorder of which the most recognizable feature is a tremor of the arms or hands that is apparent during voluntary movements such as eating and writing. The pathology of ET remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI), as a non-invasive imaging technique, was employed to investigate abnormalities of functional connectivity in ET in the brain. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used as a metric of RS-fMRI to assess the local functional connectivity abnormality in ET with 20 ET patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). The ET group showed decreased ReHo in the anterior and posterior bilateral cerebellar lobes, the bilateral thalamus and the insular lobe, and increased ReHo in the bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the left primary motor cortex and left supplementary motor area. The abnormal ReHo value of ET patients in the bilateral anterior cerebellar lobes and the right posterior cerebellar lobe were negatively correlated with the tremor severity score, while positively correlated with that in the left primary motor cortex. These findings suggest that the abnormality in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor pathway is involved in tremor generation and propagation, which may be related to motor-related symptoms in ET patients. Meanwhile, the abnormality in the prefrontal and parietal regions may be associated with non-motor symptoms in ET. These findings suggest that the ReHo could be utilized for investigations of functional-pathological mechanism of ET.
Severe asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by the Th2/Th17-polarized inflammation along with permanent airway remodeling. Despite past extensive studies, the exact role for Th2 and Th17 cytokines in asthmatic pathoetiology, particularly in the pathogenesis of bronchial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is yet to be fully addressed. We herein conducted studies in 16-HBE cells and demonstrated that Th2-derived IL-4 and Th17-derived IL-17A provide a chronic inflammatory milieu that favors TGF-β1 to induce bronchial EMT. A synergic action was noted between TGF-β1, IL-4 and IL-17A in terms of induction of EMT. IL-4 and IL-17A synergized with TGF-β1 to induce epithelial cells re-entering cell cycle, and to promote epithelial to mesenchymal morphological transistion, and by which they enhanced the capacity of TGF-β1 to suppress E-cadherin expression, and to induce a-SMA expression in epithelial cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that this synergic action is coordinated by the regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Our results not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying airway remodeling in asthmatic condition, but also have the potential for developing more effective therapeutic strategies against severe asthmatics in clinical settings.
Severe asthma; airway remodeling; chronic inflammatory milieu; epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); ERK1/2
This study aimed to determine the effect of andrographolide (AD) on the growth of H3255 lung cancer cells and its possible impact on the expression and activity of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein. H3255 cells were cultured in vitro, and treated with AD (1, 5 or 10 μM) for 24, 48 or 72 h. Cell proliferation was detected using an MTT assay and the expression of MMP-9 mRNA was measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The activity of MMP-9 was assessed by gelatin zymography, while the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the phosphorylation of IκB were determined by western blotting. AD inhibited the proliferation of the H3255 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, in addition to downregulating the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and the activity of MMP-9. Moreover, AD significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and suppressed IκB phosphorylation. The significant inhibition of H3255 cell proliferation by AD may have been correlated with the reduction in MMP-9 expression and activity through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of IκB and the translocation of NF-κB. The results suggest that AD is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of the migration and invasion of malignant tumors.
andrographolide; lung cancer cells; NF-κB; MMP-9
Purpose. Truncated tissue factor (tTF) fusion protein targeting tumor vasculature can induce tumor vascular thrombosis and necrosis. Here, we generated (RGD)3-tTF in which three arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) targeting integrin αvβ3 and tTF induce blood coagulation in tumor vessels. Methods. The bioactivities of (RGD)3-tTF including coagulation activity, FX activation, and binding with integrin αvβ3 were performed. The fluorescent labeled (RGD)3-tTF was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice and traced in vivo. The tumor growth, volume, blood vessel thrombosis, tumor necrosis, and survival time of mice treated with (RGD)3-tTF were evaluated. Results. The clotting time and FX activation of (RGD)3-tTF were similar to that of TF (P > 0.05) but different with that of RGD (P < 0.05). (RGD)3-tTF presented a higher binding with αvβ3 than that of RGD and TF at the concentration of 0.2 μmol/L (P < 0.05). (RGD)3-tTF could specifically assemble in tumor and be effective in reducing tumor growth by selectively inducing tumor blood vessels thrombosis and tumor necrosis which were absent in mice treated with RGD or TF. The survival time of mice treated with (RGD)3-tTF was higher than that of mice treated with TF or RGD (P < 0.05). Conclusion. (RGD)3-tTF may be a promising strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
To compare the long-term results of mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection (MALND) and conventional axillary lymph node dissection (CALND).
Patients and Methods
From January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2005, a group of 1027 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups: MALND and CALND. The median follow-up was 63 months. The primary end points of the study were operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics. The secondary end points were disease-free and overall survival.
The mean operative blood loss in the MALND group was less than in the CALND group (P<.001). The patients who underwent MALND had less axillary pain, numbness or paresthesias, and arm swelling (P<.001). The aesthetic appearance of the axilla in the MALND group was much better than that in the CALND group (P=.001 at 6 months and P=.002 at 24 months). A significant difference was found between the 2 groups in distant metastasis (P=.04). The disease-free survival rate was 64.5% in the MALND group and 60.8% in the CALND group (P=.88). The overall survival rate was 81.7% in the MALND group and 78.6% in the CALND group (P=.95).
Compared with CALND, MALND has advantages in operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics.
ALND, axillary lymph node dissection; CALND, conventional axillary lymph node dissection; MALND, mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection