Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although TLR4-MD-2 recognizes LPS, little is known about the physical interaction between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. Here, we demonstrate cell surface LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes. CD14 greatly enhances the formation of LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, but is not coprecipitated with LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, suggesting a role for CD14 in LPS loading onto TLR4-MD-2 but not in the interaction itself between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. A tentative dissociation constant (Kd) for LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes was ∼3 nM, which is ∼10–20 times lower than the reported Kd for LPS–MD-2 or LPS–CD14. The presence of detergent disrupts LPS interaction with CD14 but not with TLR4-MD-2. E5531, a lipid A antagonist developed for therapeutic intervention of endotoxin shock, blocks LPS interaction with TLR4-MD-2 at a concentration 100 times lower than that required for blocking LPS interaction with CD14. These results reveal direct LPS interaction with cell surface TLR4-MD-2 that is distinct from that with MD-2 or CD14.
innate immunity; cell surface molecule; activation; macrophage
We have examined the enhancement of cytotoxic effects of cis-diammine-1,1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum(II) (carboplatin) by hyperthermia in HeLa cells using different regimes of timing and sequence. The results were compared with those obtained with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). We found that cisplatin simultaneously combined with heat was the most cytotoxic toward HeLa cells of the various timing and sequencing conditions studied. On the other hand, for carboplatin, drug treatment immediately following or during heat exposure showed the greatest effect. Intracellular platinum concentration in HeLa cells treated with heat before carboplatin showed a 2.75-fold increase over that in cells treated with the drug alone. The ratios for carboplatin given before, or during heating, were 0.67 and 1.42 respectively. Simultaneous exposure of cells to cisplatin and heat led to a 1.64-fold enhancement in cisplatin accumulation, compared to 0.92- and 1.24-fold increase for cells treated with cisplatin before and after heat respectively. Although each drug exposure prior to heat was less cytotoxic toward HeLa cells than any other heat/drug combination sequences, the platinum concentration was less than seen with each drug alone. Even though heat exposure prior to and during carboplatin showed a similar toxicity, platinum concentration in cells treated with heat prior to carboplatin was higher than that in cells treated with heat and carboplatin simultaneously. Thus, increased cytotoxicity cannot always be explained on the basis of intracellular platinum concentration. It is clear however that, differing from cisplatin, exposure of cells to heat prior to or during carboplatin administration results in the greatest cell kill.
Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection.
37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated.
Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections.
The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy and facilitating communication between medical and dental staff. During the period around the primary chemotherapy, especially for de novo hematologic malignancy patients who often received grade B to C myelosuppression chemotherapy, caution should be exercised for severe odontogenic infection by the oral medicine team, irrespective of whether invasive treatment is to be performed.
Hematologic malignancy; Chemotherapy; Tooth extraction; Myelosuppression grading; Odontogenic septicemia
For many decades, the vitamin K antagonist warfarin has been the mainstay of treatment for
various conditions that require anticoagulation, including atrial fibrillation. Although the
efficacy of warfarin in both prevention and treatment of thrombosis has been demonstrated in
numerous randomized clinical studies, one of the major concerns that remains is the risk of
bleeding. Although the net benefit of warfarin has been demonstrated in large clinical trials,
physicians and patients alike are often reluctant to use warfarin because of the bleeding risk.
Bleeding in patients on warfarin is generally minor requiring no intervention, but the development
of a major bleeding complication is associated with significant morbidity and can even be fatal.
Numerous risk factors that increase the probability of having a hemorrhage while on warfarin have
been identified, and bleeding risk scores have been developed. Various strategies to reduce bleeding
risks have been developed and have become more important, since the use of warfarin and other
anticoagulants continues to increase. This paper provides a concise review of bleeding risk factors,
while outlining recommendations both physician and patients can incorporate to help reduce the risk
hemorrhage; warfarin; thrombosis; anticoagulants; dabigatran; vitamin K antagonist
A 64-year-old man was initially diagnosed with rectal cancer and liver metastasis. He underwent rectal amputation and partial hepatectomy. mFOLFOX6 was begun as first-line chemotherapy, but multiple pulmonary and right femoral lymph node metastases were found 1 year postoperatively. FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was then started, but the tumors recurred after 2 years and 11 months. The regimen was changed to cetuximab with CPT-11. The lesions partially responded after 3 months, and the patient was free from progression for 1.5 years. Four years and 7 months after the adjuvant chemotherapy was started, the metastatic lesions gradually increased again, and the regimen was changed to panitumumab. After 2 months, the lesions had markedly decreased again and showed a partial response for 6 months. Although the pulmonary lesions became progressive again, the patient has been alive for 5 years and 8 months since the first operation.
Cetuximab-resistant rectal cancer; Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation; Panitumumab
Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin. HUE1 harbored oqxAB and qnrS1 on distinct plasmids. In addition, it exhibited lower intracellular ciprofloxacin concentrations and higher mRNA expression levels of efflux pumps and their global activators than did reference strains. The genes encoding AcrR (local AcrAB repressor) and MarR (MarA repressor) were disrupted by insertion of the transposon IS3-IS629 and a frameshift mutation, respectively. A series of mutants derived from HUE1 were obtained by plasmid curing and gene knockout using homologous recombination. Compared to the MICs of the parent strain HUE1, the fluoroquinolone MICs of these mutants indicated that qnrS1, oqxAB, acrAB, acrF, acrD, mdtK, mdfA, and tolC contributed to the reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in HUE1. Therefore, fluoroquinolone resistance in HUE1 is caused by concomitant acquisition of QnrS1 and OqxAB and overexpression of AcrAB–TolC and other chromosome-encoded efflux pumps. Thus, we have demonstrated that QRDR mutations are not absolutely necessary for acquiring fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.
AcrAB; efflux pump; Escherichia coli; fluoroquinolone resistance; oqxAB; qnrS
Peridinin is known as the main light-harvesting pigment in photosynthesis in the sea and exhibits exceptionally high energy transfer efficiencies to chlorophyll a. This energy transfer efficiency is thought to be related to the intricate structure of peridinin, which possesses allene and ylidenbutenolide functions in the polyene backbone. There are, however, no studies on the relationship between the structural features of peridinin and its super ability for energy transfer. We then focused on the subjects of why peridinin possesses a unique allene group and how the allene function plays a role in the exceptionally high energy transfer. Toward elucidation of the exact role of the allene function, we now describe the syntheses of three relatively unstable allene-modified derivatives of peridinin along with the results of the Stark spectroscopy of peridinin and the synthesized peridinin derivatives.
Peridinin, a nor-carotenoid, exhibits an exceptionally high energy transfer efficiency to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis in the sea. This efficiency would be related to the unique structure of peridinin. To answer the question of why peridinin possesses the irregular C37 skeleton, we have achieved the synthesis of three peridinin derivatives. Their ultrafast time-resolved optical absorption and Stark spectra measurements have shown the presence of the characteristic intramolecular charge transfer state and the featured electrostatic properties of peridinin.
Aspergillus oryzae has an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KEX1, termed kexA. A truncated form of KexA protein showed serine-type carboxypeptidase activity and somewhat broader substrate specificity than Kex1 protease. Furthermore, our results indicated that KexA is required for normal growth of A. oryzae and that it might be involved in hyphal branching.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterium that causes diarrhea worldwide, and chickens are considered the main reservoir of this pathogen. This study investigated the effects of serial truncation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a major component of the outer membrane of C. jejuni, on its bile resistance and intestinal colonization ability in chickens. Genes encoding manno-heptose synthetases or glycosyltransferases were inactivated to generate isogenic mutants. Serial truncation of the LOS core oligosaccharide caused a stepwise increase in susceptibilities of two C. jejuni strains, NCTC 11168 and 81-176, to bile acids. Inactivation of hldE, hldD, or waaC caused severe truncation of the core oligosaccharide, which greatly increased the susceptibility to bile acids. Both wild-type strains grew normally in chicken intestinal extracts, whereas the mutants with severe oligosaccharide truncation were not detected 12 h after inoculation. These mutants attained viable bacterial counts in the bile acid-free extracts 24 h after inoculation. The wild-type strain 11-164 was present in the cecal contents at >107 CFU/g on 5 days after challenge infection and after this time period, whereas its hldD mutant was present at <103 CFU/g throughout the experimental period. Trans-complementation of the hldD mutant with the wild-type hldD allele completely restored the in vivo colonization level to that of the wild-type strain. Mutants with a shorter LOS had higher hydrophobicities. Thus, the length of the LOS core oligosaccharide affected the surface hydrophobicity and bile resistance of C. jejuni as well as its ability to colonize chicken intestines.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of increased levels of D-dimer and associated factors in preoperative patients with gynecological cancer. Furthermore, we determined the incidence and risk factors associated with preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, 456 patients with invasive gynecological cancer scheduled to undergo surgery were recruited. Preoperative plasma D-dimer levels were measured and patients whose plasma D-dimer concentration exceeded the pre-set cut-off value underwent computed tomography scanning. The incidence of elevated D-dimer and VTE was identified as significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independent factors for preoperative elevations in plasma D-dimer levels. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE. Massive ascites and the presence of co-morbidities were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in ovarian cancer. Advanced age and stage were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in endometrial cancer. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in cervical cancer. Plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of preoperative VTE were higher in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those with other gynecological cancers. Advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated CRP levels were significant factors associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels and age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in gynecological cancer.
gynecological cancer; venous thromboembolism; preoperative D-dimer
Parkinson’s disease is a major neurodegenerative disease involving the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies formation in the substantia nigra. Although α-synuclein is a key molecule for both dopaminergic neuron death and the formation of inclusion bodies, the mechanism of α-synuclein induction of Parkinson’s disease-related pathogenesis is not understood. In the present study, we found that the interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein requires the oxidation of dopamine. Furthermore, we examined the protective effect of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol contained in coffee, against α-syn and dopamine-related toxicity. Chlorogenic acid inhibits several DA/α-synuclein-related phenomenon, including the oxidation of dopamine, the interaction of oxidized dopamine with α-synuclein, and the oligomerization of α-synuclein under dopamine existing conditions in vitro. Finally, we showed that the cytoprotective effect against α-synuclein-related toxicity in PC12 cells that can be controlled by the Tet-Off system. Although the induction of α-synuclein in catecholaminergic PC12 cells causes a decrease in cell viability, chlorogenic acid rescued this cytotoxicity significantly in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the interaction of oxidized DA with α-synuclein may be a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid, are candidates as protective and preventive agents for Parkinson’s disease onset.
chlorogenic acid; polyphenol; α-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; dopamine
Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is part of the commensal microbial flora of the oral cavity. When the host immune defenses are impaired or when the normal microbial flora is disturbed, C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oral mucosa and tongue. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice that show hyposalivation, decrease of salivary protein flow, lack IgA and IgG in saliva, and have decreased NK cells. Our objective was to characterize C. albicans infection and biofilm formation in mice.
NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice were used as an animal model for C. albicans infection. C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms solutions were introduced in the oral cavity after disinfection by Chlorhexidine.
The numbers of C. albicans colonized and decreased in a time-dependent manner in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ after inoculation. However, the colonization levels were higher in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ than NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. In the mice fed 1% sucrose water before inoculation, C. albicans sample was highly contaminated by indigenous microorganisms in the oral cavity; and was not in the mice fed no sucrose water. The colonization of C. albicans was not influenced by the contamination of indigenous microorganisms. The hyphal form of C. albicans restricted the restoration of indigenous microorganisms. The decreased saliva in NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- did not increase the colonization of C. albicans in comparison to NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ mice. We suggest that the receptor in saliva to C. albicans may not be sufficiently provided in the oral cavity of NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice.
The saliva protein flow may be very important for C. albicans initial colonization, where the indigenous microorganisms do not affect colonization in the oral cavity.
Candida albicans; NOD/SCID.e2f1- mice; Saliva; Colonization; Sucrose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in plasma soluble fibrin (SF) levels over time in gynecologic cancer patients following surgery. Furthermore, we examined the duration of the coagulation stage and determined a suitable duration for which thromboprophylaxis with anticoagulant agents should be administered. We retrospectively studied 311 patients with invasive gynecologic cancer who underwent surgery at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. The plasma SF levels were measured serially prior to the operation and on postoperative days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28. The plasma SF levels increased rapidly, peaked on postoperative day 1 and then decreased. The SF levels of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) were significantly different from those of VTE-negative patients on postoperative days 0–10. The SF levels on each day did not significantly differ between patients treated with chemical anticoagulants and those treated mechanically. The plasma SF levels were elevated (≥7.0 μg/ml) in 159 of the 311 patients (51.1%) on one of the days when these levels were measured. Among the patients with elevated plasma SF levels, 110 patients (69.2%) peaked on days 0–3 and only 9 patients (5.7%) peaked on days 21–28. Although only 1 of the 14 patients (7.1%) who showed peak levels on day 14 had undergone chemotherapy following surgery, 8 of the 9 patients (88.9%) whose levels peaked on days 21–28 had undergone chemotherapy following surgery (P= 0.0002). In conclusion, the plasma SF levels increased rapidly, peaked on postoperative day 1 and then decreased. These levels peaked within 14 days of surgery in most cases. Therefore, chemical thromboprophylaxis may be administered for at least up to 14 days following surgery.
soluble fibrin; venous thromboembolism; thromboprophylaxis; gynecologic cancer
The structural characterization of glycolipids from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was performed in this study. Two neutral and one acidic glycolipids were extracted and purified by the modified TLC-blotting method, after which their chemical structures were determined by chemical composition analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of one of the neutral glycolipids, NGL-A, was Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro, and the other, NGL-C, was Galf(β1-2)Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro. The structure of NGL-C was identical to that reported previously [Oshima, M. and Ariga, T. (1976) FEBS Lett. 64, 440]. Both neutral glycolipids shared a common structural unit found in the Thermus species. The acyl groups found in NGL-A and NGL-C, iso-type pentadecanoxy and heptadecanoxy fatty acid, were also the same as those found in this species. In contrast, the acidic glycolipid, AGL-B, possessed the structure of N-(((GlcpNAc(α1-)acyl2Gro)P-2)GroA)alkylamine. The alkyl group in AGL-B was an iso-type heptadecanyl, suggesting that the iso-type structure of the long alkyl chain is responsible for the thermal stability of the bacteria.
The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is considered to be a critical regulator for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Therefore, the availability of small-molecule inhibitors targeting this pathway would offer a new chemotherapeutic strategy for MM. Here, we screened small-molecule inhibitors of ER stress-induced XBP1 activation, and identified toyocamycin from a culture broth of an Actinomycete strain. Toyocamycin was shown to suppress thapsigargin-, tunicamycin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in HeLa cells without affecting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) activation. Furthermore, although toyocamycin was unable to inhibit IRE1α phosphorylation, it prevented IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage in vitro. Thus, toyocamycin is an inhibitor of IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage. Toyocamycin inhibited not only ER stress-induced but also constitutive activation of XBP1 expression in MM lines as well as primary samples from patients. It showed synergistic effects with bortezomib, and induced apoptosis of MM cells including bortezomib-resistant cells at nanomolar levels in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited growth of xenografts in an in vivo model of human MM. Taken together, our results suggest toyocamycin as a lead compound for developing anti-MM therapy and XBP1 as an appropriate molecular target for anti-MM therapy.
multiple myeloma; ER stress; IRE1α; XBP1; toyocamycin; adenosine analog
Since a patient's obesity can affect the mortality and morbidity of the surgery, less drastic surgeries may have a major benefit for obese individuals. This study evaluated the feasibility of performing a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, with intracorporeal anastomosis, in obese patients suffering from gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of the 138 patients, who underwent a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy from April 2005 to March 2009, at the National Kyushu Cancer Center. The body mass index of 20 patients was ≥25, and in 118 patients, it was <25 kg/m2.
The mean values of body mass index in the 2 groups were 27.3±2.2 and 21.4±2.3. Hypertension was significantly more frequent in the obese patients than in the non-obese patients. The intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, post-operative complication rate, post-operative hospital stay, and a number of retrieved lymph nodes were not significantly different between the two groups.
Intracorporeal anastomosis seemed to have a benefit for obese individuals. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy is, therefore, considered to be a safe and an effective modality for obese patients.
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms; Obesity; Body mass index
We established a mouse model of microenvironment-dependent human lymphoma, and assessed the therapeutic potential of bevacizumab, an antitumor agent acting on the microenvironment. NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mice were used as recipients of primary tumor cells from a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which engraft and proliferate in a microenvironment-dependent manner. The lymphoma cells could be serially transplanted in NOG mice, but could not be maintained in in vitro cultures. Injection of bevacizumab together with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) significantly increased necrosis and decreased vascularization in the tumor, compared with CHOP alone. Levels of human soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in the serum of bevacizumab+CHOP-treated mice (reflecting the DLBCL tumor burden) were significantly lower than in CHOP recipients. Mice receiving bevacizumab monotherapy also showed significant benefit in terms of tumor necrosis and vascularization, as well as decreased serum sIL2R concentrations. The present DLBCL model reflects the human DLBCL in vivo environment more appropriately than current mouse models using established tumor cell lines. This is the first report to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab in such a tumor microenvironment-dependent model. Bevacizumab may be a potential treatment strategy for DLBCL patients.
bevacizumab; NOD/Shi-scid; IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse; lymphoma; tumor microenvironment
The photophysical properties of a carbonyl-containing carotenoid analogue in an s-cis configuration, relative to the conjugated π system, 2-(all-trans-retinylidene)-indan-1,3-dione (C20Ind), were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy in various solvents. The lifetime of the optically forbidden S1 state of C20Ind becomes long as solvent polarity increases. This trend is completely opposite to the situation of S1-ICT dynamics of carbonyl-containing carotenoids, such as peridinin and fucoxanthin. Excitation energy dependence of the transient absorption measurements shows that the transient absorption spectra in non-polar solvents were originated from two distinct transient species, while those in polar and protic solvents are due to a single transient species. By referring to the results of MNDO-PSDCI (modified neglect of differential overlap with partial single- and double-configuration interaction) calculations, we conclude: (1) In polar and protic solvents, the S1 state is generated following excitation up to the S2 state; (2) In non-polar solvents, however, both the S1 and 1nπ* states are generated; and (3) C20Ind does not generate the S1-ICT state, despite the fact that it has two conjugated carbonyl groups.
Since 2004, extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolates have been detected from cattle in the northern major island of Japan, Hokkaido. Resistance to ESCs was found to be mediated by CMY-2 type β-lactamase among 22 epidemiologically unrelated isolates showing indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Southern blot analysis using I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA demonstrated that the CMY-2 β-lactamase gene (blaCMY-2) was integrated in a 2.5-Mb chromosomal fragment. Genetic analysis of S. Typhimurium isolate L-3553 indicated that blaCMY-2 was located on a unique 125-kb genomic island, GI-VII-6, which consists of 140 open reading frames. Pairwise alignment of GI-VII-6 and Escherichia coli plasmid pAR060302 (size, 167 kb) revealed that a large proportion of GI-VII-6 (99%) shows a high sequence similarity (>99%) with pAR060302. GI-VII-6 contains 11 antimicrobial resistance genes including sul1, qacEΔ1, aadA2, and dfrA12 in the aadA2 region; sugE1 and blaCMY-2 in the blaCMY-2 region; and sul2, strA, strB, tet(A), and floR in the floR region. Two directly repeated IS26 copies were present at both ends of GI-VII-6. Junction regions of GI-VII-6 were flanked by an 8-bp direct repeat, indicating that GI-VII-6 was acquired by transposition involving IS26 transposase. PCR scanning revealed that the overall structure of GI-VII-6 was almost identical in the 22 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that S. Typhimurium isolates harboring GI-VII-6 belong to a different genomic lineage than other whole-genome-sequenced S. Typhimurium strains. These data indicate that a particular clone of S. Typhimurium harboring GI-VII-6 has spread among the cattle population in Hokkaido, Japan.
Sensor-driven services often cause chain reactions, since one service may generate an environmental impact that automatically triggers another service. We first propose a framework that can formalize and detect such service chains based on ECA (event, condition, action) rules. Although the service chain can be a major source of feature interactions, not all service chains lead to harmful interactions. Therefore, we then propose a method that identifies feature interactions within the service chains. Specifically, we characterize the degree of deviation of every service chain by evaluating the gap between expected and actual service states. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method successfully detects 11 service chains and 6 feature interactions within 7 practical sensor-driven services.
smart home; home network system; sensor-driven service; feature interactions; detection; validation
We report the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology using the PGMY-CHUV assay, one of PGMY-PCR-based lineblot assays that was validated and shown to be suitable for the detection of multiple HPV types in a specimen with minimum bias. Total DNA was extracted from cervical exfoliated cells collected from 326 outpatients with abnormal Pap smears. Overall, 307 specimens (94%) were HPV-positive, 30% of which contained multiple genotypes. The prevalence of HPV DNA was 83% (49/59 samples) in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US); 91% (20/22 samples) in atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 97% (130/134 samples) in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); and 99% (85/86 samples) in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Three most frequent HPV types detected in HSIL were HPV16 (36%), HPV52 (24%), and HPV58 (14%). Our results suggest that multiple HPV infections are more prevalent in Japanese women than previously reported, and confirm that HPV52 and 58 are more dominant in their cervical precancerous lesions when compared to those reported in Western countries.
Human papillomavirus; HPV genotyping; cervical cancer; Pap smear; abnormal cytology; HPV vaccine.
Background SM-11355 is a platinum complex developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via administration into the hepatic artery as a sustained-release suspension in iodized oil. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial in patients with HCC to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SM-11355, using a Zinostatin stimalamer suspension in iodized oil as a reference. Methods Patients with unresectable HCC were randomized 2:1 to receive administration of the SM-11355 or Zinostatin stimalamer suspension into the hepatic artery. A second injection was given 4–12 weeks later. Efficacy was evaluated by CT 3 months after treatment and categorized as therapeutic effect (TE) V to I, where TE V was defined as disappearance or 100% necrosis of all treated tumors. Results A total of 122 patients were evaluated for efficacy and toxicity (SM-11355, n = 83; Zinostatin stimalamer, n = 39). Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The TE V rates were 26.5% (22/83) and 17.9% (7/39) in the SM-11355 and Zinostatin stimalamer groups, respectively. In the SM-11355 group,the most frequent drug-related adverse events (AEs) of ≥ grade 3 were elevated AST, elevated ALT, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia. The AEs with the largest difference between the two groups (SM-11355 vs. Zinostatin stimalamer) were hepatic vascular injury (0 vs. 48.4%) and eosinophilia (84.3 vs. 41.0%). The 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 75.9% vs. 70.3% and 58.4% vs. 48.7%, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that SM-11355 in iodized oil has similar efficacy to Zinostatin stimalamer and that repeated dosing of SM-11355 is possible without hepatic vascular injury in cases of relapse.
Iodized oil; MIRIPLA; Liver cancer; Suspension; Parallel study