To describe the clinical and imaging presentation, pitfalls in the diagnosis of choroidal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), as well as the therapeutic management and prognosis.
A retrospective case review of nine choroidal MALT lymphomas was performed. Initial clinical presentation and imaging findings of these histologically confirmed cases of lymphoma were analyzed. Treatment methods, time to diagnosis, systemic work-up, and treatment prognosis were assessed.
Initial presentation was essentially blurred vision. The features described on examination were: anterior and posterior scleritis, iridocyclitis, choroidal infiltration, and exudative retinal detachment. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography as well as ultrasonography and optic coherence tomography provided arguments in favor of the diagnosis. Biopsy sites included conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, deep scleral tissue, episclera, lacrimal gland, and choroid. Treatment mostly consisted of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The mean time to diagnosis was 12 months.
Owing to the insidious onset of these tumors and their ability to simulate other conditions, the diagnosis is commonly delayed. The prognosis is generally good and treatment is effective in the case of localized lymphoma.