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2.  Strategies to enhance rational use of antibiotics in hospital: a guideline by the German Society for Infectious Diseases 
Infection  2016;44:395-439.
In the time of increasing resistance and paucity of new drug development there is a growing need for strategies to enhance rational use of antibiotics in German and Austrian hospitals. An evidence-based guideline on recommendations for implementation of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programmes was developed by the German Society for Infectious Diseases in association with the following societies, associations and institutions: German Society of Hospital Pharmacists, German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology, Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy, The Austrian Association of Hospital Pharmacists, Austrian Society for Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Austrian Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Robert Koch Institute.
Materials and methods
A structured literature research was performed in the databases EMBASE, BIOSIS, MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library from January 2006 to November 2010 with an update to April 2012 (MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library). The grading of recommendations in relation to their evidence is according to the AWMF Guidance Manual and Rules for Guideline Development.
The guideline provides the grounds for rational use of antibiotics in hospital to counteract antimicrobial resistance and to improve the quality of care of patients with infections by maximising clinical outcomes while minimising toxicity. Requirements for a successful implementation of ABS programmes as well as core and supplemental ABS strategies are outlined. The German version of the guideline was published by the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF) in December 2013.
PMCID: PMC4889644  PMID: 27066980
Antibiotic stewardship; ABS; Guideline; Antimicrobial resistance; Quality of care; Rational use
3.  Whole‐building decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores by methyl bromide fumigation 
Journal of Applied Microbiology  2015;120(1):80-89.
To evaluate the field inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores with methyl bromide (MB) using commercial fumigation techniques.
Methods and Results
Eighty‐seven wood and 87 glass coupons each containing ca. 1 × 106 B. anthracis Sterne spores, were placed in 22 locations inside a 1444 m3 conference building. Four additional 12‐coupon sets (six wood, six glass) were removed from the building at 16, 24, 32 and 40 h during fumigation. The building was sealed under two tarpaulins and fumigated with MB at ≥225 g m−3 mean concentration for 48 h at 28°C and 83% RH. All B. anthracis spores fumigated for more than 16 h were inactivated. A single wood coupon from the 16‐h set yielded ca. 2 × 103 CFU. No damage to the building or its contents was observed.
MB fumigation is a rapid, economical and effective whole‐structure decontamination method for B. anthracis spores.
Significance and Impact of the Study
MB fumigation offers a method of whole‐structure B. anthracis decontamination without removal of materials, damage to sensitive electronics, costly indoor retrofitting.
PMCID: PMC4738447  PMID: 26492200
antibacterial; commercial fumigation; non‐corrosive; sensitive materials; sporicide
6.  BAALC expression: a suitable marker for prognostic risk stratification and detection of residual disease in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia 
Blood Cancer Journal  2014;4(1):e173-.
High brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) expression defines an important risk factor in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). The prognostic value of BAALC expression in relation to other molecular prognosticators was analyzed in 326 CN-AML patients (<65 years). At diagnosis, high BAALC expression was associated with prognostically adverse mutations: FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) with an FLT3-ITD/FLT3 wild-type (wt) ratio of ⩾0.5 (P=0.001), partial tandem duplications within the MLL gene (MLL-PTD) (P=0.002), RUNX1 mutations (mut) (P<0.001) and WT1mut (P=0.001), while it was negatively associated with NPM1mut (P<0.001). However, high BAALC expression was also associated with prognostically favorable biallelic CEBPA (P=0.001). Survival analysis revealed an independent adverse prognostic impact of high BAALC expression on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), and also on OS when eliminating the effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) (OSTXcens). Furthermore, we analyzed BAALC expression in 416 diagnostic and follow-up samples of 66 patients. During follow-up, BAALC expression correlated with mutational load or expression levels, respectively, of other minimal residual disease markers: FLT3-ITD (r=0.650, P<0.001), MLL-PTD (r=0.728, P<0.001), NPM1mut (r=0.599, P<0.001) and RUNX1mut (r=0.889, P<0.001). Moreover, a reduction in BAALC expression after the second cycle of induction chemotherapy was associated with improved EFS. Thus, our data underline the utility of BAALC expression as a marker for prognostic risk stratification and detection of residual disease in CN-AML.
PMCID: PMC3913940  PMID: 24413067
BAALC expression; CN-AML; prognosis; MRD
9.  Prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care of sepsis: 1st revision of S-2k guidelines of the German Sepsis Society (Deutsche Sepsis-Gesellschaft e.V. (DSG)) and the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin (DIVI)) 
Practice guidelines are systematically developed statements and recommendations that assist the physicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate health care measures for specific clinical circumstances taking into account specific national health care structures. The 1st revision of the S-2k guideline of the German Sepsis Society in collaboration with 17 German medical scientific societies and one self-help group provides state-of-the-art information (results of controlled clinical trials and expert knowledge) on the effective and appropriate medical care (prevention, diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care) of critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. The guideline had been developed according to the “German Instrument for Methodological Guideline Appraisal” of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). In view of the inevitable advancements in scientific knowledge and technical expertise, revisions, updates and amendments must be periodically initiated. The guideline recommendations may not be applied under all circumstances. It rests with the clinician to decide whether a certain recommendation should be adopted or not, taking into consideration the unique set of clinical facts presented in connection with each individual patient as well as the available resources.
PMCID: PMC2899863  PMID: 20628653
guideline; German Sepsis Society; German Sepsis Aid; severe sepsis; septic shock; prevention; diagnosis; treatment; follow-up care
10.  Gene expression profiling for the diagnosis of acute leukaemia 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;96(4):535-540.
An optimised diagnostic setting in acute leukaemias combines cytomorphology and cytochemistry, multiparameter immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. This allows classification and definition of biologically defined and prognostically relevant subtypes, and allows directed treatment in some subentities. Over the last years the microarray technology has helped to quantify simultaneously the expression status of ten thousands of genes in single experiments. This novel approach will hopefully become an essential tool for the molecular classification of acute leukaemias in the near future. It can be anticipated that new biologically defined and clinically relevant subtypes of leukaemia will be identified based on their unique gene expression profiles. This method may therefore guide therapeutic decisions and should be investigated in a diagnostic setting in parallel to established standard methods.
PMCID: PMC2360048  PMID: 17146476
microarray analysis; gene expression profiling; acute leukaemia; diagnosis
11.  Human Metapneumovirus Infection in a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma and Rapidly Progressing Lung Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(6):2300-2303.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was isolated from a 63-year-old multiple myeloma patient who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and who presented with lower respiratory tract infection several weeks prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer. The isolate was phylogenetically and biologically characterized and compared to HMPV prototypes and recent pediatric isolates. Remarkably, it belonged to the novel genomic subgroup A2b.
PMCID: PMC1489415  PMID: 16757646
12.  Enhanced Expression of the Multidrug Efflux Pumps AcrAB and AcrEF Associated with Insertion Element Transposition in Escherichia coli Mutants Selected with a Fluoroquinolone 
The development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli may be associated with mutations in regulatory gene loci such as marRAB that lead to increased multidrug efflux, presumably through activation of expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. We found that multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes with enhanced efflux can also be selected by fluoroquinolones from marRAB- or acrAB-inactivated E. coli K-12 strains having a single mutation in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of gyrA. Mutant 3-AG100MKX, obtained from a mar knockout strain after two selection steps, showed enhanced expression of acrB in a reverse transcriptase PCR associated with insertion of IS186 into the AcrAB repressor gene acrR. In vitro selection experiments with acrAB knockout strains yielded MDR mutants after a single step. Enhanced efflux in these mutants was due to increased expression of acrEF and associated with insertion of IS2 into the upstream region of acrEF, presumably creating a hybrid promoter. These observations confirm the importance of efflux-associated nontarget gene mutations and indicate that transposition of genetic elements may have a role in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.
PMCID: PMC90490  PMID: 11302812
13.  Non-Target Gene Mutations in the Development of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli 
Mutations in loci other than genes for the target topoisomerases of fluoroquinolones, gyrA and parC, may play a role in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. A series of mutants with increasing resistance to ofloxacin was obtained from an E. coli K-12 strain and five clinical isolates. First-step mutants acquired a gyrA mutation. Second-step mutants reproducibly acquired a phenotype of multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) and organic solvent tolerance and showed enhanced fluoroquinolone efflux. None of the second-step mutants showed additional topoisomerase mutations. All second-step mutants showed constitutive expression of marA and/or overexpressed soxS. In some third-step mutants, fluoroquinolone efflux was further enhanced compared to that for second-step mutants, even when the mutant had acquired additional topoisomerase mutations. Attempts to circumvent the second-step Mar mutation by induction of the mar locus with sodium salicylate and thus to select for pure topoisomerase mutants at the second step were not successful. At least in vitro, non-target gene mutations accumulate in second- and third-step mutants upon exposure to a fluoroquinolone and typically include, but do not appear to be limited to, mutations in the mar or sox regulons with consequent increased drug efflux.
PMCID: PMC89776  PMID: 10722475
14.  Prospective, randomised, double blind trial of prophylaxis with single dose of co-amoxiclav before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1999;319(7214):881.
To determine the efficacy of antibacterial prophylaxis in preventing infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, multicentre study.
Departments of internal medicine at six German hospitals.
Of 106 randomised adult patients with dysphagia, 97 received study medication, and 84 completed the study. The median age of the patients was 65 years. Most had dysphagia due to malignant disease (65%), and many (76%) had serious comorbidity.
A single intravenous 2.2 g dose of co-amoxiclav or identical appearing saline was given 30 min before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed by the thread pull method.
Main outcome measures
Occurrence of peristomal wound infections and other infections within one week after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
The incidence of peristomal and other infections within one week after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group (8/41 (20%) v 28/43 (65%), P<0.001). Similar results were obtained in an intention to treat analysis. Several peristomal wound infections were of minor clinical significance. After wound infections that required no or only local treatment were excluded from the analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis remained highly effective in reducing clinically important wound infections (1/41 (2%) v 11/43 (26%), P<0.01) and non-wound infections (2 (5%) v 9 (21%), P<0.05).
Antibiotic prophylaxis with a single dose of co-amoxiclav significantly reduces the risk of infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and should be recommended.
Key messagesPercutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for enteral feeding can be associated with substantial rates of infectious complications, notably peristomal wound infectionSmall, single centre studies on prevention of wound infection by antibiotic prophylaxis have given conflicting resultsThis prospective, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, multicentre study showed that a single dose of 2.2 g co-amoxiclav significantly reduced the rate of infectionThe favourable effect of antibiotic prophylaxis included a reduction in the rate of clinically important peristomal wound infectionIntention to treat analysis indicated a significant reduction in the need for therapeutic antibiotics
PMCID: PMC28241  PMID: 10506041
15.  Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empiric therapy for fever in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. The International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto Infection Program. 
Combinations of beta-lactams plus aminoglycosides have been standard therapy for suspected infections in granulocytopenic cancer patients, especially those with profound long-lasting granulocytopenia. With the advent of new broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotics such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins or carbapenems, the need to combine beta-lactams with aminoglycosides became more controversial. The objective of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerance of meropenem monotherapy with those of the combination of ceftazidime plus amikacin for the empirical treatment of fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients. Of 1,034 randomized patients, 958 were assessable in the intent-to-treat analysis for response to antibacterial therapy, including 483 in the meropenem group and 475 in the ceftazidime-plus-amikacin group. The median durations of neutropenia were 16 and 17 days, respectively. A successful outcome was reported in 270 of 483 (56%) patients treated with monotherapy compared with 245 of 475 (52%) patients treated with the combination group (P = 0.20). The success rates in the monotherapy group and the combination group were similar by type of infection (single gram-negative bacteremia, single gram-positive bacteremia, clinically documented infection, and possible infection). The occurrence of further infections assessed in patients for whom the allocated regimen was not modified did not differ between the two groups (12% in both groups). Mortality due to the presenting infection or further infection was relatively low (8 patients treated with the monotherapy compared with 13 patients treated with the combination). A total of 1,027 patients were evaluable for adverse events; the proportion of those who developed adverse effects was similar between the two groups (29% in both groups), and only 19 (4%) patients in the monotherapy group and 31 (6%) in the combination group experienced an adverse event related or probably related to the study drug. Allergic reactions were the only reason for stopping the protocol antibiotic(s) (3 and 5 patients, respectively). This study confirms that monotherapy with meropenem is as effective as the combination of ceftazidime plus amikacin for the empiric treatment of fever in persistently granulocytopenic cancer patients, and both regimens were well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC163274  PMID: 8723449
16.  Release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in Mediterranean spotted fever rickettsiosis. 
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a key cytokine in the defense against many intracellular pathogens, including Rickettsia conorii, the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF). The levels of two soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR-p55 and sTNFR-p75), the extracellular domains of the two cell surface receptors for TNF, were elevated in the acute-stage plasma samples from 20 patients with serologically confirmed MSF. The median values were 3.1 and 7.8 ng/ml for sTNFR-p55 and sTNFR-p75, respectively. sTNFR values correlated significantly with plasma TNF concentrations. Patients with severe MSF had higher values for both receptor fragments than patients with nonsevere disease. The differences were statistically significant for sTNFR-p55 (median, 5.8 versus 2.0 ng/ml; P = 0.008). Given the proportionately higher values for both TNF and sTNFR-p55 in patients with severe MSF, the sTNFR-p55/TNF ratios for the two patient subgroups did not differ (P = 0.5), while the sTNFR-p75/TNF ratios were significantly different (P = 0.01), with disproportionately lower values in patients with severe disease.
PMCID: PMC170287  PMID: 8991643
17.  Molecular epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli bloodstream isolates from patients admitted to European cancer centers. 
Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients admitted to medical services during the same time period were unrelated to resistant cancer patient isolates and to each other as well. A substantial number of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (19 of 58) were nontypeable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fluoroquinolone resistance was commonly associated with multiple antibiotic resistance to chemically unrelated antibacterial agents irrespective of the origin of the isolates.
PMCID: PMC163121  PMID: 8834885
18.  Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli at a cancer center. 
Prophylactic treatment with fluoroquinolones of patients with profound neutropenia has been found to be useful for preventing gram-negative bacteremia and has become a standard preventive-therapy strategy in many cancer centers, but the development of bacterial resistance is a cause of concern. During the past few years, we have observed an increasing number of patients with leukemia from whom fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli were isolated. The increase was significant in this patient population, and among patients with other underlying diseases, the rates of isolation of such strains per number of discharges were significantly lower and did not increase. Most of the leukemia case patients (16 of 19) had been pretreated with an oral quinolone (ofloxacin), with cumulative doses until the first isolation of a resistant E. coli strain ranging from 0 to 97.8 g (median, 14.4 g). Repeated isolation of such strains was seen in 8 of 17 patients during a follow-up period of > or = 4 weeks and in 1 of 6 patients during a follow-up period of > or = 16 weeks. Ten patients developed bacteremia (mortality, 1 of 10). On the basis of the number of patients with leukemia admitted to the hematology-oncology service, the incidence of bacteremia caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli increased from < 0.5% in 1988-1989 and 0.8% in 1990-1991 to 4.5% in 1992-1993 (P < 0.01). MICs for nine isolates obtained from cultures of blood from different patients ranged between 8 and 16 microgram/ml (ciprofloxacin and PD 131628), 8 and 32 microgram/ml (ofloxacin and BAY Y 3118), and 16 and 32 microgram/ml (sparfloxacin) and indicated resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, doxycycline, and chloramphenicol. Of nine isolates obtained from cultures of blood from different patients and that were subjected to genomic DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI digests, seven were typeable. Among these, four different genotypes were identified, suggesting both the independent development and the horizontal spread of resistant clones of E. coli.
PMCID: PMC284525  PMID: 8031031
19.  A randomized trial of roxithromycin in patients with acute leukemia and bone marrow transplant recipients receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. 
Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients with profound neutropenia may be useful for preventing gram-negative bacterial infection, but it is ineffective against gram-positive bacterial infections in the bloodstream, particularly those caused by streptococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci, which appear to have emerged as significant causes of morbidity, decreased treatment efficacy, and the increased costs of empiric antimicrobial therapy. In a prospective, randomized, open trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral roxithromycin (150 mg twice daily) as additional antibacterial prophylaxis in 131 adult patients with acute leukemia and bone marrow transplant recipients receiving oral ofloxacin. In comparison with patients given ofloxacin alone, fewer patients receiving ofloxacin plus roxithromycin developed bacteremia caused by viridans group streptococci (incidence, 9 versus 0%; P = 0.03), while the incidence of bacteremia caused by other organisms, the incidence of febrile episodes from any cause, the risk of infection-associated complications (including prolonged or secondary fever, pneumonia, septic shock, need for mechanical ventilation, and/or infection-related death), and antimicrobial usage for therapy were comparable between both groups. Adverse events possibly related to the study drugs were slightly more common among the patients receiving the combination treatment (P = 0.05). Although effective for the prevention of streptococcal bacteremia, the addition of roxithromycin to a fluoroquinolone should not be used routinely as a prophylactic regimen in patients with profound neutropenia, but it might be considered and may be useful for cancer patients with a particularly high risk of streptococcal infection and related complications.
PMCID: PMC284481  PMID: 8203838
20.  Circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), soluble TNF receptors, and interleukin-6 in human subacute bacterial endocarditis. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(12):5413-5416.
Cell surface components of viridans streptococci and enterococci have been shown to stimulate the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-6 from monocytes/macrophages. In the sera from 10 patients with subacute enterococcal or streptococcal endocarditis, however, the levels of both cytokines were low or undetectable, with elevated TNF levels on admission in 3 patients with complicated disease. Soluble TNF receptor levels were significantly elevated compared with those of healthy controls. When patients with malaria were used as a control group of acute intravascular infection with high circulating TNF values, the ratio between soluble TNF receptors and TNF on admission was significantly greater in the patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Besides different amounts of circulating TNF, enhanced TNF receptor shedding may have an important role in the pathogenesis of subacute versus acute clinical disease following human intravascular infection.
PMCID: PMC281334  PMID: 8225616
22.  Evaluation of piperacillin-tazobactam in experimental meningitis caused by a beta-lactamase-producing strain of K1-positive Escherichia coli. 
We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin combined with tazobactam, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor, in experimental meningitis due to a beta-lactamase-producing strain of K1-positive Escherichia coli. Different doses of piperacillin and tazobactam, as single agents and combined (8:1 ratio; dosage range, 40/5 to 200/25 mg/kg per h), and of ceftriaxone were given to experimentally infected rabbits by intravenous bolus injection followed by a 5-h constant infusion. The mean (+/- standard deviation) rates for penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid of infected animals after coadministration of both drugs were 16.6 +/- 8.4% for piperacillin and 32.5 +/- 12.6% for tazobactam. Compared with either agent alone, combination treatment resulted in significantly better bactericidal activity in the cerebrospinal fluid. The bactericidal activity of piperacillin-tazobactam was dose dependent: cerebrospinal fluid bacterial titers were reduced by 0.37 +/- 0.19 log10 CFU/ml per h with the lowest dose versus 0.96 +/- 0.25 log10 CFU/ml per h with the highest dose (P less than 0.001). At the relatively high doses of 160/20 and 200/25 mg of piperacillin-tazobactam per kg per h, the bactericidal activity of the combination was comparable to that of 10 and 25 mg of ceftriaxone per kg per h, respectively.
PMCID: PMC171676  PMID: 2163241
23.  Intraluminal thrombosis of coronary arteries in fatal myocardial infarctions and in failed aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1988;149(4):426-428.
A review of autopsies of 648 patients who died of acute myocardial infarction showed the presence of intraluminal thrombi in 314 (48%). The left anterior descending coronary artery was principally involved in 172 cases, the left circumflex in 30, and the right coronary in 112. The length of survival after admission was identical for patients with thrombotic occlusion and those with atherosclerotic occlusion or severe stenosis: 28% of the former and 29% of the latter died during the first 24 hours after admission. The incidence of intraluminal thrombotic occlusion of surgically excised, failed aortocoronary vein grafts was 42 (66%) in 64 patients with nonfibrotic, patent grafts. Most of these vessels were severely atherosclerotic. The presence of intraluminal thrombi in about half of patients who died of acute myocardial infarction and in two thirds of excised, nonfibrotic, previously patent vein grafts indicates how many patients may benefit from thrombolytic therapy.
PMCID: PMC1026488  PMID: 3265823
24.  Landscape of genetic lesions in 944 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes 
Leukemia  2013;28(2):241-247.
High-throughput DNA sequencing significantly contributed to diagnosis and prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We determined the biological and prognostic significance of genetic aberrations in MDS. In total, 944 patients with various MDS subtypes were screened for known/putative mutations/deletions in 104 genes using targeted deep sequencing and array-based genomic hybridization. In total, 845/944 patients (89.5%) harbored at least one mutation (median, 3 per patient; range, 0–12). Forty-seven genes were significantly mutated with TET2, SF3B1, ASXL1, SRSF2, DNMT3A, and RUNX1 mutated in >10% of cases. Many mutations were associated with higher risk groups and/or blast elevation. Survival was investigated in 875 patients. By univariate analysis, 25/48 genes (resulting from 47 genes tested significantly plus PRPF8) affected survival (P<0.05). The status of 14 genes combined with conventional factors revealed a novel prognostic model (‘Model-1') separating patients into four risk groups (‘low', ‘intermediate', ‘high', ‘very high risk') with 3-year survival of 95.2, 69.3, 32.8, and 5.3% (P<0.001). Subsequently, a ‘gene-only model' (‘Model-2') was constructed based on 14 genes also yielding four significant risk groups (P<0.001). Both models were reproducible in the validation cohort (n=175 patients; P<0.001 each). Thus, large-scale genetic and molecular profiling of multiple target genes is invaluable for subclassification and prognostication in MDS patients.
PMCID: PMC3918868  PMID: 24220272
next-generation sequencing; molecular markers; myelodysplastic syndromes; prognostic score

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