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1.  How to predict the outcome in mature T and NK cell lymphoma by currently used prognostic models? 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(10):e93-.
To select an appropriate prognostic model in the treatment of mature T- and natural killer (NK) -cell lymphoma (peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and NK-/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL)) is crucial. This study investigated the usefulness of Ann Arbor staging classification International prognostic index (IPI), prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT) and International peripheral T-cell lymphoma Project score (IPTCLP). Between 2000 and 2009, 176 patients (122 males) with PTCL and NKTCL were diagnosed and treated from a single institute in Taiwan. The correlation between complete response (CR) rate, 3-year overall survival (OS), early mortality rate and four prognostic models was analyzed. Thirty-one patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were analyzed separately. Three-year OS rate was 34.7%, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma harbored better outcome than others. IPI score had the lowest Akaike information criterion value (1081.197) and was the best score in predicting OS and early mortality (P=0.009). Ann Arbor stage classification can predict CR rate more precisely (P=0.006). OS was significantly better in patients who received HSCT, even in patients with unfavorable features compared with chemotherapy alone. All prognostic models were useful to evaluate the outcome of patients with PTCL and NKTCL but IPI score did best in predicting OS in PTCL and PIT score in NKTCL. This study also supported the role of HSCT in patients with high-risk or refractory PTCL or NKTCL.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.23
PMCID: PMC3483618  PMID: 23064741
T-cell lymphoma; prognostic score; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Asian population
2.  Chuanxiongzine relaxes isolated corpus cavernosum strips and raises intracavernous pressure in rabbits 
It has been shown that there are many Chinese traditional herbals that can enhance sexual activity. Chuanxiongzine is a vasoactive ingredient that has been isolated and purified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. In previous studies, it has been found that chuanxiongzine was effective in relaxing rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. We determined the effects of chuanxiongzine on relaxation of isolated corpus cavernosum strips in vitro and on increase of intracavernous pressure (ICP) in vivo in rabbits. Chuanxiongzine caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted isolated corpus cavernosum strips (EC50 1.58 × 10−4 mol l−1), which were endothelium independent and NO independent. However, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one significantly shifted the chuanxiongzine concentration–response relationship to the right. Although there was no significant difference in the level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in isolated corpus cavernosum strips treated with chuanxiongzine or vehicle, chuanxiongzine caused a significant rise in the level of cGMP and cAMP in isolated corpus cavernosum strips pretreated with the activator of adenylyl cyclase forskolin and the source of NO sodium nitroprusside. In an in vivo study, chuanxiongzine dose-dependently raised ICP after the intracavernous injection of its cumulative doses (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg kg−1). The ICP increased from baseline to 19.1±3.7, 24.8±2.1, 30.2±4.8 and 39.7±6.1 mm Hg, respectively, and the duration of tumescence ranged from 8.5±2.8 to 22.9±7.3 min. Our results show that chuanxiongzine can relax isolated corpus cavernosum strips of rabbits in vitro and increase ICP of rabbits in vivo, which is neither endothelium dependent nor NO dependent, but may be partly mediated by the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase or cGMP phosphodiesterase.
doi:10.1038/ijir.2009.53
PMCID: PMC2834341  PMID: 19940852
chuanxiongzine; ligustrazine; rabbit corpus cavernosum; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cyclic guanosine monophosphate; intracavernous pressure
3.  Effect of latanoprost 0.005% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% on pulsatile ocular blood flow in normal tension glaucoma 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2002;86(11):1236-1239.
Aim: To determine the effect of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and latanoprost 0.005% on pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
Method: NTG patients with progressive optic neuropathy, new disc haemorrhage, or field defects that threatened fixation were enrolled into a randomised, investigator masked, crossover study. Group I patients received 4 weeks each of latanoprost, lubricant, and brimonidine, while group II patients received 4 weeks each of brimonidine, lubricant, and latanoprost. Diurnal POBF was measured at baseline and after each 4 week treatment.
Results: 25 patients completed the study and had reliable POBF measurement at each visit. There was no significant diurnal change in baseline POBF (p = 0.768). Latanoprost increased POBF by 213 (SD 257) μl/min (22.8%, p <0.001) while brimonidine increased it by 97 (183) μl/min (10.4%, p = 0.014). POBF increased at 8 am (p = 0.004), 12 noon (p = 0.002), and 4 pm (p <0.001) with latanoprost, while it increased only at 8 am (p = 0.016) with brimonidine. After adjusting for the factor of IOP, neither latanoprost nor brimonidine increased POBF significantly.
Conclusions: Latanoprost increases the mean POBF that is related to its IOP lowering effect. The increase in POBF noted after brimonidine is within the range of long term variation and may not be attributable to the drug effect.
PMCID: PMC1771377  PMID: 12386077
normal tension glaucoma; haemodynamics; latanoprost; brimonidine; pulsatile ocular blood flow
4.  Compensatory elevation of complex II activity in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. 
AIMS: To evaluate the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities in blood cells of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) with 11778 point mutation of mitochondrial DNA. METHODS: Assays for the activities of NADH-cytochrome c reductase (complex I+complex III), succinate-cytochrome c reductase (complex II+complex III), and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) on blood cell mitochondria of seven LHON patients and 15 normal controls. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase activities between LHON patients and controls, but activities of succinate-cytochrome c reductase in LHON patients was significantly elevated compared with normal controls. CONCLUSION: The observations that the activity of NADH-cytochrome c reductase is normal but that of succinate-cytochrome c reductase is increased in LHON patients with 11778 point mutation of mitochondrial DNA indicate an elevation of complex II activity, which may be due to a nuclear compensatory effect for defects of the respiratory function of mitochondria.
PMCID: PMC505389  PMID: 8664239
5.  PML, a growth suppressor disrupted in acute promyelocytic leukemia. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(10):6858-6867.
The nonrandom chromosomal translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) juxtaposes the genes for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and the putative zinc finger transcription factor PML. The breakpoint site encodes fusion protein PML-RAR alpha, which is able to form a heterodimer with PML. It was hypothesized that PML-RAR alpha is a dominant negative inhibitor of PML. Inactivation of PML function in APL may play a critical role in APL pathogenesis. Our results demonstrated that PML, but not PML-RAR alpha, is a growth suppressor. This is supported by the following findings: (i) PML suppressed anchorage-independent growth of APL-derived NB4 cells on soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice, (ii) PML suppressed the oncogenic transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts by cooperative oncogenes, and (iii) PML suppressed transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by the activated neu oncogene. Cotransfection of PML with PML-RAR alpha resulted in a significant reduction in PML's transformation suppressor function in vivo, indicating that the fusion protein can be a dominant negative inhibitor of PML function in APL cells. This observation was further supported by the finding that cotransfection of PML and PML-RAR alpha resulted in altered normal cellular localization of PML. Our results also demonstrated that PML, but not PML-RAR alpha, is a promoter-specific transcription suppressor. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruption of the PML gene, a growth or transformation suppressor, by the t(15;17) translocation in APL is one of the critical events in leukemogenesis.
Images
PMCID: PMC359216  PMID: 7935403
6.  Ptosis as the early manifestation of pituitary tumour. 
Three patients who developed unilateral ptosis followed by partial third nerve palsy were found to have a pituitary tumour. The visual field defects were minimal and asymptomatic. Two patients had a chromophobe adenoma and one patient had a prolactinoma. The importance of recognising a pituitary tumour as the cause of acquired unilateral ptosis is emphasised.
Images
PMCID: PMC1042047  PMID: 2322519

Results 1-6 (6)