Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although TLR4-MD-2 recognizes LPS, little is known about the physical interaction between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. Here, we demonstrate cell surface LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes. CD14 greatly enhances the formation of LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, but is not coprecipitated with LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, suggesting a role for CD14 in LPS loading onto TLR4-MD-2 but not in the interaction itself between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. A tentative dissociation constant (Kd) for LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes was ∼3 nM, which is ∼10–20 times lower than the reported Kd for LPS–MD-2 or LPS–CD14. The presence of detergent disrupts LPS interaction with CD14 but not with TLR4-MD-2. E5531, a lipid A antagonist developed for therapeutic intervention of endotoxin shock, blocks LPS interaction with TLR4-MD-2 at a concentration 100 times lower than that required for blocking LPS interaction with CD14. These results reveal direct LPS interaction with cell surface TLR4-MD-2 that is distinct from that with MD-2 or CD14.
innate immunity; cell surface molecule; activation; macrophage
We have examined the enhancement of cytotoxic effects of cis-diammine-1,1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum(II) (carboplatin) by hyperthermia in HeLa cells using different regimes of timing and sequence. The results were compared with those obtained with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). We found that cisplatin simultaneously combined with heat was the most cytotoxic toward HeLa cells of the various timing and sequencing conditions studied. On the other hand, for carboplatin, drug treatment immediately following or during heat exposure showed the greatest effect. Intracellular platinum concentration in HeLa cells treated with heat before carboplatin showed a 2.75-fold increase over that in cells treated with the drug alone. The ratios for carboplatin given before, or during heating, were 0.67 and 1.42 respectively. Simultaneous exposure of cells to cisplatin and heat led to a 1.64-fold enhancement in cisplatin accumulation, compared to 0.92- and 1.24-fold increase for cells treated with cisplatin before and after heat respectively. Although each drug exposure prior to heat was less cytotoxic toward HeLa cells than any other heat/drug combination sequences, the platinum concentration was less than seen with each drug alone. Even though heat exposure prior to and during carboplatin showed a similar toxicity, platinum concentration in cells treated with heat prior to carboplatin was higher than that in cells treated with heat and carboplatin simultaneously. Thus, increased cytotoxicity cannot always be explained on the basis of intracellular platinum concentration. It is clear however that, differing from cisplatin, exposure of cells to heat prior to or during carboplatin administration results in the greatest cell kill.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterium that causes diarrhea worldwide, and chickens are considered the main reservoir of this pathogen. This study investigated the effects of serial truncation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a major component of the outer membrane of C. jejuni, on its bile resistance and intestinal colonization ability in chickens. Genes encoding manno-heptose synthetases or glycosyltransferases were inactivated to generate isogenic mutants. Serial truncation of the LOS core oligosaccharide caused a stepwise increase in susceptibilities of two C. jejuni strains, NCTC 11168 and 81-176, to bile acids. Inactivation of hldE, hldD, or waaC caused severe truncation of the core oligosaccharide, which greatly increased the susceptibility to bile acids. Both wild-type strains grew normally in chicken intestinal extracts, whereas the mutants with severe oligosaccharide truncation were not detected 12 h after inoculation. These mutants attained viable bacterial counts in the bile acid-free extracts 24 h after inoculation. The wild-type strain 11-164 was present in the cecal contents at >107 CFU/g on 5 days after challenge infection and after this time period, whereas its hldD mutant was present at <103 CFU/g throughout the experimental period. Trans-complementation of the hldD mutant with the wild-type hldD allele completely restored the in vivo colonization level to that of the wild-type strain. Mutants with a shorter LOS had higher hydrophobicities. Thus, the length of the LOS core oligosaccharide affected the surface hydrophobicity and bile resistance of C. jejuni as well as its ability to colonize chicken intestines.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of increased levels of D-dimer and associated factors in preoperative patients with gynecological cancer. Furthermore, we determined the incidence and risk factors associated with preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, 456 patients with invasive gynecological cancer scheduled to undergo surgery were recruited. Preoperative plasma D-dimer levels were measured and patients whose plasma D-dimer concentration exceeded the pre-set cut-off value underwent computed tomography scanning. The incidence of elevated D-dimer and VTE was identified as significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independent factors for preoperative elevations in plasma D-dimer levels. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE. Massive ascites and the presence of co-morbidities were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in ovarian cancer. Advanced age and stage were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in endometrial cancer. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in cervical cancer. Plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of preoperative VTE were higher in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those with other gynecological cancers. Advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated CRP levels were significant factors associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels and age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in gynecological cancer.
gynecological cancer; venous thromboembolism; preoperative D-dimer
Parkinson’s disease is a major neurodegenerative disease involving the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies formation in the substantia nigra. Although α-synuclein is a key molecule for both dopaminergic neuron death and the formation of inclusion bodies, the mechanism of α-synuclein induction of Parkinson’s disease-related pathogenesis is not understood. In the present study, we found that the interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein requires the oxidation of dopamine. Furthermore, we examined the protective effect of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol contained in coffee, against α-syn and dopamine-related toxicity. Chlorogenic acid inhibits several DA/α-synuclein-related phenomenon, including the oxidation of dopamine, the interaction of oxidized dopamine with α-synuclein, and the oligomerization of α-synuclein under dopamine existing conditions in vitro. Finally, we showed that the cytoprotective effect against α-synuclein-related toxicity in PC12 cells that can be controlled by the Tet-Off system. Although the induction of α-synuclein in catecholaminergic PC12 cells causes a decrease in cell viability, chlorogenic acid rescued this cytotoxicity significantly in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the interaction of oxidized DA with α-synuclein may be a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid, are candidates as protective and preventive agents for Parkinson’s disease onset.
chlorogenic acid; polyphenol; α-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; dopamine
Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is part of the commensal microbial flora of the oral cavity. When the host immune defenses are impaired or when the normal microbial flora is disturbed, C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oral mucosa and tongue. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice that show hyposalivation, decrease of salivary protein flow, lack IgA and IgG in saliva, and have decreased NK cells. Our objective was to characterize C. albicans infection and biofilm formation in mice.
NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice were used as an animal model for C. albicans infection. C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms solutions were introduced in the oral cavity after disinfection by Chlorhexidine.
The numbers of C. albicans colonized and decreased in a time-dependent manner in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ after inoculation. However, the colonization levels were higher in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ than NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. In the mice fed 1% sucrose water before inoculation, C. albicans sample was highly contaminated by indigenous microorganisms in the oral cavity; and was not in the mice fed no sucrose water. The colonization of C. albicans was not influenced by the contamination of indigenous microorganisms. The hyphal form of C. albicans restricted the restoration of indigenous microorganisms. The decreased saliva in NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- did not increase the colonization of C. albicans in comparison to NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ mice. We suggest that the receptor in saliva to C. albicans may not be sufficiently provided in the oral cavity of NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice.
The saliva protein flow may be very important for C. albicans initial colonization, where the indigenous microorganisms do not affect colonization in the oral cavity.
Candida albicans; NOD/SCID.e2f1- mice; Saliva; Colonization; Sucrose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in plasma soluble fibrin (SF) levels over time in gynecologic cancer patients following surgery. Furthermore, we examined the duration of the coagulation stage and determined a suitable duration for which thromboprophylaxis with anticoagulant agents should be administered. We retrospectively studied 311 patients with invasive gynecologic cancer who underwent surgery at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. The plasma SF levels were measured serially prior to the operation and on postoperative days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28. The plasma SF levels increased rapidly, peaked on postoperative day 1 and then decreased. The SF levels of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) were significantly different from those of VTE-negative patients on postoperative days 0–10. The SF levels on each day did not significantly differ between patients treated with chemical anticoagulants and those treated mechanically. The plasma SF levels were elevated (≥7.0 μg/ml) in 159 of the 311 patients (51.1%) on one of the days when these levels were measured. Among the patients with elevated plasma SF levels, 110 patients (69.2%) peaked on days 0–3 and only 9 patients (5.7%) peaked on days 21–28. Although only 1 of the 14 patients (7.1%) who showed peak levels on day 14 had undergone chemotherapy following surgery, 8 of the 9 patients (88.9%) whose levels peaked on days 21–28 had undergone chemotherapy following surgery (P= 0.0002). In conclusion, the plasma SF levels increased rapidly, peaked on postoperative day 1 and then decreased. These levels peaked within 14 days of surgery in most cases. Therefore, chemical thromboprophylaxis may be administered for at least up to 14 days following surgery.
soluble fibrin; venous thromboembolism; thromboprophylaxis; gynecologic cancer
The structural characterization of glycolipids from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was performed in this study. Two neutral and one acidic glycolipids were extracted and purified by the modified TLC-blotting method, after which their chemical structures were determined by chemical composition analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of one of the neutral glycolipids, NGL-A, was Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro, and the other, NGL-C, was Galf(β1-2)Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro. The structure of NGL-C was identical to that reported previously [Oshima, M. and Ariga, T. (1976) FEBS Lett. 64, 440]. Both neutral glycolipids shared a common structural unit found in the Thermus species. The acyl groups found in NGL-A and NGL-C, iso-type pentadecanoxy and heptadecanoxy fatty acid, were also the same as those found in this species. In contrast, the acidic glycolipid, AGL-B, possessed the structure of N-(((GlcpNAc(α1-)acyl2Gro)P-2)GroA)alkylamine. The alkyl group in AGL-B was an iso-type heptadecanyl, suggesting that the iso-type structure of the long alkyl chain is responsible for the thermal stability of the bacteria.
The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is considered to be a critical regulator for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Therefore, the availability of small-molecule inhibitors targeting this pathway would offer a new chemotherapeutic strategy for MM. Here, we screened small-molecule inhibitors of ER stress-induced XBP1 activation, and identified toyocamycin from a culture broth of an Actinomycete strain. Toyocamycin was shown to suppress thapsigargin-, tunicamycin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in HeLa cells without affecting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) activation. Furthermore, although toyocamycin was unable to inhibit IRE1α phosphorylation, it prevented IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage in vitro. Thus, toyocamycin is an inhibitor of IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage. Toyocamycin inhibited not only ER stress-induced but also constitutive activation of XBP1 expression in MM lines as well as primary samples from patients. It showed synergistic effects with bortezomib, and induced apoptosis of MM cells including bortezomib-resistant cells at nanomolar levels in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited growth of xenografts in an in vivo model of human MM. Taken together, our results suggest toyocamycin as a lead compound for developing anti-MM therapy and XBP1 as an appropriate molecular target for anti-MM therapy.
multiple myeloma; ER stress; IRE1α; XBP1; toyocamycin; adenosine analog
Since a patient's obesity can affect the mortality and morbidity of the surgery, less drastic surgeries may have a major benefit for obese individuals. This study evaluated the feasibility of performing a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, with intracorporeal anastomosis, in obese patients suffering from gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of the 138 patients, who underwent a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy from April 2005 to March 2009, at the National Kyushu Cancer Center. The body mass index of 20 patients was ≥25, and in 118 patients, it was <25 kg/m2.
The mean values of body mass index in the 2 groups were 27.3±2.2 and 21.4±2.3. Hypertension was significantly more frequent in the obese patients than in the non-obese patients. The intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, post-operative complication rate, post-operative hospital stay, and a number of retrieved lymph nodes were not significantly different between the two groups.
Intracorporeal anastomosis seemed to have a benefit for obese individuals. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy is, therefore, considered to be a safe and an effective modality for obese patients.
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms; Obesity; Body mass index
We established a mouse model of microenvironment-dependent human lymphoma, and assessed the therapeutic potential of bevacizumab, an antitumor agent acting on the microenvironment. NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mice were used as recipients of primary tumor cells from a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which engraft and proliferate in a microenvironment-dependent manner. The lymphoma cells could be serially transplanted in NOG mice, but could not be maintained in in vitro cultures. Injection of bevacizumab together with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) significantly increased necrosis and decreased vascularization in the tumor, compared with CHOP alone. Levels of human soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in the serum of bevacizumab+CHOP-treated mice (reflecting the DLBCL tumor burden) were significantly lower than in CHOP recipients. Mice receiving bevacizumab monotherapy also showed significant benefit in terms of tumor necrosis and vascularization, as well as decreased serum sIL2R concentrations. The present DLBCL model reflects the human DLBCL in vivo environment more appropriately than current mouse models using established tumor cell lines. This is the first report to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab in such a tumor microenvironment-dependent model. Bevacizumab may be a potential treatment strategy for DLBCL patients.
bevacizumab; NOD/Shi-scid; IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse; lymphoma; tumor microenvironment
The photophysical properties of a carbonyl-containing carotenoid analogue in an s-cis configuration, relative to the conjugated π system, 2-(all-trans-retinylidene)-indan-1,3-dione (C20Ind), were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy in various solvents. The lifetime of the optically forbidden S1 state of C20Ind becomes long as solvent polarity increases. This trend is completely opposite to the situation of S1-ICT dynamics of carbonyl-containing carotenoids, such as peridinin and fucoxanthin. Excitation energy dependence of the transient absorption measurements shows that the transient absorption spectra in non-polar solvents were originated from two distinct transient species, while those in polar and protic solvents are due to a single transient species. By referring to the results of MNDO-PSDCI (modified neglect of differential overlap with partial single- and double-configuration interaction) calculations, we conclude: (1) In polar and protic solvents, the S1 state is generated following excitation up to the S2 state; (2) In non-polar solvents, however, both the S1 and 1nπ* states are generated; and (3) C20Ind does not generate the S1-ICT state, despite the fact that it has two conjugated carbonyl groups.
Since 2004, extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolates have been detected from cattle in the northern major island of Japan, Hokkaido. Resistance to ESCs was found to be mediated by CMY-2 type β-lactamase among 22 epidemiologically unrelated isolates showing indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Southern blot analysis using I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA demonstrated that the CMY-2 β-lactamase gene (blaCMY-2) was integrated in a 2.5-Mb chromosomal fragment. Genetic analysis of S. Typhimurium isolate L-3553 indicated that blaCMY-2 was located on a unique 125-kb genomic island, GI-VII-6, which consists of 140 open reading frames. Pairwise alignment of GI-VII-6 and Escherichia coli plasmid pAR060302 (size, 167 kb) revealed that a large proportion of GI-VII-6 (99%) shows a high sequence similarity (>99%) with pAR060302. GI-VII-6 contains 11 antimicrobial resistance genes including sul1, qacEΔ1, aadA2, and dfrA12 in the aadA2 region; sugE1 and blaCMY-2 in the blaCMY-2 region; and sul2, strA, strB, tet(A), and floR in the floR region. Two directly repeated IS26 copies were present at both ends of GI-VII-6. Junction regions of GI-VII-6 were flanked by an 8-bp direct repeat, indicating that GI-VII-6 was acquired by transposition involving IS26 transposase. PCR scanning revealed that the overall structure of GI-VII-6 was almost identical in the 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that S. Typhimurium isolates harboring GI-VII-6 belong to a different genomic lineage than other whole-genome-sequenced S. Typhimurium strains. These data indicate that a particular clone of S. Typhimurium harboring GI-VII-6 has spread among the cattle population in Hokkaido, Japan.
Sensor-driven services often cause chain reactions, since one service may generate an environmental impact that automatically triggers another service. We first propose a framework that can formalize and detect such service chains based on ECA (event, condition, action) rules. Although the service chain can be a major source of feature interactions, not all service chains lead to harmful interactions. Therefore, we then propose a method that identifies feature interactions within the service chains. Specifically, we characterize the degree of deviation of every service chain by evaluating the gap between expected and actual service states. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method successfully detects 11 service chains and 6 feature interactions within 7 practical sensor-driven services.
smart home; home network system; sensor-driven service; feature interactions; detection; validation
We report the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology using the PGMY-CHUV assay, one of PGMY-PCR-based lineblot assays that was validated and shown to be suitable for the detection of multiple HPV types in a specimen with minimum bias. Total DNA was extracted from cervical exfoliated cells collected from 326 outpatients with abnormal Pap smears. Overall, 307 specimens (94%) were HPV-positive, 30% of which contained multiple genotypes. The prevalence of HPV DNA was 83% (49/59 samples) in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US); 91% (20/22 samples) in atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 97% (130/134 samples) in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); and 99% (85/86 samples) in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Three most frequent HPV types detected in HSIL were HPV16 (36%), HPV52 (24%), and HPV58 (14%). Our results suggest that multiple HPV infections are more prevalent in Japanese women than previously reported, and confirm that HPV52 and 58 are more dominant in their cervical precancerous lesions when compared to those reported in Western countries.
Human papillomavirus; HPV genotyping; cervical cancer; Pap smear; abnormal cytology; HPV vaccine.
Background SM-11355 is a platinum complex developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via administration into the hepatic artery as a sustained-release suspension in iodized oil. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial in patients with HCC to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SM-11355, using a Zinostatin stimalamer suspension in iodized oil as a reference. Methods Patients with unresectable HCC were randomized 2:1 to receive administration of the SM-11355 or Zinostatin stimalamer suspension into the hepatic artery. A second injection was given 4–12 weeks later. Efficacy was evaluated by CT 3 months after treatment and categorized as therapeutic effect (TE) V to I, where TE V was defined as disappearance or 100% necrosis of all treated tumors. Results A total of 122 patients were evaluated for efficacy and toxicity (SM-11355, n = 83; Zinostatin stimalamer, n = 39). Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The TE V rates were 26.5% (22/83) and 17.9% (7/39) in the SM-11355 and Zinostatin stimalamer groups, respectively. In the SM-11355 group,the most frequent drug-related adverse events (AEs) of ≥ grade 3 were elevated AST, elevated ALT, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia. The AEs with the largest difference between the two groups (SM-11355 vs. Zinostatin stimalamer) were hepatic vascular injury (0 vs. 48.4%) and eosinophilia (84.3 vs. 41.0%). The 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 75.9% vs. 70.3% and 58.4% vs. 48.7%, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that SM-11355 in iodized oil has similar efficacy to Zinostatin stimalamer and that repeated dosing of SM-11355 is possible without hepatic vascular injury in cases of relapse.
Iodized oil; MIRIPLA; Liver cancer; Suspension; Parallel study
The prognosis of type IV scirrhous gastric cancer (SGC) is extremely poor. Linitis plastica (LP), the so-called ‘leather bottle stomach’, is believed to be a typical case of SGC, which is usually diagnosed as a far-advanced gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Although typical SGC often invades the entire stomach, atypical cases show SGC localized to one region of the stomach. The aim of the present study was to investigate localized SGC (LSGC) and its biological significance. A total of 509 patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy were evaluated. These patients were divided into three groups as follows: 19 patients with type IV scirrhous lesions invading the whole stomach (defined as LP), 60 patients with type IV scirrhous lesions localized in less than two thirds of the stomach (defined as LSGC) and the remaining 430 patients with all other types of gastric cancer (OGC), and then clinicopathologically compared. Results showed that LP had deeper invasion (p=0.006), more frequent peritoneal dissemination including positive cytology (p=0.01 and p=0.018) and lower curability (p=0.03) compared with LSGC, whereas LSGC showed a higher malignant potential in a number of clinicopathological factors compared with OGC. Univariate analysis showed that survival in patients with LP was significantly poorer than in those with LSGC (p=0.002) whose survival was, in turn, inferior to those with OGC. By contrast, LSGC was not a prognostic factor in SGC according to the multivariate analysis. The findings of this study suggested that the malignant status of LSGC differs from that of LP, and that curative gastrectomy is effective in improving the outcome for LSGC but not for LP, as LSGC may represent the prelinitis condition.
gastric cancer; scirrhous; linitis plastica; prognosis
Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells.
lectin; cholera toxin; anterior pituitary; cytochemistry; cell sorting
The aim of the present study was to assess whether myelosuppression during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analyzed 86 patients with NSCLC who received concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Patients were classified into two groups (grades 0-2 and 3-4) according to the most severe neutropenia, anemia or thrombocytopenia observed during concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and survival time and progression-free survival (PFS) time were analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival time was significantly longer in patients with grade 0-2 anemia than in those with grade 3-4 anemia (p=0.02). Survival time did not differ significantly on the basis of the severity of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Although pre-treatment white blood cell count was a further prognostic factor in univariate analysis, multivariate analysis revealed that the only independent prognostic factor for overall survival time was anemia. Disease stage was an independent prognostic factor for PFS (p=0.04), whereas neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were not. In conclusion, the severity of anemia during concurrent chemoradiotherapy may be a useful prognostic factor in patients with locally advanced NSCLC.
The onset and progressive pathogenesis of periodontal disease is thought to be initiated by the entry of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) into periodontal tissue, especially gingival epithelium. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying such bacterial entry remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible role of Aa outer membrane protein 29 kD (Omp29), a homologue of E. coli OmpA, in promoting bacterial entry into gingival epithelial cells. To accomplish this, Omp29 expression vector was incorporated in an OmpA-deficient mutant of E. coli. Omp29+/OmpA− E. coli demonstrated 22-fold higher entry into human gingival epithelial line cells (OBA9) than Omp29−/OmpA− E. coli. While the entry of Aa and Omp29+/OmpA− E. coli into OBA9 cells were inhibited by anti-Omp29 antibody, their adherence to OBA9 cells was not inhibited. Stimulation of OBA9 cells with purified Omp29 increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a pivotal cell-signaling molecule that can up-regulate actin rearrangement. Furthermore, Omp29 increased the formation of F-actin in OBA9 cells. The internalization of Omp29-coated beads and the entry of Aa into OBA9 were partially inhibited by treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor (Wortmannin) and Rho GTPases inhibitor (EDIN), both known to convey FAK-signaling to actin-rearrangement. These results suggest that Omp29 is associated with the entry of Aa into gingival epithelial cells by up-regulating F-actin rearrangement via the FAK signaling pathway.
Stark absorption spectra of peridinin (Per) and five allene-modified analogues and their angular dependence as a function of an externally applied electric field were measured in methyl methacrylate polymer at 77K. In all cases, the energetically lowest absorption band has a significant change of static dipole moment upon photoexcitation (Δμ). In particular, Per has the largest value of |Δμ|. The angles between Δμ and the transition dipole moment of all the analogues were determined. It is suggested that the allene group in Per plays a key role as the electron donor in the charge transfer process following photoexcitation. The results of MNDO-PSDCI calculations support this idea.
Stark absorption; angular dependence; intramolecular charge-transfer state; peridinin; allene modified peridinin analogues
We examined the safety and efficacy of the combination of S-1 and biweekly docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC were eligible if they had a performance status of 2 or less, were 80 years or younger, and had adequate organ function. Forty-nine patients (38 men and 11 women; median age, 66 years; range 43–79 years) were enrolled. Patients were treated with the combination of 80 mg/m2 per day of S-1 for 14 consecutive days and 35 mg/m2 of docetaxel on days 1 and 15 every 4 weeks.
The overall response rate was 16.3% (95% confidence interval, 7.6–30.5%). The disease-control rate was 49.0% (95% confidence interval, 34.4–63.7%). The median survival time after this treatment was 9 months (range 1–22 months). The median progression-free survival time was 3 months (range 1–11 months). Response rates and survival times did not differ significantly according to the histological type. Grade 3–5 toxicities included neutropenia in 51.0% of patients, thrombocytopenia in 2.0%, anemia in 20.4%, infection in 24.5%, anorexia in 12.2%, diarrhea in 14.3%, nausea in 6.1%, and dehydration in 4.2%. There was 1 treatment-related death due to severe anorexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, and, as consequence, dehydration.
The combination of S-1 and biweekly docetaxel is an acceptable therapeutic option in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC regardless of the histological type.
S-1; Docetaxel; Second-line chemotherapy; Non-small-cell lung cancer