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1.  Lipopolysaccharide Interaction with Cell Surface Toll-like Receptor 4-MD-2 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2003;198(7):1035-1042.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although TLR4-MD-2 recognizes LPS, little is known about the physical interaction between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. Here, we demonstrate cell surface LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes. CD14 greatly enhances the formation of LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, but is not coprecipitated with LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes, suggesting a role for CD14 in LPS loading onto TLR4-MD-2 but not in the interaction itself between LPS and TLR4-MD-2. A tentative dissociation constant (Kd) for LPS–TLR4-MD-2 complexes was ∼3 nM, which is ∼10–20 times lower than the reported Kd for LPS–MD-2 or LPS–CD14. The presence of detergent disrupts LPS interaction with CD14 but not with TLR4-MD-2. E5531, a lipid A antagonist developed for therapeutic intervention of endotoxin shock, blocks LPS interaction with TLR4-MD-2 at a concentration 100 times lower than that required for blocking LPS interaction with CD14. These results reveal direct LPS interaction with cell surface TLR4-MD-2 that is distinct from that with MD-2 or CD14.
doi:10.1084/jem.20031076
PMCID: PMC2194215  PMID: 14517279
innate immunity; cell surface molecule; activation; macrophage
2.  Sequence dependence of the hyperthermic potentiation of carboplatin-induced cytotoxicity and intracellular platinum accumulation in HeLa cells. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;68(2):259-263.
We have examined the enhancement of cytotoxic effects of cis-diammine-1,1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum(II) (carboplatin) by hyperthermia in HeLa cells using different regimes of timing and sequence. The results were compared with those obtained with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). We found that cisplatin simultaneously combined with heat was the most cytotoxic toward HeLa cells of the various timing and sequencing conditions studied. On the other hand, for carboplatin, drug treatment immediately following or during heat exposure showed the greatest effect. Intracellular platinum concentration in HeLa cells treated with heat before carboplatin showed a 2.75-fold increase over that in cells treated with the drug alone. The ratios for carboplatin given before, or during heating, were 0.67 and 1.42 respectively. Simultaneous exposure of cells to cisplatin and heat led to a 1.64-fold enhancement in cisplatin accumulation, compared to 0.92- and 1.24-fold increase for cells treated with cisplatin before and after heat respectively. Although each drug exposure prior to heat was less cytotoxic toward HeLa cells than any other heat/drug combination sequences, the platinum concentration was less than seen with each drug alone. Even though heat exposure prior to and during carboplatin showed a similar toxicity, platinum concentration in cells treated with heat prior to carboplatin was higher than that in cells treated with heat and carboplatin simultaneously. Thus, increased cytotoxicity cannot always be explained on the basis of intracellular platinum concentration. It is clear however that, differing from cisplatin, exposure of cells to heat prior to or during carboplatin administration results in the greatest cell kill.
PMCID: PMC1968573  PMID: 8347479
3.  Dietary small bowel obstruction 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2012007950.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-007950
PMCID: PMC3604329  PMID: 23355579
4.  Impact of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen on the clinical course of hepatitis C virus carriers in a hyperendemic area in Japan: a community-based cohort study 
Aim
Subjects positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) and negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are considered to have occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of occult HBV infection on aggravation of the clinical course in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers.
Methods
A prospective cohort study was performed in 400 subjects who were positive for anti-HCV antibody and negative for HBsAg. Among these subjects, 263 were HCV core antigen-positive or HCV RNA-positive (HCV carriers). We examined whether the presence of HBcAb affected the clinical course in these HCV carriers from 1996 to 2005.
Results
The HBcAb-positive rates were 53.6% and 52.6% in HCV carriers and HCV RNA-negative subjects, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cumulative mortality associated with liver-related death between HCV carriers who were positive and negative for HBcAb. In multivariate analysis, age (≥65 years old) and alanin aminotransferase level (≥31 IU/L) emerged as independent risk factors for HCC development and liver-related death, but the HBcAb status was not a risk factor. In addition, increased serum hepatic fibrosis markers (measured from 2001 to 2004) were not associated with HBcAb status.
Conclusion
In our cohort study, the presence of HBcAb had no impact on HCC development, liver-related death and hepatic fibrosis markers in HCV carriers. Thus, our results indicate that occult HBV infection has no impact on the clinical course in HCV carriers.
doi:10.1111/hepr.12075
PMCID: PMC3710530  PMID: 23413835
antibody to hepatitis B core antigen; occult hepatitis B virus infection; hepatitis C virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; mortality; hepatic fibrosis
5.  Influence of neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon on Achilles tendon length change at various ranges of motion 
Physiological Reports  2014;2(10):e12176.
Abstract
Achilles tendon length has been measured using a straight‐line model. However, this model is associated with a greater measurement error compared with a curved‐line model. Therefore, we examined the influence of neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon on its length change at various ranges of motion. Ten male subjects participated in this study. First, the location of the Achilles tendon was confirmed by using ultrasonography, and markers were attached on the skin over the Achilles tendon path. Then, the three‐dimensional coordinates of each marker at dorsiflexion (DF) 15°, plantarflexion (PF) 0°, PF15°, and PF30° were obtained. Achilles tendon length in the curved‐line model was calculated as the sum of the distances among each marker. On the other hand, Achilles tendon length in the straight‐line model was calculated as the straight distance between the two most proximal and distal markers projected onto the sagittal plane. The difference of the Achilles tendon length change between curved‐line and straight‐line models was calculated by subtracting the Achilles tendon length change obtained in curved‐line model from that obtained in straight‐line model with three different ranges of motion (i.e., PF0°, PF15°, and PF30° from DF15°, respectively). As a result, the difference in Achilles tendon length change between the two models increased significantly as the range of motion increased. In conclusion, neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon induces substantial overestimation of its length change when the extent of ankle joint angle change is large.
e12176
This study examined the influence of neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon on its length change. As a result, neglecting the curved path of the Achilles tendon induces substantial overestimation of its length change when the extent of ankle joint angle change is large.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12176
PMCID: PMC4254101  PMID: 25303951
Dorsiflexion; plantarflexion; three‐dimensional measurement; ultrasonography
6.  Characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:- as a Monophasic Variant of Serovar Typhimurium 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104380.
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates derived from humans, cattle, swine, chickens, birds, meat (pork), and river water in 15 prefectures in Japan between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. All the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were identified as S. Typhimurium by two different polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of S. Typhimurium. Of the 51 S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, 39 (76.5%) harbored a 94-kb virulence plasmid, which is known to be specific for S. Typhimurium. These data suggest that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates are monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin) in the chromosome. The results of PCR mapping of this region and comparative genomic hybridization analysis suggested that the deletion of the fljAB operon and its flanking region was the major genetic basis of the monophasic phenotype of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. The fljAB operon and hin gene were detectable in eight of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates with common amino acid substitutions of A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin. The introduction of these mutations into S. Typhimurium isolates led to the loss of selectability of isolates expressing the phase 2 H antigen. These data suggested that a point mutation was the genetic basis, at least in part, of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates. The results of phenotypic analysis suggested that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Japan consist of multiple distinct clones. This is the first detailed characterization of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates derived from various sources across Japan.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104380
PMCID: PMC4122451  PMID: 25093666
7.  Lineage-Specific Distribution of Insertion Sequence Excision Enhancer in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine 
Insertion sequences (ISs) are the simplest transposable elements and are widely distributed in bacteria; however, they also play important roles in genome evolution. We recently identified a protein called IS excision enhancer (IEE) in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. IEE promotes the excision of IS elements belonging to the IS3 family, such as IS629, as well as several other families. IEE-mediated IS excision generates various genomic deletions that lead to the diversification of the bacterial genome. IEE has been found in a broad range of bacterial species; however, among sequenced E. coli strains, IEE is primarily found in EHEC isolates. In this study, we investigated non-EHEC pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from domestic animals and found that IEE is distributed in specific lineages of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains of serotypes O139 or O149 isolated from swine. The iee gene is located within integrative elements that are similar to SpLE1 of EHEC O157. All iee-positive ETEC lineages also contained multiple copies of IS629, a preferred substrate of IEE, and their genomic locations varied significantly between strains, as observed in O157. These data suggest that IEE may have been transferred among EHEC and ETEC in swine via SpLE1 or SpLE1-like integrative elements. In addition, IS629 is actively moving in the ETEC O139 and O149 genomes and, as in EHEC O157, is promoting the diversification of these genomes in combination with IEE.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03696-13
PMCID: PMC3911043  PMID: 24334665
8.  Whole-Genome Sequence of CMY-2 β-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain L-3553 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(4):e00711-14.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster VII has been isolated from cattle populations in Japan since the mid-2000s. Some cluster VII isolates exhibited extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance defined by the blaCMY-2 gene located in a chromosomal genomic island, GI-VII-6. We determined the whole-genome sequence of strain L-3553 as the reference strain.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00711-14
PMCID: PMC4110225  PMID: 25059867
9.  Favorable control of rapidly progressive retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with multimodality therapy: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:377.
Background
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS), such as pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, often invade or displace vital organs in the abdominal cavity and exhibit an aggressive clinical course. Complete surgical resection of the tumor and preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapies can be used for non-metastatic RPS. However, in case of huge retroperitoneal sarcoma fully occupying the abdominal cavity, surgical resection tends to be insufficient, resulting in poor outcomes. This report describes a case of rapidly progressive retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma that was favorably controlled by debulking surgery followed by combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Case presentation
A 65-year-old Japanese woman developed abdominal discomfort due to a huge retroperitoneal tumor fully occupying the abdominal cavity. The immunohistochemical diagnosis was pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with high-grade malignancy and aggressive proliferative features. Debulking surgery could be performed, but the small residual tumor had rapidly grown to an approximately 22 cm in length on the major axis within 38 days after the operation. The patient’s general condition progressively declined. Combination chemotherapy, consisting of doxorubicin and ifosfamide, was successfully administered for six cycles while maintaining dose intensity. The best objective response was a partial response, and the chemotherapy was well tolerated. Approximately 50 Gy of radiotherapy was delivered to the remaining tumor. This multimodal strategy resulted in progression-free survival for more than 17 months and achieved sustained symptomatic relief.
Conclusions
Multimodal therapy with debulking surgery, combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy controlled a rapidly progressive retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. Maintaining dose intensity of the chemotherapy and radiotherapy might contribute to overall tumor control.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-377
PMCID: PMC4079185  PMID: 24947892
Leiomyosarcoma; Local control; Multimodality therapy; Chemotherapy
10.  Phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin and vinorelbine for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2014;2(3):405-410.
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have locally advanced disease with poor prognosis. Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment, more effective regimens are required. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a divided schedule of carboplatin and vinorelbine in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Patients with unresectable, stage IIIA or IIIB NSCLC were eligible for enrollment if they exhibited a performance status of 0–2 and were ≤75 years of age. Patients were treated with carboplatin at an area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve of 2.5 mg/ml/min and vinorelbine at 20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Thoracic radiotherapy at a total dose of 60 Gy was concurrently administered (2 Gy per fraction). Twenty-eight patients (23 men and 5 women; median age, 67 years; range 47–75 years) were enrolled in the present study. The overall response rate was 85.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 67.3–96.0%] and the disease control rate was 96.4% (95% CI, 81.7–99.9%). The median survival time (MST) was 23 months and the median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 8 months. Grade 3–4 toxicities included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia and infection in 100, 14, 46 and 36% of patients, respectively. One patient (4%) developed grade 3 radiation esophagitis that resolved completely without residual dilation. Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 2 patients (7%); however, the symptoms and radiographic abnormalities subsided with corticosteroid therapy. In conclusion, concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a divided schedule of carboplatin and vinorelbine is well-tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced NSCLC.
doi:10.3892/mco.2014.252
PMCID: PMC3999118  PMID: 24772308
carboplatin; chemoradiotherapy; non-small-cell lung cancer; vinorelbine
11.  Replication interference between human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 mediated by heterologous E1 helicases 
Virology Journal  2014;11:11.
Background
Co-infection of multiple genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is commonly observed among women with abnormal cervical cytology, but how different HPVs interact with each other in the same cell is not clearly understood. A previous study using cultured keratinocytes revealed that genome replication of one HPV type is inhibited by co-existence of the genome of another HPV type, suggesting that replication interference occurs between different HPV types when co-infected; however, molecular mechanisms underlying inter-type replication interference have not been fully explored.
Methods
Replication interference between two most prevalent HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, was examined in HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells co-transfected with genomes of HPV16 and HPV18 together with expression plasmids for E1/E2 of both types. Levels of HPV16/18 genome replication were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Physical interaction between HPV16/18 E1s was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation assays in the cell lysates.
Results
The replication of HPV16 and HPV18 genomes was suppressed by co-expression of E1/E2 of heterologous types. The interference was mediated by the heterologous E1, but not E2. The oligomerization domain of HPV16 E1 was essential for HPV18 replication inhibition, whereas the helicase domain was dispensable. HPV16 E1 co-precipitated with HPV18 E1 in the cell lysates, and an HPV16 E1 mutant Y379A, which bound to HPV18 E1 less efficiently, failed to inhibit HPV18 replication.
Conclusions
Co-infection of a single cell with both HPV16 and HPV18 results in replication interference between them, and physical interaction between the heterologous E1s is responsible for the interference. Heterooligomers composed of HPV16/18 E1s may lack the ability to support HPV genome replication.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-11
PMCID: PMC3904167  PMID: 24456830
Human papillomavirus; Co-infection; Replication; Interference; E1 helicase
12.  Generation and Characterization of Functional Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85645.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been proposed as novel cell sources for genetic disease models and revolutionary clinical therapies. Accordingly, human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes are potential cell sources for cardiomyocyte transplantation therapy. We previously developed a novel generation method for human peripheral T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) that uses a minimally invasive approach to obtain patient cells. However, it remained unknown whether TiPSCs with genomic rearrangements in the T cell receptor (TCR) gene could differentiate into functional cardiomyocyte in vitro. To address this issue, we investigated the morphology, gene expression pattern, and electrophysiological properties of TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes differentiated by floating culture. RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that the TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes properly express cardiomyocyte markers and ion channels, and show the typical cardiomyocyte morphology. Multiple electrode arrays with application of ion channel inhibitors also revealed normal electrophysiological responses in the TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in terms of beating rate and the field potential waveform. In this report, we showed that TiPSCs successfully differentiated into cardiomyocytes with morphology, gene expression patterns, and electrophysiological features typical of native cardiomyocytes. TiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes obtained from patients by a minimally invasive technique could therefore become disease models for understanding the mechanisms of cardiac disease and cell sources for revolutionary cardiomyocyte therapies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085645
PMCID: PMC3897468  PMID: 24465630
14.  Serines 440 and 467 in the Werner syndrome protein are phosphorylated by DNA-PK and affects its dynamics in response to DNA double strand breaks 
Aging (Albany NY)  2014;6(1):70-81.
WRN protein, defective in Werner syndrome (WS), a human segmental progeria, is a target of serine/threonine kinases involved in sensing DNA damage. DNA-PK phosphorylates WRN in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the main phosphorylation sites and functional importance of the phosphorylation of WRN has remained unclear. Here, we identify Ser-440 and −467 in WRN as major phosphorylation sites mediated by DNA-PK. In vitro, DNA-PK fails to phosphorylate a GST-WRN fragment with S440A and/or S467A substitution. In addition, full length WRN with the mutation expressed in 293T cells was not phosphorylated in response to DSBs produced by bleomycin. Accumulation of the mutant WRN at the site of laser-induced DSBs occurred with the same kinetics as wild type WRN in live HeLa cells. While the wild type WRN relocalized to the nucleoli after 24 hours recovery from etoposide-induced DSBs, the mutant WRN remained mostly in the nucleoplasm. Consistent with this, WS cells expressing the mutants exhibited less DNA repair efficiency and more sensitivity to etoposide, compared to those expressing wild type. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Ser-440 and −467 in WRN are important for relocalization of WRN to nucleoli, and that it is required for efficient DSB repair.
PMCID: PMC3927811  PMID: 24429382
Werner; WRN; DNA-PK; serine phosphorylation; DSB; etoposide
15.  Microbial Assessment and Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Natural Cheeses in Japan 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:205801.
The production and consumption of domestic natural cheese in Japan is increasing year by year. More than ninety percent of domestic natural cheese is produced in Hokkaido region of Japan, while information on its quality and safety related to foodborne pathogens is limited. To assess the microbiological safety of domestic natural cheese, a total of 126 natural cheese samples produced in Hokkaido were collected from December, 2012, to July, 2013. In addition to standard plate count (SPC) and coliform counts, the prevalence study of three pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) was performed on each sample. Real-time PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer methods were employed for identification of presumptive pathogens. Coliform was detected in 25 samples (19.8%) with a minimum of 25 cfu/g and a maximum of more than 3.0 × 106 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from any of the samples. Only one sample (0.80%) showed positive PCR amplification for ipaH gene suggesting possible contamination of enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella in this product. Overall results indicate that natural cheeses produced in Hokkaido region were satisfactory microbiological quality according to existing international standards.
doi:10.1155/2013/205801
PMCID: PMC3892745  PMID: 24490148
16.  Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination after Induction Chemotherapy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(3):516-521.
Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination may be diagnosed as unresectable. More recently, as a result of progress in chemotherapy, some patients with peritoneal dissemination have exhibited extended survival. We report on our experience with three patients in whom induction chemotherapy allowed for totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG). All three patients were diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination using staging laparoscopy. As induction chemotherapy, S-1 combined with cisplatin was administered to two patients and trastuzumab plus capecitabine combined with cisplatin to one patient. TLTG was performed in all patients and there were no postoperative complications. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated within 3 weeks after surgery in all three patients. Laparoscopic gastrectomy undertaken after induction chemotherapy was found to be effective and safe; this treatment has the potential to achieve good treatment outcomes in patients with stage IV gastric cancer.
doi:10.1159/000357591
PMCID: PMC3901594  PMID: 24474902
Gastric cancer; Peritoneal dissemination; Induction chemotherapy; Totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy
17.  Proposal for a new mediastinal compartment classification of transverse plane images according to the Japanese Association for Research on the Thymus (JART) General Rules for the Study of Mediastinal Tumors 
Oncology Reports  2013;31(2):565-572.
There is no existing worldwide published method for mediastinum compartment classification based on transverse section images for the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors. Herein, we describe a new method for anatomic mediastinal compartment classification using transverse section computed tomography (CT) images and the use of this method to classify mediastinal lesions, and thus evaluate whether the method is sufficiently user-friendly and useful. In a publication of the Japanese Association for Research on the Thymus (JART), we proposed the following four mediastinal compartments based on transverse CT images: superior portion of mediastinum, anterior mediastinum (prevascular zone), middle mediastinum (peri-tracheoesophageal zone), and posterior mediastinum (paravertebral zone). In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 445 pathologically proven mediastinal mass lesions, and categorized them into the proposed four compartments by consensus reading. Mass lesions were classified into compartments based on the location of the lesion centroid, and each lesion was satisfactorily categorized into a compartment. Almost all thymic epithelial tumors (99%, 244/246), all 24 thymic malignant lymphomas and a majority of germ cell neoplasms (93%, 54/58) were classified as being in the anterior mediastinum compartment. The majority of intrathoracic goiters (82%, 14/17) were categorized as being in the superior portion of the mediastinum compartment. Approximately two-thirds of mass lesions in the middle mediastinum were cysts, including foregut and pericardial cysts. Approximately 80% of 37 mass lesions in the posterior mediastinum were neurogenic tumors. Correspondingly, 29 of the 49 neurogenic tumors (60%) were categorized as being in the posterior mediastinum, while 10 (20%) were in the superior portion of the mediastinum, 4 (8%) in the anterior mediastinum, and 6 (12%) in the middle mediastinum. Our findings showed that the newly proposed mediastinal compartment classification using transverse images appears to be user-friendly enough for practical clinical application and may be helpful in differential diagnoses.
doi:10.3892/or.2013.2904
PMCID: PMC3896522  PMID: 24317723
mediastinum; compartment; mediastinal mass; mediastinal neoplasm; computed tomography; differential diagnosis
18.  Identification of TRAPPC8 as a Host Factor Required for Human Papillomavirus Cell Entry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80297.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped virus composed of a circular DNA genome and two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Multiple interactions between its capsid proteins and host cellular proteins are required for infectious HPV entry, including cell attachment and internalization, intracellular trafficking and viral genome transfer into the nucleus. Using two variants of HPV type 51, the Ma and Nu strains, we have previously reported that MaL2 is required for efficient pseudovirus (PsV) transduction. However, the cellular factors that confer this L2 dependency have not yet been identified. Here we report that the transport protein particle complex subunit 8 (TRAPPC8) specifically interacts with MaL2. TRAPPC8 knockdown in HeLa cells yielded reduced levels of reporter gene expression when inoculated with HPV51Ma, HPV16, and HPV31 PsVs. TRAPPC8 knockdown in HaCaT cells also showed reduced susceptibility to infection with authentic HPV31 virions, indicating that TRAPPC8 plays a crucial role in native HPV infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the central region of TRAPPC8 was exposed on the cell surface and colocalized with inoculated PsVs. The entry of Ma, Nu, and L2-lacking PsVs into cells was equally impaired in TRAPPC8 knockdown HeLa cells, suggesting that TRAPPC8-dependent endocytosis plays an important role in HPV entry that is independent of L2 interaction. Finally, expression of GFP-fused L2 that can also interact with TRAPPC8 induced dispersal of the Golgi stack structure in HeLa cells, a phenotype also observed by TRAPPC8 knockdown. These results suggest that during viral intracellular trafficking, binding of L2 to TRAPPC8 inhibits its function resulting in Golgi destabilization, a process that may assist HPV genome escape from the trans-Golgi network.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080297
PMCID: PMC3828182  PMID: 24244674
19.  Genetic Variation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Individual Clinical Specimens Revealed by Deep Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80583.
Viral genetic diversity within infected cells or tissues, called viral quasispecies, has been mostly studied for RNA viruses, but has also been described among DNA viruses, including human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) present in cervical precancerous lesions. However, the extent of HPV genetic variation in cervical specimens, and its involvement in HPV-induced carcinogenesis, remains unclear. Here, we employ deep sequencing to comprehensively analyze genetic variation in the HPV16 genome isolated from individual clinical specimens. Through overlapping full-circle PCR, approximately 8-kb DNA fragments covering the whole HPV16 genome were amplified from HPV16-positive cervical exfoliated cells collected from patients with either low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Deep sequencing of the amplified HPV16 DNA enabled de novo assembly of the full-length HPV16 genome sequence for each of 7 specimens (5 LSIL and 2 ICC samples). Subsequent alignment of read sequences to the assembled HPV16 sequence revealed that 2 LSILs and 1 ICC contained nucleotide variations within E6, E1 and the non-coding region between E5 and L2 with mutation frequencies of 0.60% to 5.42%. In transient replication assays, a novel E1 mutant found in ICC, E1 Q381E, showed reduced ability to support HPV16 origin-dependent replication. In addition, partially deleted E2 genes were detected in 1 LSIL sample in a mixed state with the intact E2 gene. Thus, the methods used in this study provide a fundamental framework for investigating the influence of HPV somatic genetic variation on cervical carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080583
PMCID: PMC3827439  PMID: 24236186
20.  The early discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy is associated with a poor prognosis in Japanese breast cancer patients 
Surgery Today  2013;44(10):1841-1846.
Purpose
It is important for patients to complete the planned hormone therapy to reduce both the recurrence and mortality rates of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We investigated the rates and factors related to the early discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy at our institution.
Methods
We identified 145 females prescribed adjuvant hormone therapy who were followed up for longer than 5 years. The rate of completing the planned hormone therapy and factors related to early discontinuation were examined. The relapse-free survival rate was examined between the completion group and the discontinuation group.
Results
The completion rate was 90.6 %. The primary reason for discontinuing hormone therapy within 5 years was side effects, such as arthritic pain. The primary factor related to early discontinuation was a significantly younger age. The relapse-free survival rate was significantly lower in the discontinuation group (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
More than 90 % of the patients completed the planned adjuvant hormone therapy, and early discontinuation was related to a shorter RFS. To improve the rate of the successful completion of adjuvant hormone therapy, it is important to provide supportive care to reduce the occurrence of side effects and to care for young females with a desire to become pregnant.
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0762-7
PMCID: PMC4162979  PMID: 24142101
Adherence; Early discontinuation; Adjuvant hormone therapy; Side effect
21.  Adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting: optimal cell concentration and effects on grafted fat characteristics 
Background
To overcome the absorption of traditional fat grafting, techniques for adipose-derived regenerative cell (ADRC)-enriched fat grafting are currently being adapted for practical application. The Celution®800/CRS (Cytori Therapeutics, San Diego, CA) has enabled rapid grafting of the patient’s own freshly harvested ADRCs without requiring a culturing step. However, the optimal cell concentration and the effects of ADRCs on the characteristics of grafted fat after free fat grafting remain unclear.
Methods
ADRCs were isolated and purified from human fat tissue using the Celution®800/CRS. Animals that received fat grafting without the addition of ADRCs were designated the control group (group A). The number of ADRCs per grafted fat volume (mL) was adjusted to 3 × 105, 1.5 × 106, and 3 × 106 cells/mL (groups B, C, and D, respectively), mixed with free fat, and transplanted as ADRC-enriched fat grafting. These mixtures were transplanted subcutaneously into BALB/C Jcl-nu/nu mice. The volume of grafted fat was determined 5 months after transplantation, and histological assessments were performed.
Results
ADRC-enriched fat grafting resulted in decreased fat absorption and the formation of greater numbers of new blood vessels in the grafted fat. The optimal ADRC concentration in this study was found to be 3 × 105 cells/mL (group B), with higher concentrations resulting in increased cyst and fibril formation in the grafted fat.
Conclusions
This study used the Celution®800/CRS for free fat grafting and demonstrated that the concentration of transplanted ADRCs affected the engraftment and quality of the grafted fat.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-254
PMCID: PMC4022153  PMID: 24107489
22.  Ventricular Fibrillation after Bortezomib Therapy in a Patient with Systemic Amyloidosis 
Hematology Reports  2013;5(3):e12.
A 64-year-old female was diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma. Bortezomib and dexamethasone-therapy was initiated; however, she developed lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiac arrest after 84 hours of therapy. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation using direct current shocks with epinephrine and amiodarone was initiated but failed to receive cardiac function. Although her arterial pulsations recovered immediately after the injection of vasopressin, she died of heart failure 8 hours after the onset of VF. Cardiac amyloidosis was verified by autopsy. Although the direct association of bortezomib with lethal VF remained to be clarified in our patient, the current report emphasizes on bortezomib as a substantial risk factor for cardiomyocyte damage. The potential risk of lethal events associated with cardiac amyloidosis should be carefully considered during bortezomib treatment for patients with AL amyloidosis.
doi:10.4081/hr.2013.e12
PMCID: PMC3805163  PMID: 24179667
systemic amyloidosis; multiple myeloma; ventricular fibrillation; bortezomib
23.  Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:41.
Background
Odontogenic diseases can be a risk factor for life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy that induces myelosuppression of variable severity. Previous studies noted the necessity of the elimination of all odontogenic foci before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To enable planning for the adequate dental intervention, the oral medicine team must understand the general status of patient and the intensity of the chemotherapy, which is sometimes difficult to be fully appreciated by dental staff. Therefore, a simplified grading would facilitate the sharing of information between hematologists, dentists and oral hygienists. This study aimed to introduce our myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies and analyze the timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection.
Methods
37 patients having received various chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimens were classified into four grades based on the persistency of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy. Mild myelosuppressive chemotherapies were classified as grade A, moderate ones as grade B, severe ones as grade C, and chemotherapies that caused severe myelosuppression and persistent immunodeficiency (known as conditioning regimens for transplant) as grade D. The timing of occurrence of severe odontogenic infection was retrospectively investigated.
Results
Two patients (5.4%) had severe odontogenic infections after grade B or C chemotherapy. One occurred after extraction of non-salvageable teeth; the other resulted from advanced periodontitis in a tooth that could not be extracted because of thrombocytopenia. Both were de novo hematologic malignancy patients. During grade D chemotherapy, no patients had severe odontogenic infections.
Conclusions
The simplified grading introduced in this study is considered a useful tool for understanding the myelosuppressive state caused by chemotherapy and facilitating communication between medical and dental staff. During the period around the primary chemotherapy, especially for de novo hematologic malignancy patients who often received grade B to C myelosuppression chemotherapy, caution should be exercised for severe odontogenic infection by the oral medicine team, irrespective of whether invasive treatment is to be performed.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-41
PMCID: PMC3751758  PMID: 23957921
Hematologic malignancy; Chemotherapy; Tooth extraction; Myelosuppression grading; Odontogenic septicemia
24.  Current strategies to minimize the bleeding risk of warfarin 
For many decades, the vitamin K antagonist warfarin has been the mainstay of treatment for various conditions that require anticoagulation, including atrial fibrillation. Although the efficacy of warfarin in both prevention and treatment of thrombosis has been demonstrated in numerous randomized clinical studies, one of the major concerns that remains is the risk of bleeding. Although the net benefit of warfarin has been demonstrated in large clinical trials, physicians and patients alike are often reluctant to use warfarin because of the bleeding risk. Bleeding in patients on warfarin is generally minor requiring no intervention, but the development of a major bleeding complication is associated with significant morbidity and can even be fatal. Numerous risk factors that increase the probability of having a hemorrhage while on warfarin have been identified, and bleeding risk scores have been developed. Various strategies to reduce bleeding risks have been developed and have become more important, since the use of warfarin and other anticoagulants continues to increase. This paper provides a concise review of bleeding risk factors, while outlining recommendations both physician and patients can incorporate to help reduce the risk of bleeding.
doi:10.2147/JBM.S41404
PMCID: PMC3760283  PMID: 24019755
hemorrhage; warfarin; thrombosis; anticoagulants; dabigatran; vitamin K antagonist
25.  The posttreatment mean apparent diffusion coefficient of primary tumor is superior to pretreatment ADCmean of primary tumor as a predictor of prognosis with cervical cancer 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(4):519-525.
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of pretreatment and posttreatment measurements as the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean) by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) findings with prognostic factors in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of primary cervical cancer. The pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor were examined for their correlations with the prognosis in 69 patients with SCC of primary cervical cancer by radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT). The median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times of patients were 20.97 and 23.47 months (follow-up periods for DFS and OS: 1–72 and 1–72 months). The DFS and OS rates of patients with low pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor were also significantly worse than those of patients exhibiting high pretreatment and posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor (DFS; P = 0.0130 and P < 0.0001, OS; P = 0.0010 and P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses showed that low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). The low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival in patients with cervical cancer.
The low posttreatment ADCmean of the primary tumor is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival in patients with cervical cancer.
doi:10.1002/cam4.100
PMCID: PMC3799286  PMID: 24156024
Cervical cancer; diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; mean apparent diffusion coefficient values; predictor for poor prognosis; squamous cell carcinoma

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